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footing), having no such natural enemy as a large serpent, nately of great blackish stains or spots irregularly hexagonal, against which it is necessary for thein to be on their guard, and of pale oval stains or spots notched or jagged at either are entirely without this instinct, although it is strong end, the whole forming a very elegant pattern. Shaw, in enough in the case of their ordinary enemies, such as his lectures, mentions a skin of this species, measuring hawks, dogs, and cats; and they consequently view the boa thirty-five feet, preserved in the British Museum, and adds, which is about to dash at them with the same indifference that it is probable that many ages ago much larger specias if he were a log of wood.'
mens might have occurred than any at present to be found, The author of the foregoing paper, in conclusion, gives to the increased population and cultivation of most countries persons who have the care of these reptiles a hint not to having tended more and more to lessen the number of such expose their hands too much in holding fowls, &c., to the animals. The locality of this species, according to the best head of a boa when near shedding its skin, and conse- authorities, confined to the New World. Daudin, indeed, quently nearly blind (for the skin of the eye is changed believed that it was found in the antient continent, but with the rest), in order to induce it to take its prey. Mr. without sufficient grounds for his opinion. Le Vaillant and Cops, the keeper of the lion-office, was holding a fowl to Humboldt brought it from Guiana, and the Prince de Wied the head of the largest of the five snakes which were there found it in Brazil. Cuvier gives it as his opinion that there kept, when the serpent was in this condition. The snake are no true boas of large size in the old world. darted at the bird, missed it, but seized the keeper by the Linnæus, quoting Dahlberg, says that the Boa Constrictor left thumb, and coiled round his arnı and neck in a mo was worshipped by the Americans. ment. Mr. Cops, who was alone, did not lose his presence • Snake-worship,' says Dr. Southey, in his notes to Maof mind, and immediately attempted to relieve himself from doc, 'was common in America. Berna Dios,* p. 3. 7. 125. the powerful constriction by getting at the snake's head. The idol described, yii. p. 25, somewhat resembles what the But the serpent had so knotted himself upon his own head, Spaniards found at Campeche, which is thus described by that Mr. Cops could not reach it, and had thrown himself the oldest historian of the discoveries. “ Our men were on the floor, in order to grapple with a better chance of conducted to a broade crosse-way, standing on the side of success, when two other keepers coming in, broke the teeth the towne. Here they shew them a square stage or pulpit of the serpent, and with some difficulty relieved Mr. Cops foure steppes high, partly of clammy bitumen, and partly from his perilous situation. Two broken teeth were ex- of small stones, whereto the image of a man cut in marble tracted from the thumb, which soon healed; and no incon was joyned, two foure-footed unknown beastes fastening venience of any consequence was the result of this frightful upon him, which, like madde dogges, seemed they would adventure.
tear the marble man's guts out of his belly. And by the In this instance, the snake fixed itself by its tail to one of image stood a serpent, besmeared all with goare bloud, dethe posts of its cage, thus bringing the spurs into action and vouring a marble lion, which serpent, compacted of bitumen giving itself greater power.
and small stones incorporated together, was seven and fortie We now proceed to a consideration of the subdivisions of feete in length, and as thicke as a great oxe. Next unto the genus Boa, properly so called, founded on the integu- it were three rafters or stakes fastened to the grounde, ments of their head and jaws, adopted by Cuvier.
which three others crossed under-propped with stones; in
which place they punish malefactors condemned, for proof Head covered to the end of the muzzle with small scales whereof they saw innumerable broken arrowes, all bloudie, like those of the body. The plates with which the jaws scattered on the grounde, and the bones of the dead cast ! are provided not dimpled (creusées de fussettes).
into an inclosed courte neere unto it."- Pietro Martire.' EXAMPLE. Boa Constrictor of Linnæus; Devin, or Em Bullock, in his . Six Months in Mexico, speaks of a peror Boa, of Daudin.
noble specimen of the great serpent-idol, almost perfect and of fine workmanship, in the cloisters behind the Dominican convent. This monstrous divinity is represented, according to him, in the act of swallowing a human victim, which is seen crushed and struggling in its horrid jaws. That these Mexican serpent-idols were fashioned from boas, there can, we think, be but little doubt. + Such were most probably the Tlilcoatl, Temacuilcahuilia,t, and the Bitis of Hernandez, who describes the latter as of the thickness of a man, and says that it ascends trees, whence it vibrates, being fixed by its tail, “and snatches men and boars and other animals of that kind, sometimes devouring them whole. This serpent he mentions indeed as a production of the island Cubu,' and as seen in the island Lutaya by the Spaniards when they were anxious to disburthen their ships.' The Tlilcoatl and Temacuilcabuilia appear to have been continental; and of the serpent last named he gives so formidable an account that there appears every reason for supposing it to have been the prototype of the snake-god of the Mexicans. It derives its name,' says Hernandez, from its strength, for Temacuilcahuilia is, fighting with five men; it attacks those it meets, and overpowers them with such force that if it once coils itself round their necks it strangles and kills them, unless it bursts itself by the violence of its own efforts ; and he goes on to state how its attack is avoided by the man opposing a tree or other object to its constriction, so that while the serpent fancies that it is compressing the man it may be torn asunder by its own act, and so die. The same author states that he had seen serpents as thick as a man's thigh, which had been taken when young by the Indians and tamed, and how they were provided with a cask strewn with litter, in the place of a cavern, where they lived and were for the most part quiescent except at meal times, when they came forth and amicably climbed about the couch or shoulders of their master, who placidly bore the serpent-embrace • Bernard (or Bernal, or Bernardo) Diaz del Castillo.
Besides the name of Constrictor foridosissimus, expressive of its beauty,
Laurenti, according to Gmelin, gives the following appellations to the Boa [Boa Constrictor.]
constrictor : - Constrictor rex serpentum, Constrictor auspex, Constrictor This powerful species is distinguished by a large chain diviniloquus. The two latter plainly indicate the superstitious feeling with
which it was regarded by the natives, extending the whole length of the back, composed alter * See post, p. 37.
(amplexus) of the terrific animal, or how, lying coiled up • The flesh of this serpent is white, and abundant in fat. in folds and equalling a large wheel in size, they harm- The people of the plains never eat it, but make use of the lessly received the food offered to them. In the description fat as a remedy for rheumatic pains, ruptures, strains, &c. of the Temacuilcahuilia we have, allowing for some exagge- When these creatures are young the colours on the skin rations, the predatory habits of an enormous boa; and in are very bright, and gradually lose their brilliancy with age.' the relation of the manners of the tamed constricting ser There is generally in these descriptions an account of pents which follows it, we find an engine which might be, the fleshy tongue of the reptile, and of its application to and no doubt was, turned to account by the antient Mexican the dead animal for the purpose of covering it with saliva, priests. Such a piece of priesteraft is well introduced by previous to the operation of swallowing it. A glance at the Southey, who in the following masterly lines brings before tongue of a Boa or a Python will convince the observer that the eye of the reader the priest and his snake-god. few worse instruments for such a purpose could have been On came the mighty snake,
contrived. The delusion is kept up by the mode in which And twined, in many a wreath, round Neolin,
these serpents are sometimes preserved in museums, where Darting aright, aleft, his sinuous neck, With searching eye, and lifted jaw and tongue
they may bo occasionally seen with fine artificial, thick, Quivering, and hiss as of a heavy shower
fleshy, vermilion tongues in the place of the small dark-coUpon the summer woods. The Britons stood Astouuded at the powerful reptile's bulk,
loured extensile organs with which nature has furnished And that strango sight. His girth was as of man,
them. We have frequently watched constricting serpents Rut easily could he have overtopped Goliath's helmed head, or that huge king
while taking their prey, and it is almost supertluous to add of Basan, hugest of the Anakim:
that they never covered the victim with saliva from the tongue What then was human strength, if once involved
before deglutition. When the prey is dead and the serpent Within those dreadful coils? ... The multitude Pell prone, and worshipped.'
is about to swallow it, the tongue of the destroyer is freNadoc, book vii.
quently thrust forth and vibrated, as if indicatory of the Without entering into the details of Captain Stedman's desire for food; but the mucus is not poured out till it is well-known description of his encounter with one of these required to lubricate the dilated jaws and throat for the serpents at Surinam,—of the power exerted by the reptile disproportioned feast. in its dying agonies, and of the appearance of his naked The Rev. Lansdown Guilding thus records the capaand gory negro David, as, clinging to the yet writhing bility of the Boa to cross the seas :- A noble specimen of serpent which had been made fast to a strong forked bough, the Boa Constrictor,' says that lamented zoologist, was he stripped off its skin as he descended,
we may advert lately conveyed to us by the currents twisted round the to the alleged length of the snake which, though it was trunk of a large sound cedar-tree, which had probably been pronounced to be a young one by the natives, is stated to washed out of the bank by the thoods of some great South have measured twenty-two feet and some inches in length. American river, while its huge folds hung on the branches The captain says that he obtained from this boa four gallons as it waited for its prey. The monster was fortunately of fine clarified' fat, or rather oil, though there was wasted destroyed after killing a few sheep, and his skeleton now perhaps as much more. The negroes cut the flesh to hangs before me in my study, putting me in mind how pieces for the purpose of dressing it. Captain Stedman much reason I might have had to fear in my future rambles however would not suffer them to eat it, although they through St. Vincent had this formidable reptile been a declared that it was exceedingly good and wholesome. pregnant female, and escaped to a safe retreat.'
The following extract from a letter dated •City of Caracas,' and written by Sir Robert Ker Porter, has been published. The letter accompanied a fine specimen of boa,
Scaly plates from the eyes to the end of the muzzle. nineteen feet and a half in length, presented by Sir Robert
No dimples on the jaws. to the United Service Museum, where it is now (1835) pre- EXAMPLE. Boa Scytale and Boa murina of Linnæus, Boa served.
aquatica of Prince Maximilian. This species referred tu The specimen is exhibited and was probably presented under the name of boa constrictor. It is not well preserved, but it has more the appearance of a Boa Scytale than of the former species :- The name which this colossal reptile goes by in Venezuela is that of "La Culebra de Agua," or "Water Serpent;" and also that of “El Traga Venado," or “Deer Swallower." It is not venomous, nor known to injure man (at least not in this part of the New World); however the natives of the plains stand in great fear of it, never bathing in waters where it is known to exist. Its common haunt, or rather domicile, is invariably near lakes, swamps, and rivers ; likewise close to wet ravines produced by inun. dations of the periodical rains; hence, from its aquatic habits, its first appellation. Fish and those animals which repair there to drink are the objects of its prey. The creature lurks watchfully under cover of the water, and whilst the unsuspecting animal is drinking, suddenly makes a dash at its nose, and with a grip of its back-reclining double range of teeth, never fails to secure the terrified beast beyond the power of escape. In an instant the sluggish waters are in turbulence and foam, the whole form of the Culebra is in motion, its huge and rapid coilings soon encircle the struggling victim, and but a short moment elapses ere every bone is broken in the body of the expiring prey. On its ceasing to exist the tleshy tongue of the reptile is protruded (taking a long and thinnish form), passing over the whole of the lifeless beast, leaving on it a sort of glutinous saliva that greatly facilitates the act of deglutition, which it performs gradually by gulping it down through its extended jaws,
-a power of extension of them it possesses to so frightful and extraordinary a degree as not to be believed when looking at the comparative smallness of the mouth and throat in their tranquil state. After having completely devoured or rather hidden its prey in the way described, it becomes powerless as to motion, and remains in an almost torpid state for some days, or until nature silently digests the swallowed animal. The snake now sent was killed with lances, when just regaining its powers of action.
by Linnæus under two specific names, according to Cuvier, water, and patiently wait to seize upon the quadrupeds is the Boa aquatica of Prince Maximilian and the Anaconda wliich come to drink. according to the same authority. Mr. Bennett observes in • The Tower Menagerie' that the name of Anaconda, like Plates upon the muzzle, and the sides of the jaw holthat of Boa Constrictor, has been popularly applied to all lowed into a kind of slit under the eye, and beyond it. the larger and more powerful snakes. He adds that the word appears to be of Ceylonese origin, and applies it to the Python Tigris.
Brownish, with a double series of roundish black blotches all down the back. The lateral spots annular and ocellated, the disks being white, surrounded by blackish rings. Inhabits South America. The trivial name Murina was given to it from its being said to lie in wait for mice, and Seba has given a representation of it about to dart upon an American mouse, which he says is its usual food." Such
(Head of Boa canina.) small deer' may be the prey of this species when very EXAMPLE. Boa canina of Linnæus, Xiphosoma araram. young, but it grows to a size equalling that of Boa con- boja of Spix. strictor and Boa cenchria. We think it very probable that this is the 'Culebra de Agua'* of the Venezuelans mentioned above. The other provincial name, * El Traga Venado,' or Deer Swallower,' indicates the prey of the serpent when of mature age. Linnæus says of his Boa Scytale, • Constringit et deglutit dapras, oves,' &c. It constricts and swallows goats, sheep,' &o. The Boa murina, then, was probably only a young Boa Scytale.
(Boa canina.) Greenish, with white irregular longish spots somewhat annularly disposed. This is the Boa viridis of Boddaert, the Boa thalassina of Laurenti, the Bojobi of the Brazilians, the Tetrauchoatl Tleoa* (a Mexican name) according to Seba, and the Cobra verde of the Portuguese, who relate that these serpents sometimes remain in the houses, doing no harm till irritated, when they at last bite and intrict a wound full of danger, not from injected poison, for the serpent has none, but on account of the injury sustained by the nerves from the very sharp, slender, and long teeth. Great intiammation follows, and the symptoms are aggravated by terror, so that a gangrene is the consequence unless the proper remedies are applied. In the absence of these certain death is said to be the consequence of a severe bite from this serpent. The immediate cause of death is not stated by Seba, but from the long and penetrating teeth of the Boa canina it may be presumed to be often tetanus or locked jaw. Seba says that this species varies in size, adding that the specimen from whico his figure was taken was more than two cubits in length. Cuvier is of opinion that the Roa hipnale is only a young Bojobi or Boa canina.
(Boa cenchria.] Yellowish, with a row of large brown rings running the whole length of the back, and variable spots on the sides. These are generally dark, often containing a whitish semi. lunar mark. This species, according to Seba, who describes it as Mexican, is the Temacuilcahuilia (or Tamacuilla Huilia, as Seba writes the word) described by Hernandez, and hereinbefore mentioned. The three species here described, according to Cuvier, grow nearly to the same size, and
(A portion of the under part of the tail of Boa canina, showing the hooks
near the vent, and the arrangement of the scuta.) haunt the marshy places of the warm parts of South America. There, adhering by the tail to some aquatic tree, [See CENCHRIS, ERPETON, Eryx, PSEUDO-BOA, SCY they suffer the anterior part of the body to float upon the TALE, X1PHOSOMA.) • Box aquatica, | See ante, p. 36. # See ante, p. 25,
• Tleoa,' according to Seba, means 'a fiery serpent.
BOADICE'A, BOODICEA, BONDICEA, or BOUN-, descriptions of these species we refer our readers to the work DORICEA (Bovdovika in Dion Cassius), lived in the middle above-mentioned. of the first century, and was the wife of Prasutagus, the BOAT. (See LIFE-Boat.] king of the Iceni, a tribe of Britons inhabiting Norfolk and BOAT-BILL (zoology), the English name for the genus Suffolk. Prasutagus at his death bequeathed his wealth, Cochlearius of Brisson, Cancroma of Linnæus, Les Savawhich was very great, to his two daughters and to the cous of the French. Roman emperor, a device resorted to in those times with This genus of the family Ardeidæ (heron-like birds) the hope that it would confine the emperor to a share of the would approach quite closely, as Cuvier observes, to the deceased's possessions, and would rescue the remainder herons (genus Ardea, Cuv.), in regard to their bill and the from his officers. Nero was at this time emperor; and kind of food which it indicates, were it not for the extraSuetonius Paullinus, a general of great skill and energy, ordinary form of that organ, which is nevertheless, when commanded in Britain. While Suetonius was occupied in closely observed, the bill of a heron or a bittern very much attacking the Isle of Anglesey (then called Mona), Catus, flattened out. This bill is of an oval form, longer than the the procurator or collector of the revenue, was guilty of great head, very much depressed, and not unlike the bowls of two rapacity among the Britons in the east. He caused Boa- spoons placed one upon another, with the rims in contact. dicea, on whom the government of her nation had devolved The mandibles are strong, with sharp edges, and dilated by the death of her husband, to be scourged, and her towards the middle. The upper mandible is carinated, and daughters to be violated. The provocation for this outrage hooked at its point, which has a small tooth or notch on is not recorded. Probably it was the same which instigated each side of it. The lower mandible is tlatter than the the cruelty once inflicted by the English on native princesses upper, straight, membranous in the centre, and terminated in India: the government wanted money. The crime by a sharp point. The nostrils are oblique, longitudinal, however brought its punishment. The Iceni and their and closed. neighbours, the Trinobantes (who dwelt in what is now The first quill is short; the five next are the longest. Essex and Middlesex), tew to arms. They first attacked The feet are furnished with four toes, all long, and almost and destroyed the Roman colony of Camalodunum without membranes. (Colchester), and defeated a Roman legion which was Though zoologists have described more than one species, coming to the relief of the place, under the command it appears that they may be referred to the only species yet of Petilius Cerialis. The insurgents also massacred the known, Cochlearius fuscus of Brisson, Cancroma cochleRomans at Verolamium (St. Alban's), a considerable mu- aria of Linnæus, Le Savacou of Buffon, the differences on nicipium (see MUNICIPIUM), and at London, which was then which Cancroma cancrophaga (Linn., &c.) is founded famous for its commerce. Catus fled into Gaul. Tacitus not being allowed to be specific. Leach, in his Zoological says that the Romans and their allies were destroyed to Miscellany, figures and describes the common boat-bill' the number of 70,000, many of whom perished under under the title of Cancroma vulgaris, but assigns no reason torture.
for altering the specific name given by Linnæus. Suetonius hastened to the scene of this revolt; and abandoning London, which he had no means of defending, posted himself with an army of about 10,000 men in a narrow pass, his rear being guarded by a wood, A.D. 61. The Britons were commanded by Boadicea, who, in a chariot with her two daughters, went from one tribe to another exhorting them to fight bravely. They seem however to have met the usual fate of uncivilized armies. Without combination, encumbered by their very multitude, impeded by their women who surrounded them, and by their unwieldy chariots, they suffered a universal carnage. Tacitus, a nearly contemporary historian, estimates the destruction at 80,000 persons, an incredible number, although he says that the Romans did not spare even the women and the animals, who added to the heaps of slain. Boadicea, he tells us, killed herself by poison. Dion Cassius however (lxii. 12), who lived about a century after Tacitus, attributes her death to disease, if the passage is not corrupt. See Ernesti's note on Tacitus, xiv. 37. (Taciti Annal. xiv. 31, &c.)
BOAR. [See Hog.)
BOARD, a word used to denote, in their collective capacity, certain persons to whom is intrusted the manage. ment of some office or department, usually of a public or corporate character. Thus, the lords of the treasury and admiralty, the commissioners of customs, the lords of the committee of the privy council for the affairs of trade, &c., are, when met together for the transaction of the business of their respective offices, styled the Board of Treasury, the Board of Admiralty, the Board of Customs, the Board of Trade, &c. The same word is used to designate the persons chosen from among the proprietors to manage the operations of any joint-stock association, who are styled the Board of Directors. In parochial government the guardians of the poor, &c., are called the Board of Guardians, &c. The word bureau in France is an equivalent expression. BOA'RMIA (Stephens, in entomology), a genus of moths
[Cancroma cochlearia, male.] of the family Geometridæ. All the species of this genus The common boat-bill is about the size of a domestic hen. are of an ashy colour, or white minutely dotted with brown, In the male, the forehead, and upper parts of the neck and and adorned with several fasciæ of a deeper colour; the breast, are dirty white; the back and lower part of the belly antennæ of the males instead of being pectinated, a cha- rusty-reddish; the bill is black, and the legs and feet are racter common in the Geometridæ, are pilose ; palpi short, brown. From the head depends a long crest of black feaclothed with short scales, three-jointed, the two basal joints thers, falling backwards. of equal length, the terminal joint concealed; antennæ The female has the top of the head black, without the simple in the females; thorax small, velvety; wings, when elongated crest, the back and the belly rusty-reddish; the at rest, placed horizontally ; body slender in the males, in wings grey; the forehead and rest of the plumage white; the females shorter and more robust.
and the bill, legs, and feet brown. Mr. Stephens, in his Illustrations of British Entomo * This species,' says Latham in his Synopsis, 'for I refer logy, enumerates seven species of this genus, most of which all that has been treated of above to one only, inhabits Cay are found in woods in the neighbourhood of London. For enne, Guiana, and Brazil, and chiefly frequents such parts
as are near the water. In such places it perches on the course to its junction with the Oder at Krossen, or Crossen. trees which hang over the streams, and, like the kingfisher, Its waters are increased by several small rivers and streams, drops down on the fish which swim beneath. It has been the most considerable of which are the Zacken, which issues thought to live on crabs likewise, whence the Linnæan name; from the Zackenfall, one of the Bohemian Giant Mountains, but this is not clear, though it cannot be denied ; yet we are about 2150 feet in height, and falls into the Bober near certain that fish is the most common, if not the only food.' Hausberg; and the Queiss, which rises near Giehren, and
Lesson, in his Manuel (1828), says, 'the boat-bill perches empties itself into the Bober, on the left bauk, at Macben on trees by the side of rivers, where it lives on fish, and not above Sagan. The Bober is about 140 miles in length, and on crabs, as its name indicates ;' and speaks of it as inha flows through the towns of Hirschberg and Bunzlau in biting the inundated savannahs of South America, and as Prussian Silesia, and through Bobersberg and Krossen in being especially common in Guiana.
Brandenburgh. It contains pearls. Leach, in his Zoological Miscellany (1815), says that it BOB-O-LINK, or BOB-LINK (Zoology), the usual inhabits Southern America, and feeds on fishes, vermes and name by which the rice-bird,' or reed-bird--the ‘skunkcrustacea, in quest of which it is continually traversing the bird' (Seecawk-petheesew) of the Cree Indians, the “riceborders of the sea.
bunting' of Pennant and of Wilson, rice-troopial' of Cuvier, in his Règne Animal (1829), says that it inhabits authors, Hortulanus Carolinensis of Catesby, Emberiza the warm and moist parts of South America, and perches orizyvora of Linnæus, Icteris agripennis of Bonaparte, on trees by the side of rivers, whence it precipitates itself on Dolichonyx orizyvorus of Swainson - is kpown in the the fish which afford its ordinary nourishment.
gait of the herons and bitterns, which it has also, according to authors, in a state of nature. The food of this captive bird was principally fish.
BOATSWAIN, a warrant officer in a ship of war who has the care of the rigging, cables, cordage, anchors, sails, boats, flags, colours, and other stores, which are committed to his charge by indenture from the surveyor of the navy. He has particular charge of the long boat and its furniture, and it is his duty to steer it, either himself or by his mate. One of the chief duties which devolve upon this officer is to attend to the rigging of the vessel, which he is charged to inspect every morning; not only to observe that everything is properly fitted and arranged in its place, but to see that all things are in good condition, to remove whatever may be judged unfit for service, and to supply whatever may be deficient. He cannot however cut up or otherwise appropriate any cordage or canvass for the public uses of the ship without a written order from the captain, and under the inspection of the master. His instructions inculcate the utmost frugality in the use of the stores intrusted to him; and at the end of a voyage he must present to the surveyor of the navy minute accounts, previously audited and vouched by the captain and master, of the purposes to which all the stores in his department have been applied, or of the circumstances under which they may have been lost, stolen, misapplied, or returned to the dock-yard. He cannot receive his pay till his accounts have been approved. In this department the boatswain is much under the con
[Dolichonyx orizyvorus.) trol of the master; his more exclusive function is that Catesby, Wilson, Audubon, and Nuttall give the most superintendence and control which he exercises over the complete accounts of this well-known bird :— The whole men. He summons the crew to their duty, assists with his continent of America,' says the latter," from Labrador to mates in the necessary business of the ship, and relieves Mexico, and the great Antilles, are the occasional residence the watch when its time expires. His calls on the crew of this truly migratory species. About the middle of March, are made by a silver whistle of a peculiar construction, or beginning of April, the cheerful bob-o-link makes his apwell-known as the boatswain's whistle.' He must ob-pearance in the southern extremity of the United States, serve that the men attend when called, and that they becoming gradually arrayed in his nuptial livery, and acproperly perform their duties; and he is enjoined to ob- companied by troops of his companions, who often precede serve, - that the working of the ship be performed with the arrival of their more tardy mates.' (Bartram's Travels, as little noise and confusion as possible.' The boat- p. 295. edit. Lond.) “Their wintering resort appears to he swain is a sort of provost-marshal in the ship, taking rather the West Indies than the tropical continent, as their offenders into custody and inflicting such punishments as migrations are observed to take place generally to the east may be awarded by the captain or by a court-martial. These of Louisiana, where their visits are rare and irregular.' latter functions he performs through his mates, whose office (Audubon's Ornithological Biography, vol. i. p. 283.) At is perhaps the most unpopular in the navy. A boatswain this season also they make their approaches chietly by night, is entitled to superannuation after fourteen years service. obeying, as it were, more distinctly the mandates of an overHis pay during service varies, according to the rate of his ruling instinct, which prompts them to seek out their natal ship, from 4l. to 2l. per month, and he is allowed two ser regions; while in autumn their progress, by day only, is vants in all ships the crew of which exceeds 100 men. The alone instigated by the natural quest of food. About the number of his mates varies from four to one, according to 1st of May the meadows of Massachusetts begin to re-echo the size of the vessel, and their pay similarly varies from their lively ditty. At this season in wet places, and by 31.108. to 21. per month. (Regulations and Instructions newly ploughed fields, they destroy many insects and their relating to his Majesty's Sea Service; Harris's Lexicon larvæ, but
, while on their way through the southern States, Technicum; Table of Naval Allowances, &c.)
they cannot resist the temptation of feeding on the early BOBER, THE, a large river in Prussian Silesia, has its wheat and tender barley. According to their success in source near Oppau, to the north-west of Schatzlar, on the this way, parties often delay their final northern movement north slope of the Giant Mountains (Riesengebirge), and as late as the middle of May, so that they appear to be in close upon the borders of Bohemia. It traverses the plateau no haste to arrive at their destination at any exact period. of Hirschberg, and during this course, as well as until it The principal business of their lives, however, the rearing of reaches Braunau, a village in the Silesian circle of Liegnitz, their young, does not take place until they have left the flows through a narrow and, in general, rocky valley. From parallel of the 40th degree. In the savannahs of Ohio and Hirschberg its general course is north past Bunzlau to the Michigan, and the cool grassy meadows of New York, iynction of the Sprotte, whence it takes a general N.N.W. Canada, and New England, they fix their abode, and ob