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positions by compass-bearings. He served under D'Estaing payment of tne geld or tax. (Domesd. Book, tom. 1., fol. 203.) in 1777 and 1778, and in 1782 was sent with a sixty-four In Norwich there were 420 bordarii : and 20 are mention gun ship to convey troops to Martinique. He then joined as living in Thetford. (Ibid, tom. ii. fol. 116 b. 173.) De Grasse's squadron, and being detached with a small Bishop Kennett says, “The bordarii often mentioned in. force of frigates on a cruise, he found himself, on the the Domesday Inquisition were distinct from the servi and clearing up of a mist, in the midst of an English squadron. villani, and seem to be those of a less servile condition, who He defended himself stoutly, enabled the rest of his ships had a bord or cottage with a small parcel of land allowed to to escape, and was then obliged to give up his own vessel them, on condition they should supply the lord with poultry (the Solitaire) a perfect wreck. On reading this extraordi- and eggs and other small provisions for his board and enternary account of a single ship defending itself for three hours tainment. (Gloss. Paroch. Antiq.) Such also is the interagainst a squadron in the midst of which it was at the be- pretation given by Blom field in his · History of Norfolk.' ginning of the action, we thought it might be safe to com- Brady says they were drudges, and performed vile services, pare it with the official account of the English admiral, and which were reserved by the lord upon a poor little house, we find another version, namely, that in the month of De- and a small parcel of land, and might perhaps be domestic cember, 1782, the Solitaire fell in with the squadron of Sir works, such as grinding, threshing, drawing water, cutting R. Hughes, and of course endeavoured to escape ; that the wood, &c.' (Pref., p. 56.) Ruby, of 60 guns, commanded by Captain Collins, overtook Bord, as Bishop Kennett has already noticed, was a cother by dint of sailing, and captured her in forty-one mi- tage. Bordarii, it should seem, were cottagers merely. In nutes, a perfect wreck, the only circumstance in which the one of the Ely Registers we find bordarii, where the breviate two accounts agree, and on which the admiral takes occa of the same entry in Domesday itself reads cotarii. Their sion to notice the very great superiority of the fire of the condition was probably different on different manors. In Ruby. Borda was honourably treated, and allowed to return some entries in the Domesday Survey, 'bordarii arantes to France on parole. From that time to the end of a very occur. At Evesham, on the abbey demesne, 27 bordarii useful life, he was mostly employed on the great measure are described as 'servientes curiæ.' (Domesd., tom. i., fol. ment of the meridian. He died February 19-20, 1799. The 175 b.) preceding summary is on the authority of the éloge in the On the demesne appertaining to the castle of Ewias, 4th volume of the Memoirs of the Institute.

there were 12 bordarii, who are described as performing A sketch of this kind is not the place to describe in- personal labour on one day in every week. (Ibid. fol. 186.) ventions or methods, which will be found in their proper At St. Edmondsbury in Suffolk, the abbot had 118 places. In 1767 Mayer had proposed a whole circle of re- homagers, and under them 52 bordarii. The total numHexion for astronomical purposes. Borda published the ber of bordarii noticed in the different counties of England account of his own improvement of the idea, since so well in Domesday Book is 82,634. (Ellis's General Introd, to known, in 1787, under the title of Description et usage du Domesday Book, edit. 1833, vol. i. p. 82, ii. p. 511; HeyCercle de Retlexion. The repeating circle (a further modi- wood's Dissert. upon the Ranks of the People under the fication of the ideas of Mayer) was not described by himself, Anglo-Saxon Governments, pp. 303, 305.) but appeared first, so far as we can find, in the 'Exposé des BORDEAUX, or BOURDEAUX* (antiently BOUROpérations,' &c., (94 pages) published in 1791 by the three DEAUS and BORDEAULX), one of the most important commissioners, Cassini, Méchain, and Legendre, appointed cities in France, in the department of Gironde: 371 miles to superintend the French part of the junction of the obser- S.S.W. from Paris by Orléans, Vierżon, Châteauroux, Livatories of Paris and Greenwich.

moges, and Perigueux; 376 by Chartres, Vendôme, Tours, In 1790 he found by experiment the length of the pen and Angoulême; and 378 by Orléans, Blois, Tours, and dulum at Paris (which at that time was contemplated as Angoulême. It is in 44° 50' 25' N. lat., and 0° 33' 35" W the basis of the new system of measures). His means long. and result are described under PENDULUM. From that Bordeaux is on the left or western bank of the river time to the end of his life he was employed in devising and Garonne, which here makes a considerable bend, having the executing the means of forwarding the great survey : the city on its concave bank, which is lined with extensive methods for measuring the base were formed under his in- quays; and as the buildings extend to the greatest distanco spection, and he was in fact the inventor of most of the from the river about the centre of these quays, and cover a original instruments employed. It has been said that to narrower space as they approach the extremities, the whole him and Coulomb must be traced the rise of the sound ex form of the place nearly resembles that of the crescent perimental philosophy for which the French have since be

The bend of the river is so great, that a line or come distinguished ; and it certainly appears to us that chord drawn from N. by W. to S. by E. and joining the there is some truth in the observation.

two extremities or horns of the crescent, not only includes a In the meanwhile he had charged bimself with the ex- portion of the river, but also of the opposite or convex bank, pense of calculating and printing new tables of logarithmic on which is the suburb of La Bastide. The length of such sines, &c., corresponding with the new division of the circle line or chord (measured on the Plan of Bordeaux, pubinto 400 degrees. These were published in 1801, under lished by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowthe title of . Tables Trigonométriques Décimales,' &c. (An. ledge) is about two miles: the distance between the same ix.) with revision and an explanation, by Delambre. points along the bank of the river is about two miles and a

Borda was of a quick and lively turn. When a boy, he half; and along the convex boundary of the town towards is said to have been able to make two translations from the open country, more than four miles and a half: the French into Latin at once, in different terms, from dictation, greatest breadth from the river towards the country, drawn one for himself and one for his next class-fellow. He was from W. by S. to E. by N., is about a mile. fond of poetry and the antient writers, and particularly at Bordeaux is a very antient city. It was an important tached to the Odyssey of Homer.

place in the time of Strabo, who was contemporary with Our BORDA'RII, one of the classes of agricultural occupiers Lord. In the Geography of Strabo it is mentioned as the of land mentioned in the Domesday Survey, and, with the èutropetov (em poreion), or chief trading-plare of the Birouexception of the villani, the largest. The origin of their peyes (in Latin Bituriges), who were surnamed 'lookoi (Iosci) name, and the exact nature of their tenure, have been according to Strabo, Ubisci or Vibisci according to others, variously interpreted. Lord Coke (Inst. lib. i. §. i. fol. 5 b. or Vivisci according to Ausonius. These Bituriges were edit. 1628) calls them boors holding a little house with a Celtic nation (a branch probably of the Bituriges Cubi some land of husbandry, bigger than a cottage.' Nichols, who inhabited the province of Berri), and had settled within in his • Introduction to the History of Leicestershire,' p. xlv., the limits which Cæsar assigns to the Aquitani. Strabo considers them as cottagers, taking their name from living describes the town, which he calls Bovpdiyala (Bourdigala), on the borders of a village or manor : but this is sufficiently as situated Neuvotaráttp Tivi, which D'Anville interprets as refuted by Domesday itself, where we find them not only meaning a place up to which the sea (or tide) flows. Pto. mentioned generally among the agricultural occupiers of lemy writes the name in the same manner as Strabo ; but land, but in one instance as 'circa aulam manentes, dwell The former of these two is now the prevalent mode of writing this name: ing near the manor house ; and even residing in some of in the time of M. D'Anville the practice seems to have been more variable. the larger towns. In two quarters of the town of Hunting-the Benedictine, in his History of Bordeaux, contends for the ou, but says that don, at the time of forming the Survey, as well as in king custom had established the use of Bordeaux.' - It is observable that Vienne Eit ward the Confessor's time, there were 116 burgesses, and says this is an old form, more autient inderd than that of Bourdeaux; and in

a very antient map of France in the British Museum (Venice, 1566) it is subordinate to them 100 bordarii, who aided them in the written Bordeaula,

moon.

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A, The shaded parts of the map are the limits of N, Place Dauphine.

a, b, c, Walls of Bourdeaux in later times, marked the Roman Burdegala, and the portion encir. O, Cours XII. Mars.

by a strong line. cled nearest the river is the antient port of the P, Allées d'Angoulême and de Serii.

d, Cours d'Albret same. Q, Rue Chapeau Rouge.

e, Cours de Tourny. B, Le Palais Gallien or Amphitheatre. R, Place Lainé.

f. Cours du Jardin Public. C, The Stream Divitia, s, Palais or Château Royal.

9, Allées de Tourny. D, Hôtel de Ville.

Principal Theatre.

h, Quai de Chartrons. E, Château Trompette. U. Cathedral.

i, Quai de Baculan, F, Castle of Ha, now a prison.

V, Public Cemetery, formerly Vineyard of the k, Jardin Public, G, Fort Ste. Croix, or St. Louis.

Chartreuse.

1, La Bastide. H, The Bridge. W, Collége Royal, or High School.

1, Ste. Croix Suburb. I, The Custom House. X, School for the Deaf and Dumb.

2, St. Julien do. K, The Exchange. Y, Hôtel de l'Académie Royale.

3, Ste. Eulalée do. L. Ryul Building Yard. 2, Funndling Hospital.

4, St. Saurin do. M, Place Royale.

5, Chartrons do. the Latin writers give Burdigala and Burdegala. The im- | temperature of the sky is mild, and great the liberality (i. e. portance of Burdigala is shown by the circumstance, that | fertility) of the watered earth. Long is the spring and it was made the capital of the province of Aquitania Se- short the winters; and close at hand are wood-crowned emicunda' in the subdivision of the Gallic provinces, about the nences.* The waters are ruftled with tides like those of middle or latter end of the fourth century. Ausonius, a the ocean. The form of the walls is quadrangular, and so Latin poet of the fourth century, himself a native of this lofty with its high towers, that (their) summits pierce the place, has left a description of it in his poem Clara Urbes, airy clouds. You will admire the well-arranged (distinctas, or Ordo Nobilium Urbium, from which we take the follow- adorned] streets within, the disposition of the houses, ing extract:

and that the broad-ways (plateas) still [.justly] preserve

their name : and then (you will admire] the gates correImpia iamdudum condemno silentia, quod te, O patria, insignem Baccho, fuuiisque, uirisque,

sponding to the streets which cross at right angles, [directa Moribus ingeniisque hominum, procerumque senatu,

compita,) and the bed of the stream from a spring, flowing Non inter primas memorem : quasi conscius urbis

through the midst of the city: and when Father Ocean Exigure, immeritas dubitem contingere laudes. Non pudor hinc nobis. Nec enim mihi barbara Rheni

has filled this with his up-tlowing tide, you will see the Ora, nec Arctoo domus est glacialis in Hæino;

whole water covered with fleets.'
Burdigala est natale solum : clementia cæli
Mitis ubi, et rigua larga indulgentia terræ;

Besides the stream mentioned in the above extract, Auso-
Ver longum, brumæque breues, iuga frondea subsunt.

nius notices another which supplied a handsomely adorned Feruent æquoreos imitata Anenta meatus.

and copious fountain, and which he calls Divona. The site Quadrua nurorum species, sic turribus altis Ardua, ut aerias intreut fastigia nubes.

of the Roman Burdigala, as we gather from the above Distinctas interne uias mirere, domorum Dispositum, et latas nomen seruare plateas :

extract, was a quadrangle: the greater diameter of this Tum respondentes directa in compita portas,

quadrangle extended nearly from E. to W. The gates Per mediumque urbis fontani fluminis alueum:

appear to have been fourteen in number four on the north, Quem pater Oceanis refluo cum impleuerit æstu, Aalabi totum spectabis classibus æquor.

and as many on the south side, and three each on the Claræ Urbes, xiv, B.

eastern and western sides. La Porte Basse, the last of the

gates, was demolished about twenty or live and twenty years • I have long been condemning my impious silence, in not since. Of the walls and towers some remains it is probable mentioning among the chief [cities), thee, O my country, exist still. The stones used in the foundations of ine wall renowned for wine, and streams, and men; for the manners were of a great size. Two Roman edifices survived the and talents of thy inhabitants, and [thy] council of the various devastations of the city, and came down to modern nobles :-as though conscious of the small (extent of my native) city, I hesitated to touch upon unmerited praises the poet to refer to the hills on the opposite bank.

• As the country on the west side of the Garonne is flat, we must suppose No shame do I feel for this reason. Not mine the bar + The tide flows up the Garonne considerably above Bordeaux. barous bank of the Rhenus, nor is my icy dwelling in the

Called the Divitia (now La Devise): of the dock which wns formed in its northern Hæmus. Burdigala is my birth-place, where the mentary on Ausonius,

channel (now covered over) no vestiges remain, See Elias Vinetus, Com.

days. The ruins of one of these, the amphitheatre, or, as it of the public buildings were burned, and the inhabitants is called, Le Palais Galien, 'the palace of Gallienus, yet nearly all put to the sword. This event occurred about remain, though much dilapidated; the other edifice, the 731 or 732. • Palais Tutele,' as it is called by Vinet, was demolished Domestic troubles, caused by the attempts of the Dukes when Louis XIV. rebuilt Château Trompette, in the latter of Aquitaine to become independent of the kings of part of the seventeenth century. It stood on what was the France, agitated afresh the south-west of France, after the esplanade of the castle, which has in its turn been demo defeat and expulsion of the Saracens by Charles Martel : lished, and the site is now occupied by the grand • Place de but we have no account that Burdigala suffered by these Louis XVI.' Some authorities speak of an 'amphitheatre' commotions ; it was perhaps too much reduced by the disaster distinct from the Palace of Gallienus, but we think this has it had lately sustained to be an object of ambition to either arisen from some misapprehension on their part.

party. Under Charlemagne it was under a count of its The amphitheatre is in the outskirts of the town, or rather own, and began to recover from its downfall. Its prosperity in the Fauxbourg St. Surin, just to the left of the road to was advanced by its being incorporated by Charles le Medoc. Its greater diameter when entire was 226 French, Chauve (the Bald), who reigned about the middle of the or about 241 English feet; its smaller diameter 166 French, ninth century, with the duchy of Gascogne, of which it or 177 English feet; its external elevation 60 French, or became the capital. But prosperity in those dark ages only 64 English feet. During the Revolution the site was sold rendered it more the object of attack; Burdigala, or, as we as national property, and the arena defaced with a parcel of may now call it, Bordeaux, was taken by the Normans, and little houses, to which the most perfect remains of ihe am- underwent a more complete destruction than any which it phitheatre were made to serve as foundations, or for the had yet experienced. The houses were almost entirely deerection of which the stones of this interesting monument stroyed, and the unhappy Bordelais abandoned for a time of a former age were appropriated. The circuit of the arena their native city. may be traced however all round, and there remain many When the Normans received from Charles the Simple, arches constructed with alternate courses of brick-work about the close of the ninth or beginning of the tenth cenand of small square stones. When Vinet published his tury, the province called from them Normandie, they deL'Antiquité de Bourdeaus (1574), this building was in sisted from ravaging the rest of France; and Bordeaux was much better preservation. He has given an engraving of rebuilt and repeopled, and became again the residence of it in his work. Le Palais Tutele is supposed by some to the dukes of Gascogne, who built here the castle or palace have been a temple consecrated to the tutelary genius or of L'Ombrière. Upon the union of the duchies of Guienne divinity of the city. It consisted of a basement about 96 and Gascogne, the dukes abandoned Bordeaux for Poitiers, English feet long by about 70 wide, and 23 or 24 high, which had been the capital of the duchy of Guienne; and upon which had been erected twenty-four Corinthian pillars, Bordeaux was reduced to the capital of a county, to the eight being presented at the side, and six at the front. possessor of which it gave title. Yet it still continued to Upon these columus, and supported by them, was an attic, be an important place, and it may be questioned whether it having open spaces corresponding in number to the spaces did not resume its rank of ducal capital; for here it was between the columns. The pilasters between the spaces that Louis VII. of France (le Jeune) espoused Alienor or of this attic were adorned with caryatid figures on the Eleanor, heiress of the united duchies of Guienne and Gasfront and back. In the basement was an apartment nine cogne. The divorce of this princess, and her subsequent feet high, occupied at a later period as a wine-cellar. union with Henry, count of Anjou and king of England (Stuart's and Revett's Antiquities of Athens, last edit. vol. (Henry II.), caused Bordeaux to become part of the exteniii. p. 120 note.) There are few other remains of Roman sive dominions which the English monarchs possessed in antiquity. Some inscriptions and some statues, part of France. them mutilated, which have been found, have been collected Bordeaux now became the capital of Guienne, a duchy together. (Millin, Voyage dans les Départements du Midi formed of the districts of Bordelois, Agenois, Quercy, Peride la France ; Devienne, Histoire de Bourdeaux.)

gord, Limousin, and Saintonge. This province remained to Notwithstanding these remains of antiquity have been the English kings when Philippe Auguste, in the beginning found in the city, some learned men (and among them of the thirteenth century, stripped them of all their other Adrian de Valois), misled by some passages in Gregory of French possessions. Among those who held during this Tours and another antient writer, have contended that the time the title of dukes of Guienne by the appointment of Roman Burdigala was on the right bank of the Garonne; the English crown, were Richard Cæur de Lion, during the and that it was not till the sack of the city by the Saracens | lifetime of his father, Henry II. ; and Richard, duke of that the citizens transferred their abode to the other side of Cornwall, better known as king of the Romans, brother of the river.

Henry III. In the reign of this last-named king, the Hotel Under the Romans Burdigala was not the scene of any de Ville of Bordeaux was built, and the municipal governimportant historical event, except the assumption of the ment established or revived; and Henry himself made a purple by Tetricus (one of those commonly but inaccurately long, needless, and expensive stay at Bordeaux, to the designated the thirty tyrants'), in the reign of Gallienus, regret and the cost of his English subjects. The weakness in the third century: it derives its reputation rather from of this prince, and the harshness of Simon de Montfort, the zeal with which literature was cultivated. Ausonius earl of Leicester, whom he had nominated to the governhas sung the praises of its numerous professors. Devienne, ment of Guienne (after having wrested the duchy from in his · Histoire de Bordeaux,' tells us that in the school of Richard, duke of Cornwall, in order to bestow it upon his this city religious profession formed no bar to entrance; that own then infant son, afterwards Edward I.), led to revolts Christians and Pagans studied there alike, and that even on the part of the Gascons, and the earl was compelled to females received instruction in the establishment.

fly to England. He returned, however, with an army, and Early in the fifth century (412) the Visigoths first Bordeaux was compelled to open its gates to him; but as attacked Gaul and possessed themselves of Burdigala and he continued his severities, new troubles arose. The king other places. Being obliged to withdraw into Spain, they was now inclined to listen to the complaints of his subjects burnt part of this city. After some years they became in Guienne: but the barons in the parliament of England, masters of it again, and it continued in their power, form- to which the affair was referred, supported Leicester; and ing part of their kingdom, of which Tolosa or Toulouse was the king encouraged the inhabitants of Guienne to revolt the capital. Under its new masters Burdigala declined ; against the governor of his own appointment. The Bordeand the persecution of the Catholic Christians by the Arian lois raised troops and attacked Leicester; but the valour Visigoths is represented as one cause of its downfall. After and military skill of this celebrated man gained him the remaining under the dominion of the Visigoths for nearly victory, and Bordeaux was obliged again to submit upon a century, it came into the hands of the Frankish con- very hard conditions. The troubles of the province were queror Clovis, who, after the battle of Vouillé, in which he not, however, allayed, until Edward, son of Henry III., to defeated and slew Alaric, king of the Visigoths, wintered whom, as already noticed, the duchy of Guienne had been in this town. In the troubles which agitated France under given, took up his residence there, and acquired by his good the descendants of Clovis, it was the object of contest, and qualities the esteem of his subjects. when the successful ambition of Charles Martel seemed to In the reign of Edward I. of England, a dispute having promise a more vigorous government and greater internal arisen between him and the King of France, Philippe IV. tranquillity, this unfortunate city was attacked by the Sara. (le Bel), Edward, whose attention was occupied by his wars cens, and being unable to resist their fury, the greater part in Scotland, agreed to deliver up Bordeaux and the rest of

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Guienne to the French, upon a promise that it should im- throughout France, Bordeaux had its share in the atrocity. mediately be restored. This was intended to satisfy the Two hundred and sixty-four Protestants were butchered indignation of Philippe, to whom Edward owed fealty for here. In the reign of Louis XIII. in 1635, the weight of his French possessions. When the cession had been made, taxation gave rise to another insurrection, and some blood and restoration, agreeably to the convention, was demanded, was shed in its suppression, which was effected by the resoPhilippe eluded ihe demand. War ensued, and it was not lution and activity of the Duc d'Epernon, governor of until ten years after that the king of England re-entered Guienne. into the possession of this part of lus inheritance. Edward In 1649, during the minority of Louis XIV., new troubles II., son and successor of Edward I., having quarrelled with arose between the local authorities in the parliament* of Charles IV. (le Bel) of France, lost all Guienne except Bordeaux and the Duc d'Epernon, son of the one just Bordeaux, and one or two other places; Guienne was given mentioned, governor of Guienne. Troops were raised, up by Charles, not to Elward himself, but to his son and hostilities ensued both by land and sea. The court Elward. prince of Wales. This was in the early part of supported the Duc d'Epernon: the parliament of Paris the fourteenth century. Either by Edward II. or by Ed-supported that of Bordeaux. The commandant of the ward III., when he became king of England, upon the Château Trompette having fired on the city, that for. deposition of his father, Bordeaux was annexed by a parti- tress was attacked and taken by the troops of the parliacular charter to the crown of England: this connexion, ment. A short peace was only the prelude to new troubles which was declared to be inseparable on any ground what between the parliament and the court, at which Cardinal ever, was formeil by the desire of the municipal authorities. Mazarine was then paramount. Bordeaux was besieged by

In the war between France and England which has the royal forces; but peace was concluded in the autumn signalized the reign of Edward 111., Bordeaux became a of 1649 or 1650. When the war of the Fronde broke place of great importance. From it the Black Prince set out out, on the return of Cardinal Mazarine to France in 1652, on that expedition which led to the battle of Poitiers, and the Bordelois took part with the Prince of Condé against the to it he conducted Jean II., king of France, who was taken Cardinal ; and their city was consequently blockaded in 1653. prisoner in that memorable engagement. This was a period The troubles were concluded by a treaty agreed to the same of great splendour to Bordeaux: it became the capital of year; and Dureteste, one of the leaders of the Bordelois, the principality of Guienne, which Edward III. formed in was executed; the other chiefs escaped by flight or the infavour of his valiant_son, from the provinces of Poitou, tercession of those who had influence at court. New troubles Saintonge, Agenois, Perigord, Limousin, Quercy, Bigorre, having sprung up in 1675, the parliament of Bordeaux was the territory of Jaure, Angoumois, Rouergue, and all that removed from that city by a royal edict; part of the city was comprehended in Guienne proper and Gascogne. Eleven wall was broken down; troops were quartered upon the inyears were passed by this prince at his new capital in all habitants; and other measures of severity were resorted to to the splendour of sovereignty; and here was born his son, bridle the population of a city which had given so much unthe degenerate and unhappy Richard II. When the affairs easiness to the central government. In 1690 the parliament, of the English declined, and there seemed a probability that which had been transferred successively to Condom and La Guienne (which was now reduced to the limits which Reole, was re-established at Bordeaux; and the city enjoyed bounded it before the erection of the principality in favour a century of peace until the outbreak of the French Revoof the Black Prince) would be conquered by the French, lution. (Histoire de la Ville de Bordeaux, par Devienne.) the inhabitants of Bordeaux formed a convention with those When the municipal freedom of Bordeaux was restricted of several other cities for mutual succour and defence. by the advance of arbitrary power under Louis XIV., the city They retained their attachment to the English; and when had not by any means reached its present extent. BeRichard II. ceded the duchy of Guienne to his uncle, John yond the walls, which Piganiol de la Force (A.D. 1722) deof Gaunt. Duke of Lancaster, they refused to be separated scribes as old and strengthened here and there with square from the English crown. So warmly were they attached to and round towers, were the Faux bourgs les Chartrons (on Richard as a native of their city, that when one of those the river just below Bordeaux), St. Seurin, St. Eulalie, St. who were suspected of having murdered him arrived in Julien, and Ste. Croix. The three forts, Château Tromtheir city, they rose and massacred him.

pette, Ha, and Ste. Croix, or St. Louis, served at once to pro-Bordeaux, and the province of which it was the capital, tect the city from foreign attacks, and to restrain the movemaintained its connexion with England during the reigns ments of the citizens. The erection of the first and second of" Henry IV. and V.; but in the reign of Henry VI., upon by Charles VII. has been already noticed; the third was the downfall of the English power in France, the connexion built by order of Louis XIV. after the suppression of the was broken. In 1451 the Bordelois capitulated to Charles disturbances of 1675. The Château Trompette stood on VII. of France on favourable terms; but very shortly the bank of the river at the entrance of the port, and was after they revolted to the English, and the valiant Talbot, between the city itself and the suburb of Les Chartrons. Earl of Shrewsbury, then upwards of eighty, was sent with Louis XIV. caused Vauban to strengthen it by new works; an army to their support. The death of Talbot and the and it remained entire till the Revolution; after which its destruction of his army forced them again to submit to advanced works were demolished, and a communication thus the French king (1453), on much harder conditions. opened between the Quai des Chartrons and Quais of the To secure the fidelity of the Bordelois, and to prevent any city. It was intended to remove the whole building, but its attempts from the English, Charles caused to be erected existence was prolonged under the empire of Napoleon. the Château Trompette and the Castle of Ha.

Upon the restoration of the Bourbons the citizens desired The events which precedled and accompanied the submis- and obtained its demolition; and handsome streets or fine sion of Bordeaux to ihe French tended much to reduce its plantations and walks now occupy the space not long since population and to diminish its grandeur; the favour shown to covered by barracks, or else quite vacant. The Castle oi it by the Kings of France tended, however, to revive it. But Ha was towards the land, and was suffered to fall into dean insurrection excited by the oppressive effect of the gabelle, cay under the monarchy. There only remains of it one or tax upon salt, brought new calamities. In the year 1548 ver, occupied as a prison. The fort of St. Louis, or Ste. the people rose, and being assisted by the country folks of Croix, has almost disappeared. It stood near the river at Guienne or the neighbouring provinces, committed great the opposite extremity of the town to the Château Trompette. excesses; and when the tumult was quelled, the brutal The walls have for the most part been demolished, and the Montmorenci, constable of France, inflicted terrible seve turrets of the antient palace de l'Ombrière are hidden by a rities upon the unhappy townsmen.

triumphal arch and by the custom-bouse. The progress of the Reformation in France having Although the disasters of Bordeaux in the seventeenth alarmed the supporters of the dominant church, several century deprived it of the power of resistanee to the moProtestants were put to death. In this persecution the local narchy, yet in local affairs the city appears to have been authorities of Bordeaux took a conspicuous part, and several left in the enjoyment of some degree of freedom. The persons were burnt by their order. The new opinions how municipal government was in the hands of a ‘maire' and ever spread, and in 1561 there were about seven thousand six jurats :' these jurats were elective officers, and chosen, of the Reformed in this city. When the religious animo two each, from the nobility, the body of advocates, and the sities broke out into open warfare, the Protestants, in 1563, merchants. These authorities possessed, under the moendeavoured to surprise the Château Trompette, but the attempt failed. When the massacre of St. Bartholomew * The parliaments of France were courts of justiee of high authority: they was made the signal of a general attack on the Protestants | decrees and transmitted them to the lower courts.

were composed both of laymen and ecclesiastics. They registered the royal

narchy, greater powers than the municipality has enjoyed the Revolution; and the Place itself assumed for the time since. The police of the town and the public instruction the designation of Place de la Liberté. The Place Dauwere under their charge, and in respect of the latter Bor- phine is of tolerably regular form and considerable extent, deaux seems to have lost rather than gained by subsequent but the houses are not remarkably good. The most noble political changes. Even under the arbitrary government of of the Places of Bordeaux is that formed on the site of the Louis XIV. and his successors these local authorities seem Château Trompette, and called formerly Place de Louis to have acted with considerable judgment and public spirit. Seize, and now Place de Louis Philippe Premier. This is

When the Revolution broke out in 1789 the Bordelois open to the river on one side, on the other it is crossed by partook of the general fervour in the cause of liberty. Their the Cours Douze Mars, * beyond which the Place is enclosed intercourse with the Anglo-American States had prepared by a range of houses forming a crescent. On the sides are their minds for rejoicing in the establishment of a freer go-plantations of trees, forining the Allées d'Angoulême and vernment. The city became the capital of the department de Berri. This Place or square, including the Allées, is of Gironde ; from which were sent some of the most eloquent about a quarter of a mile in diameter each way. The most members of the Legislative Assembly, Vergniaud, Guadet, magnificent street is that of the Chapeau Rouge, which is Gensonné, and others. From the influence of these men, scarcely inferior to any in Europe. In length and breadth the party in the Assembly to which they. belonged took the it may be compared with Portland Place in London: it name of Girondists. When the Royalists committed great contains most elegant sliops. There are several Cours, excesses against the Protestants of Montauban, Bordeaux public walks, or streets lined with trees, some of great contributed largely to the military force which marched length: the Cours d'Albret is nearly half a mile long, and the against that city. When the Girondist party was over- Cours de Tourny and du Jardin Public form together a line thrown, and several of its leaders executed, others took of three-quarters of a mile. The Jardin Public itself is partly refuge in the south of France, and of these Valadi

, Salles, planted, and partly open, and occupies a space about equal Guadet, and Barbaroux, having been discovered, were exe- to that of the Place Louis Philippe Premier, but is more ircuted at Bordeaux, and dreadful severities were perpetrated regular in form. The Allées de Tourny consisted of three by the deputies whom the Convention sent thither. When rows of trees, forming a charming promenade, much frethe Royalists sought in 1799 to excite a re-action in the quented in summer evenings: these trees have been desouth, they opened some communications with their adhe- stroyed. (Milford's Observations during a Tour, fc., Lond. rents in this city, but the movement was defeated. Under 1818; Mathews's Diary of an Invald, Lond. 1820; Malte the empire, the inhabitants desired the return of peace, the Brun; Balbi; Plan of Bordeaux, by the Society for the long interruption to which caused the decay of their com - Diffusion of Useful Knowledge.) merce; but they received with honours the Emperor Na The public buildings are numerous and splendid. The poleon and his empress Josephine in 1808. The kings of Bourse or Exchange, and the Douane or Custom House, Spain, Ferdinand VII. and his father, Charles IV., passed form the two sides of the Place Royale. The Bourse is a through the city the same year.

square building, inclosing a square court surrounded by a In 1814 the combined English, Spanish, and Portuguese piazza ; this court is now converted into a room, being coforces, under the Duke of Wellington, invaded France. vered with a light glazed dome, which, according to one Their advance encouraged the Royalist party, which had writer (Malte Brun), is remarkable for its beauty and lightcontinued to exist at Bordeaux, though in a very feeble ness; while according to another (M. Millin) it injures the state; and on the 12th of March, M. Lynch, the mayor, effect which the building would otherwise produce. The advanced to meet a detachment of English troops, received height of this dome or roof from the floor is seventy-eight them into the city, and hoisted the white tlag. When Bona- feet, and the space which it covers is ninety-eight feet by parte returned from Elba in 1815, and the royal family fled sixty-five. The Entrepôt or store for Colonial Produce on in different directions, the Duchesse d'Angoulême sought the Place Lainé, wlrich opens on to the Quai des Chartrons, to make a stand at Bordeaux ; but the national guard and is remarkable for its extent and beauty; and there are various the troops of the line refusing their aid, she was compelled other buildings for the purposes of commerce which deserve to withdraw. Upon the arrival of the intelligence of the the notice of the traveller. The ship-building yards are to

Ordonnances of Charles X. in 1830, the Bordelvis broke wards the southern extremity of the line of quays, and the out into insurrection, and the tri-color was substituted for Victualling Oflice is on the Quai de Bacalan at the northern the white flag of the Bourbons before the news arrived of end. Ships of war ale occasionally built here; a frigate the successful insurrection at Paris.

and two brigs were built for Ferdinand VII. of Spain, on The principal increase of the buildings of Bordeaux occasion of one of the expeditions fitted out against the has taken place towards the north, or, following the course colonies of South America. The Hôtel de Ville, or Town of the river, the lower part of the city, with which the hall, is of Gothic architecture, and has no particular beauty former suburbs of Les Chartrons and St. Seurin are now to recommend it. The Palais de Justice has in its united. In the older part, that is in Bordeaux properly so hall a statue of Montesquieu. The Palais or Château called, the streets are narrow and crooked, and the places or Royal is an extensive and handsome building, with a open spaces irregular; but not so in the new parts, in the good garden at the back of it: it was formerly the resiQuartier des Chartrons, which is the residence of the mer dence of the Archbishop, and was converted to its present chants, and in the Quartier du Chapeau Rouge, which is on use at the restoration of the Bourbons. There are several the site of the Château Trompette. The approach by water theatres : the principal one is in the Rue Chapeau Rouge, is magnificent. The width of the Garonne, which is here but fronts the Place de la Comedie, and is on a scale, botli from 600 to 800 yards wide, twice the breadth of the Thames as to extent and magnificence, which renders it equal 10 at London, and the curve which it makes, render the pro- most in Europe. It was built in the reign of Louis XVI., spect of the city on this side very striking. The dock-yards, and is capable of accommodating 4000 persons. Its front has the rope-walk, the Custom-house, the Exchange, and the fine a portico of twelve Corinthian columns, and the frieze is buildings of the Quai des Chartrons, extend along the line crowned by a balustrade adorned with twelve statues. of the river to a great distance.* The bridge excites asto- (Malte Brun; Balbi; Reichard; Mathews, &c.) nishment by its length; and the quantity of shipping in The bridge over the Garonne is of stone and about 531 this noble port, which will contain 1000 vessels, and admits English yards long. It has seventeen arches; the seien those of greatest tonnage, adds liveliness to the scene. in the centre are of the same size, their span being

The houses are of great magnificence, and fitted up in a eighty-seven English feet; the arch nearest to the bank manner corresponding to the wealth and commerce of the on each side is of sixty-eight feet span. The breadth place. The inhabitants are reputed to live in a style of of the bridge between the parapets is fifty feet; the roadgreater splendour and luxury than in any town in France, way is nearly level. This bridge was begun during the Paris only excepted. Many private equipages are kept, reign of Napoleon in 1811, but was not finished until and the fiacres are superior to the hackney coaches of after the Restoration in 1821. The road from Paris to London. The Place Royale, which is on the bank of the Bordeaux passes over it; and after crossing the bridge the river, is remarkable rather for the buildings which surround traveller enters the city through the Porte de Bourgogne it than for its extent. It was formerly adorned with an (Gate of Burgundy), which was erected on occasion of the equestrian statue of Louis XV., but this was overthrown at birth of the Duc de Bourgogne, grandson of Louis XIV.

• Expilly, in his . Dictionnaire des Gaules et de la France' (1762), speaks * The 12th of March, 1814, was the day on which the municipal authorities of the Chartrons as perhaps the finest and most extensive suburb of any in surrendered the keys of the town to the English, and embraced the party of Europe. Martinière, at a still earlier date, speaks in the same manner.

the Bourbous.

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