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of one of the governors, he insists more on the necessity of Dictionary of the English Language by Dr. Johnson, in a Christian education, though at the expense of his own which he should introduce words provincial and archaical. favourite classics. He gave all the weight of his influence By provincial, he meant words which are still found in the against the delusions of the wild sectaries who seem to have speech of certain parts of England, though not found in abounded in Virginia. On the question of the Stamp Act writing or heard in the conversation of the cultivated and he partook of the popular enthusiasm: and on the whole he polite; words however which are genuine portions of the seems to have been inclined to a liberal policy, and to the English language, and to be found, most of them at least, maintenance of the independence and just rights of the in our early and almost forgotten writers. By archaical, colonies.

he meant words which are found in those writers, though But when the time came that all connexion with the now regarded as obsolete, and which are not now, and permother country was to be renounced, and all allegiance to haps never were, in any general use by the common people. the British throne, Mr. Boucher was one of those who These words it was his intention to illustrate by quotations neither admitted the principle, nor thought themselves at from the authors in which they occur, and also by dissertaliberty to remain entirely passive. He continued to use in tions on their history in a manner much more at large than his church the public liturgy, and to read the prayers for Dr. Johnson had thought it necessary to do in respect of the king and the royal family as he had been accustomed, the purer and better terms which he had allowed to find when all around him was resistance and rebellion. He was a place in his Dictionary. now regarded in the light of one who was a traitor to the This was a design of great magnitude : and Boucher set common interest. It was intimated to him that he must himself to the accomplishment of it with great earnestness either desist from reading those prayers or resign his charge. of purpose, and proceeded with an unwearied perseverance His conduct was decided. He resigned his charge, and in which was truly admirable. He made his classical knowhis farewell sermon which was preached at the lower church ledge bear upon it with effect, and he obtained no mean in the parish of Queen Anne in Maryland, he thus fearlessly acquaintance with the languages cognate to our own and the takes his ground ;- Entertaining all due respect for my other modern languages of Europe. He had an intimate acordination vow, I am firm in my resolution, whilst I pray in quaintance with the dialect of Cumberland and Westmorpublic at all, to conform to the unmutilated liturgy of my land, where perhaps more of peculiar terms remain than in church; and, reverencing the injunction of an apostle, I will other counties, which he had acquired when a youth, a time continue to pray for the king and all that are in authority of life when such knowledge is best attained.' He made a under him; and I will do so, not only because I am so com- large collection of books applicable to his purpose, and he manded, but that, as the apostle adds, we may continue to established a correspondence with persons in many of the lead quiet and peaceable lives, in all godliness and honesty. counties of England, from whom he received contributions Inclination,

as well as duty, confirm me in this purpose. for his vocabulary, and sometimes valuable remarks. As long as I live therefore, yea, while I have being, will I But the plan on which he proceeded included more than with Zadoc the priest and Nathan the prophet, proclaim-- is generally understood to fall within the province of lexicoGod save the king.'

graphy. He made his dictionary the deposit of what he This was a time when there could be no compromise. was able to collect concerning many of the usages of the His property, all of which was in America, was lost. He English nation-dress, sports, superstitions, whatever in was so much an object of popular dislike that his person short falls under the not strictly-defined term of popular was in hourly danger, and, in 1775, he finally quitted the antiquities : so that his work may, in many portions American shores, and returned to his native land. His of it, be read for amusing or interesting information, as well prospects thus blighted, he had to begin the world anew, as consulted as a dictionary for the illustration of the words aided by some compensation from the government at home which it contains. In this respect it resembles Dr. Jamieson's for the losses wh he had sustained with other American valuable Dictionary of the Scottish language. loyalists. Little is known of him during the next nine Mr. Boucher began this work in or about 1790. It was years of his life. But it is believed that he had recourse not too late a period of life for him to indulge the hope and to his original profession, and that he established a school a reasonable expectation of being able to complete it, wellat Paddington. In the church he obtained no preserment furnished as he already was with much of the information till 1784, when Parkhurst, a clergyman, the author of two needed for such an undertaking. In 1802 it had so far adwell-known scripture lexicons, to whom he had become vanced towards maturity that he issued a prospectus of the known, presented him to the vicarage of Epsom in Surrey, work, and proposals for publication. His health however at which place it is believed he went immediately to reside, was then beginning to decline. In 1803 he visited his naand where he died.

tive county. He lived till the 27th of April in the following In this last twenty years of his life we find him devoted, as year, when he died without having committed any part of in the former period, to religion, to politics, and to literature. his large manuscript to the press. He collected and published, in 1797, the discourses before Of the dictionary thus le unfinished the letter A was spoken of, and prefixed to them a dedication to Washington, published after his death as a specimen, by his friend with whom before the war he had been on terms of inti- and frequent correspondent Sir Frederick M. Eden. The macy, and for whom he never ceased to feel a high personal merits and the value of bis collection were understood respect. He added also a long preface, entitling the whole from this specimen, and appreciated in every way highly, collection • A View of the Causes and Consequences of the by those who take an interest in such inquiries. But still American Revolution.' He printed also two assize ser there was not sufficient encouragement given to the family mons, and in every way supported to the utmost of his power to risk the publication of so large a manuscript. the Pitt policy in respect of France, adhering to the prin- mained, with other papers connected with it, in the hands ciples which he had maintained in Maryland in such dan- of the family till 1831, when it was purchased with the ingerous times and for which he had been so great a sufferer. tention of immediate publication. Two numbers of the proBut the kind of literature to which he directed his attention jeoted work are all that have yet appeared, containing Mr. was changed. It became more English. The love of Boucher's learned introduction to his work, which happily native country, which is said to be stronger in those born in was left completed by him, and the words of the alphabet as mountainous regions than in other persons, appeared in far as Blade. It is to be hoped that the work will proceed, various forms. He addressed his Cumbrian friends on the for though perhaps not entirely adapted to the present imbackwardness which they showed in following in the track of proved state of philological knowledge, and to be regarded public improvement. He wrote some of the best portions of rather as anecdotes of the language than as a complete Hutchinson's History of that county. He erected in the lexicon of archaic and provincial words, it contains much church of Seberghain a monument to the memory of Relph, valuable information, the result of original reading and oria Cumbrian poet. He also became a Fellow of the Society ginal reflection. of Antiquaries of London, and was made an honorary mem For the facts in this life we have been principally inber of the Society of Antiquaries of Edinburgh and also of debted to Boucher's own writings, to the Gentleman's Mathe Stirling Literary Society. His acquaintance among the gazine, vol. 74, p. 591, where is a biographical notice of men devoted to antiquarian and especially English philolo- him inserted at the time of his decease, and to a little gical literature became extended, and he enjoyed the inti- volume printed at Carlisle in 1829, entitled The Life and macy and particular friendship of several of them.

Literary Remains of Thomas Sanderson. His mind at length became determined towards a particu BOUCHES DU RHONE, a dep. in the S. of France, lar object: it was to prepare a kind of supplement to the containing part of the former military government of Pro

It re

VOL, V.-2 M

vence. The dep. lies along the coast of the Mediterranean, | salt, that it would be unproductive, if the inhabitants did
by which it is washed on the S.S.W.: on the N.N.E. it is not flood the land by the waters of the Rhône, the rich mud
bounded by the dep. of Vaucluse, from which it is separated of which corrects the drought that the salt would otherwise
by the Durance: on the E. it is bounded by the dep. of Var; produce. There are brine springs in different parts of the
and on the N.W. by that of Gard, from which it is separated island and saltworks are carried on. (Encyc. Méthod.)
by the Rhône. The Ile de la Camargue, or Carmague, an Near the E. bank of the E. channel of the Rhône,
island of alluvial formation, enclosed by the sea and the two between it and the étang de Berre, is the plain of La Crau,
principal arms or outlets of the Rhône, is included in this the most singular stony desert,' says Mr. Arthur Young,
department. The dep. is of a quadrilateral figure, having that is to be met with in France or perhaps in Europe.
its N.W. and E. sides respectively 41 or 42 m.; but the It contains, according to the estimate of the same intelli-
sea-coast, which is about 77 m. long in a straight line, gent traveller, from 140,000 to 170,000 English acres. It is
exceeds by about 24 miles the side which runs along the composed entirely of shingle, the stones varying in size
bank of the Durance. The area of the dep. is 601,960 from that of a pea to that of a pumpkin; and it is as free
hectares (according to the last edit. of Malte Brun), which, from any intermixture of soil as the shingle upon the sea-
computing the hectare as equal to 2:471143 English acres, shore. In places these stones have become united so as to
will give 1,487,529 English acres for the area, or 2324 sq. m., form a species of marble capable of receiving a polish.
being equal to about 10-11ths of the county of Devon. The Beneath these stones is a soil which Mr. Young describes as
surface of the department in square leagues,' as given by not so much a sand as a kind of cemented marble, a small
Malte Brun, differs materially from the above measurement, mixture of loam with fragments of stone. Vegetation is
which, however, we believe to be the more correct. The poor and miserable, yet the district supplies winter pasturage
chief town is Marseille, which is 497 m. S. by E. from Paris, to immense flocks of sheep which are fed in summer in the
through Auxerre, Autun, Châlons sur Saône, Lyon, Va Alps about Barcelonette. By means of the Canal de Cra-
lence, Avignon, and Aix.

ponne, parts of this naturally sterile region have been broken The dep. is not, on the whole, mountainous, but there up into corn and meadow land, and rendered productive, are some considerable elevations. The branches of the forming a striking contrast with the part which yet remains Alps, which stretch through the adjoining dep. of Var, and an arid desert. The lower grounds (for the surface is not skirt the S. bank of the Durance in the upper part of its level) produce oaks, walnut-trees, mulberry-trees though course, reach into the Bouches du Rhône, and cover the E. not of great size, olives, and vines. The almond-tree does parts. Other eminences extend from these towards the W., not succeed. (Young's Travels in France; Encyc. Méthod.) presenting barren table-lands, and terminating in steep The soil of the dep. varies considerably. The N. E. and and abrupt descents, while the branches of the Alps are N. districts along the bank of the Durance are sterile and distinguished by their gradual declivities. The Ile de require great labour to make them productive, but the N.W. Carmague, and that part of the dep. adjacent to it, are very part is of great fertility. Unhappily this district is exposed marshy, and the sea forms several pools or étangs, two of to the disastrous inundations of the Rhône. The étangs which, those of Berre and Valcarès, the latter in the Ile and marshes render a considerable part of the land near the de Carmague, are of considerable extent. [Berre.] The coast incapable of cultivation. The produce of the dep. sea-coast, low in the neighbourhood of the Rhône, is in in corn is not great, being scarcely equal to a third of other parts bold and lofty.

Opposite to the coast are several what is required for home consumption. Rice is among the small islands—Ratoneau, Pomegue, If (on which is a strong grain cultivated here. (Robert, Dict. Géog.) A considerable castle), all near the mouth of the port of Marseille ; Le quantity of wine is produced, and some kinds, as those of Maire, Jaros, Riou and Planier. They are all of little im- Cassis and La Ciotat (white wines), are much esteemed. portance. There is a tower on the Ile de Planier, which Olives form one of the chief objects of attention with the lies farthest out to sea. The principal rivers are the Rhône, cultivators, and oil is one of the most important of its proand its tributary the Durance, which bound the dep. on the ductions; and almonds, nuts, capers, oranges, pomegranates, N.W. and N.N.E. sides : the others are of minor import and figs, are abundant. The mildness of the climate is ance, such as the Arc, which rises in the dep. of Var, and favourable to the growth of shrubs and flowers, among flows into the étang de Berre, after a course of about 45 m.; which may be mentioned the cypress, the laurel, the myrtle, the Touloubre, which flows into the same étany, after a the cistus, and the phillyrea. The pasturages of this dep. course of from 30 to 35 m.; and the Verne, which falls are chiefly resorted to in winter: in summer they are into the sea very near Marseille, after a course not quite abandoned from the great heat, and the cattle are driven equal to that of the Touloubre.

to the more refreshing plains of Drôme, Isère, and Hautes The island of Carmague, which forms a Delta, has Trin- and Basses Alpes. The use of the plain of La Crau for quetaille, a suburb of the city of Arles, at its apex. The this winter pasturage has been already noticed. It is said testimony of the antients makes it appear that the mouths that 700,000 sheep and an immense number of goats are of the Rhône have varied materially both in number and pastured in the department. The quantity of cattle reared configuration. The most W. of the two streams already is also very great; and a large number of light active noticed has shifted its bed towards the W., enlarging the horses are produced. The Ile de la Carmague is chiefly lle de la Carmague in that direction; while the accumula- occupied in pasturage. The cattle are here left at liberty tion of materials brought down by the stream has ele- night and day, from which cause they are very wild. There vated the soil about the mouths of the river, and caused the are in this island nine villages, many country houses, and Jand to gain considerably on the sea. The E. arm of nearly 350 farms, the occupiers of which rear annually the Rhône there is reason to believe has been less variable: 40,000 sheep, 3000 oxen, and as many horses. In this but the formation of small alluvial islands causes its waters island is the royal sheep farm of L'Armillière. The district to be subdivided into several channels just before it reaches of Crau produces manna and an insect called kermès, which the sea. There are some traces of a canal cut from Arles to is well adapted to make vermilion. The rearing of silkthe sea by the Roman General Caius Marius. The quan- worms is much attended to in the department of Bouches tity of sand brought down by the Rhône is so considerable du Rhône. The salt marshes yield herbs of which the inas to cause the navigation of its channel to vary continually, habitants make kelp. and persons are kept in pay by the government whose In the S.E. dep. coal is dug, and there are quarries of regular business is to sound the bed of the river and make marble of all colours and of great value, freestone, slate, known its variations to shipmasters.

gypsum, limestone, whetstones, and alabaster, or a stone The Ile de Carmague approaches in form to an equilateral capable of being wrought like alabasterThe Encyclopédie triangle of about 25 m. each side. It is composed of a fine Méthodique adds that there are several mines of iron and gravelly soil intermingled with marshy land. The interior lead. of the island is the receptacle of stagnant waters, and is The climate, as may be inferred from its productions, is in great part occupied by the étang of Valcarès and by warm: and would be most delightful to the inhabitants, others of less extent. These étangs and marshes often were they not, at least in the neighbourhood of Marseille, communicate with the sea, especially during the prevalence exposed to the annoyance of swarms of gnats. The violence of the casterly wind. The whole island rests on a bed of of the wind called Mistral is also a great drawback. sea-sand which, having preserved a great quantity of salt, The manufactures are very various. Cotton goods, paper, imparts this quality to the herbage and renders it particu- woollens of various kinds, morocco and other leather, porlarly acceptable to the cattle which are put to graze. To so celair., earthenware, glass, and soda are manufactured. great a degree is the soil in some parts impregnated with Brandy is distilled : and liqueurs and vinegar are made,

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But perhaps the chief branch of manufacture is that of and Cagni, was born January 10, 1644. He entered the soap, which enjoys a high and deserved reputation all royal guards as a cornet in 1663, during which year he was over France. The exports of the dep. comprehend its present at the siege of Marsal in Lorraine. In the follownatural productions, wine, oil, honey, wax, dried fruits, &c., ing campaign he was engaged in an expedition to Gigari the fish anchovies, sardinas, tunnies, &c.) caught and in Africa ; and so much talent did he afterwards exhibit in cured by the fishermen of its coast, and its manufactures. Flanders, that he was allowed to purchase from the Drie de Marseille is the chief port in the dep., and indeed, ex- Lauzun the colonelcy of the royal dragoons. In all the cepting Bordeaux, in all France. [MARSEILLE.) The enterprises of Turenne he bore a distinguished part; and internal trade is facilitated by the navigation of the Rhône he was severely wounded at the battle of Woerden, under and by the canal of Arles, which runs from Arles to the sea the maréchal of Luxemburg, in the winter of 1673. Having nearly parallel to the main stream of the Rhône. The passed into Germany, he was again wounded at the battle canals de Craponne, du Réal, de Boisgelin, and du of Einsheim in 1674, and received the thanks of Turenne Végueyral, are rather for the purpose of irrigation or for having greatly contributed to the success of that day. In drainage. The canal de Craponne runs from the Durance the memorable retreat after the death of Turenne, in 1675, to the Rhône at Arles, with branches to Istres and to St. he commanded the French rear; and from that time till the Chamas, both of which places are near the Etang de Berre : peace of Nimeguen, in 1678, he was employed on active the canal du Réal is in the N.W. part of the department: service. He then commanded in Dauphiné and on the that of Boisgelin runs from and again into the Durance : frontiers of Spain. His gallantry at the siege of Luxemthat of Végueyral drains the marshes E. of Arles. The burg was rewarded with the government of that city and Durance, we believe, is, from its rapidity, not navigable. province in 1686 ; and the seasonable detachment of a corps

The dep. is subdivided into the three arrondissements of from the army of the Moselle, which he commanded in Marseille (which is the capital of the department), of Aix, 1690, decided the event of the battle of Fleurus. In 1691 and of Arles : and contains 27 cantons and 105 communes. he was again wounded in an attack upon a hornwork at The pop. in 1832 was 359,473: about 154 or 155 to a sq. m. Mons; but during the remainder of that campaign he The pop. at the previous census of 1826 was 326,302, show- triumphantly kept the field against the allies, who were ing an increase of 33,171, or of more than 10 per cent. The more than threefold his number, and continued the blockade pop. of 1832 was thus divided among the three arrondisse- of Liege and of Huy. On his return to court during the ments: arrond. of Marseille, 178,866; arrond. of Aix, winter, he was personally invested by the king with the 102,674; arrond, of Arles, 77,933. The dep. for ecclesias, collars of the several orders into which he had hitherto tical purposes is divided into the diocese of Marseille, been admitted only by proxy. When William III. moved including that city and its arrond., and the arch-diocese of to the relief of Namur, Boutlers was selected to oppose him. Aix. The district included in the dep. was formerly divided He then partook of the glories of Steenkerken. In 1693 he among the dioceses of Aix, Arles, and Marseille : but the was elevated to the dignity of maréchal of France, and rediocese of Arles is now (it is probable) incorporated with ceived the new order of St. Louis. He defended Namur that of Aix, the archbishop of that see taking his title from against the allies, commanded by William III., for sixtyAix, Arles, and Embrun.' The Bishop of Marseille is one three days of open trenches in 1695, and repulsed four of his suffragans. The dep. is under the jurisdiction of the general assaults. After its capitulation, he was detained a Cour Royale of Aix; and is included in the VIIIth Military prisoner of war for a fortnight; and the king, in recompense division, of which Marseille is the capital. It sends five for his great services, erected the county of Cagni and some members to the Chamber of Deputies. There is an Acadé. adjoining domains in Beauvaisis into the dukedom of Boumie Universitaire at Aix, which includes a faculty of tiers. In 1696 he superintended some preparations for a theology and one of law.

projected invasion of England in support of James II., The chief towns (with their pop. in 1832,) are :-Mar- which was not put in execution. In the war of the Spanish seille (121,272 inh. in the town, 145,115 in the whole com- succession, he commanded in the Netherlands; and on mune), on the sea; Aix (15,916 inh. in the town, 22,575 in June 31, 1703, in conjunction with the Marquis de Bedmar, the whole commune); Arles (14,894 inh. in the town, he obtained a signal advantage over the Dutch at Eckaren, 20,236 in the whole commune), Tarascon (9225 inh. in the for which he received from the king of Spain the collar of town, 10,967 in the whole commune), on the Rhône op- the Golden Fleece. In 1708, after the batile of Oudenarde, posite Beaucaire ; Martigues (5335 inh. in the town, or 7379 he undertook to defend Lille against Prince-Eugene; and he in the whole commune), on the channel communicating maintained the town from August 12th till October 25th, between the sea and the Etang de Berre ; La Ciotat (4315 when he capitulated, after having repeatedly declined the inh. in the town, or 5427 in the whole commune), on the king's urgent wish that he should cease to expose himself; sea S.E. of Marseille ; Salon (4187 inh. in the town, or but the citadel into which he retired held out till the 11th 5987 in the whole commune), upon that branch of the canal December following. The king loaded him with new de Craponne which branches off to Istres; Aubagne (3925 honours for the brilliant defence, and made his duchy into inh. in the town, or 6349 in the whole commune), on the a peerage. His presence in the capital in March, 1709, and river Verne on the road from Marseille to Toulon ; Auriol his deserved popularity among the citizens, contributed to (3373 inh. in the town, or 5320 in the whole commune), allay a tumult which had arisen on account of scarcity of also on the river Verne; and St. Remi (3213 inh. in the bread ; after which, hastening to Flanders, he tendered his town, or 5464 in the whole commune), on the canal du services to the maréchal Villars, an officer junior to him, Réal.

and brought off the right wing of his army in good order, The population returns for 1832 give the following com- losing neither cannon nor prisoners at the diastrous battle munes as containing above 2000 and under 5000 inhabitants: of Malplaquet. This was his last public act; he died at Population of the

Population of the Fontainebleau, March 22, 1711, in the sixty-eighth year of Town, Commune.

Town. Commune his age, and was buried with great military splendour in the Allanch 1,741 3,711 Gardanne 2,459 3,234 church of St. Paul at Paris. Barbentanne 1,864 2,800 Istres

2,483 3,023

The above sketch of the exploits of this distinguished Chamas, St. 2,502 2,632 Lambesc

2,923 3,898 captain is necessarily very incomplete; his history, in truth, Château Renard 4,152 Lançon 1,703 2,060 forms the military history of the half century during which Eguilles 1,847 2,280 Orgon 1,691 2,584 he served, and its details must be sought in the general Eyguières 2,614 2,987 Pélissanne

2,334 2,500 annals of Europe. Many detached anecdotes redound Eyragues 1,811 2,227 Roquevaire

3,218

greatly to his honour. Prince Eugene congratulated him Fontvieille. 1,580 2,056 Trets

2,504 3,014 upon the glory which he had acquired in defending Lille, Fuveau 1,513 2,004

as far superior to that accruing to himself by its capture; This department has produced several eminent men. and it was remarked that horse-flesh was the only food Petronius Arbiter, a Latin writer of some note; Adanson, the served during that siege at a table, which, on other occa. naturalist, the Abbé Barthélemi; Brueys, the dramatist; ' sions, was pre-eminent for its costliness. So magnificent Massillon, one of the chief ornaments of the French pulpit : were the banquets with which Bouflers regaled his officers, Nostradamus ;-Vanloo, the painter ; Tournefort, the botanist while he held the command of a mimic camp formed by the and traveller, &c.

king at Compiègne, for the instruction and amusement BOUFLERS, LOUIS-FRANÇOIS DUC DE, de- of his grandson the duke of Burgundy, that Louis XIV. scended from one of the most antient and noble families in obserred that the young prince must decline all compePicardy, the second son of François II., count of Boutlerstition, and remain content to be a guest. The detention of

.

Bouflers after the surrender of Namur was a breach of the of his store-ship. In working off the shores of Tierra del articles of capitulation, and was defended as a reprisal for Fuego he suffered much from boisterous weather. What similar violence which had been offered to the garrisons of little intercourse he established with the Patagonians was Dixmuiden and of Deinse. When Bouflers justly remarked amicable; and he confirms the general opinion of their that in that case not the commander, but the garrison ought height and muscular strength, ihough he by no means to be responsible, he was silenced by the high and not over- extends either to gigantic dimensions. Storms, mists, charged compliment, that his single person was esteemed sunken rocks, difficult currents, and an archipelago which equivalent to 10,000 men. We do not recollect a more true appropriately received the name of The Dangerous, were enappreciation of feminine grace than is exhibited by a repartee countered before he arrived in sight off Otaheite on April ascribed to the duke of Boutlers. When he was extolling 2nd ; and the well-known blandishments of that island some young beauty of the day, a coxcomb asked, A-t-elle de appear to have exposed him to scarcely less peril than he l'esprit ? and was left mute by the veteran's ready answer, had undergone at sea. At parting he carried with him Comme une rose.

as a volunteer Aotourou, the son of a native chief. The BOUGAINVILLE, JEAN PIERRE DE, was born at youth's talents appear unhappily to have been very slender, Paris December 1st, 1722, and during his short career dis- and he acquired little benefit from mixing with the civitinguished himself by some publications now forgotten; lized world at Paris. Eren that little was of no adamong them was a French translation of the Anti-Lucretius vantage to his countrymen, for he died on his homeward of Cardinal Polignac, and a Parallel between the expedition passage in 1770. Almost the only circumstance demanding of Kouli Khan and that of Alexander. Some poems, among notice in the remainder of Bougainville's voyage was the which is the germ of Pope's Universal Prayer, and several discovery that one of his crew, named Baré, was a woman. papers in the Mémoires of the Academy, also were printed by She had always behaved with the most scrupulous modesty, him. He held numerous employments of high literary dis was neither ugly nor handsome, and not more than twentytinction, as secretary to the Academy of Inscriptions, censor six or twenty-seven years of age.' royal, keeper of the antiquities in the Louvre, and secretary Scurvy and a failure of provisions occasioned very severe in ordinary to the Duke of Orleans, &c. He died at Loches suffering during the latter part of this voyage, till on SepJune 22nd, 1763.

tember 28th, Bougainville, having been at sea for ten His younger brother, LOUIS ANTOINE DE BOU- months and a half, cast anchor off Batavia, which miserable GAINVILLE, who more than doubled his years, led also station was not inaptly named by Aotourou in his native a much more active existence. He was born at Paris language, Enoua mate, the land which kills.' At the Isle November 11th, 1729, and studied in the university of of France he parted company from L'Etoile, the services of that capital, with the intention of proceeding to the bar. which were no longer necessary, and on March 16th he Much of his time had been devoted to mathematics, and entered St. Malo, having been engaged upon his expeinstead of commencing as an advocate at the Palais, he dition two years and four months. surprised his friends by enrolling himself in the Mousque Bougainville commanded a ship of war during the Ametaires Noirs, and by publishing a treatise on the in- rican revolutionary contest. He died at the advanced age tegral calculus within fifteen days from his enlistment. We of eighty-two years on August 31st, 1811. know not in what manner he passed from military to di BOUGAINVILLE ISLAND. [New GEORGIA ARplomatic pursuits, but we afterwards find him employed CHIPELAGO.) as secretary of embassy in London, where he was elected BOUGUER, PIERRE, was born at Croisic, in Bassefellow of the Royal Society. Returning to the army, he Bretagne, February 16, 1698. The father was professor of served in Canada with some distinction till 1759; and in hydrography at that place; the son, after receiving the in1763, when the merchants of St. Malo wished to colonize structions of his father in mathematics, and making conthe barren territory of Falkland's Islands (the Malouines, siderable progress by himself, taught first at Croisic, and as they were called, from their pretended discoverer), afterwards at Hâvre-de-Grace. In 1727 he gained the prize Bougainville was active in promoting the settlement. The of the Academy of Sciences for a memoir on the method of Spaniards however were not willing that the French masting ships; in 1729, for one on the method of observing should invade their imaginary right of sovereignty in the the stars at sea and on astronomical refractions, his forwestern hemisphere ; and the French government also mula and results being the same as those afterwards given speedily discovered that the mere possession of a rocky by Simpson, but more complicated in form ; in 1731, for a domain, which did not yield any return, and which de- method of observing the dip of the compass at sea. In 1732 rived its entire support from the mother country, was by he presented a memoir on the inclinations of the planets' no means worth the hazard of war. They gave orders orbits, in which he treats the subject on the theory of Des therefore for the surrender of the settlement, and Bou- Cartes: he was the last of the academicians who held by gainville was employed to undo his own work. The po- that system. In 1729 he published a memoir on the gradual sition which he had chosen for the establishment was at extinction of light in passing through successive imperfectly Port Louis, on the eastern side of the lesser of the two transparent substances. By a series of experiments, of large Islands, on a part of the coast which afforded a good which M. Biot speaks in high terms (Biog. Univ.), he imaharbour; and he was sanguine in his expectations that the gined he had proved that the light from the edges of the new colony would in a great degree indemnify his country sun is weaker than that from the centre. M. Arago has for the loss of the Canadas. The Parisian cabinet however disproved this assertion by new experiments. thought otherwise ; and in 1766 they hartered for the sur The reputation of Bouguer being established as a profound render of Port Louis to the Spaniards, who gave it the less mathematician, and particularly (to use a phrase of M. Conswelling but perhaps more appropriate name of Port Solidad. dorcet when speaking of him in his éloge of La Condamine) Bougainville was instructed to execute the transfer, and his as ' possessing that sort of talent which is able to distinguish commission authorized him afterwards to traverse the South the little causes of error, and to find the means of remedying Sea between the tropics, for the purpose of making disco- them,' he was chosen, in company with La Condamine and veries, and to return home by the East Indies. For this others, together with two Spanish commissioners, to proceed circumnavigation of the globe, a frigate, La Boudeuse, car to Peru, for the purpose of measuring a degree of the merirying twenty-six twelve pounders, and a store ship, L'Eloile, dian. Thither he accordingly departed in May, 1735, and were placed under his command. His crew consisted of remained till 1743. The most essential parts of the operaeleven commissioned officers, three volunteers, and 200 tion necessarily fell upon him, as La Condamine was commariners; and the Prince of Nassau Sieghen obtained per- paratively new to the subject. This important operation, mission to accompany him. His voyage, although not to which is one of the best of its kind, was carried on under be compared in point of interest to that of Cook or Anson, difficulties as great as were ever encountered by any scien is very agreeably related by himself. It was translated into tific expedition. The inhabitants of the country were English by Forster in 1772, and an abridgment of it is given jealous of the French commissioners, and supposed them in the appendix to the thirteenth volume of Kerr's General either to be heretics or sorcerers, or to have come in search Collection of Voyages and Travels.

of new gold mines. Even persons attached to the adminisBougainville sailed from Nantes November 15th, 1766. tration employed themselves in stirring up the minds of the On the 1st of April following he surrendered Falkland's people, and when at last they had procured the assassinaIslands to some Spanish frigates which had been dispatched tion of the surgeon of the expedition, one was able to escape for the purpose, and he was then delayed till November at the consequences by procuring a verdict of lunacy against Monte Video by the non-arrival and the necessary repairs himself, and another by taking orders. The country itself

was difficult and dangerous : and this obstacle was increased | Doutes sur la Langue Française, and Les Entretiens d' Ariste by jealousies which arose between the French and Spanish et d'Eugène, 1671. In the latter occurs a question most commissioners, as well as between Bouguer and La Conda- offensive to German national pride, Whether it be posmine. The former, who felt that he was the main resource sible for a German to be a wit?' These works awakened of the expedition, suspected that the latter would appro a host of critics. Baillet affirmed that few exceeded Bou. priate an undue share of the merit to himself. The conse hours in knowledge of French stiles et des locutions : and quence was however of no harm to the real objects of the the Jugemens des Savans contain more than one very expedition, but perhaps rather the contrary; for it caused favourable opinion from the censors of Trevoux. Ménage, Bouguer, La Condamine, and the Spaniards George Juan on the contrary, stated that Bouhours wrote with politeness, and Antonio de Ulloa to conduct their operations separately, but without either judgment or learning; that he was unwhile the near accordance of the three in their results was acquainted with Greek and Hebrew, scholastic divinity, a favourable presumption for their accuracy. The results and canon law; that he had not read the fathers, the coundid not differ from their average by a five-thousandth part cils, nor ecclesiastical history ; that he was but a poor gramof the whole, in the length of a degree of the meridian. marian in his native tongue, and the most ignorant person

The leisure which impediments occasionally gave enabled in the world as to the general principles of grammar; that Bouguer to apply himself to the determination of points his Doutes contained more faults in language, learning, and not immediately connected with the main object. Among judgment, than they filled pages; that he had never read other things, he ascertained the amount of refraction at the bible; that he was unversed in Italian, concerning considerable heights above the sea. He found reason to which he made great parade; was an unskilful etymologist, suspect the effect of the attraction of Chimboraço upon and an unsound logician. Notwithstanding this most the plumb-line, but not knowing the mean density of the cutting and ferocious declamation, it is said that Bouhours mountain, could not perform the task which Maskelyne cultivated and enjoyed the friendship of Ménage; and Colafterwards undertook. *[Attraction.] A part of the ob- bert certainly assigned to him the education of his son, the servations (on the obliquity of the ecliptic) were forwarded Marquis de Seignelai." His other chief works were Diaas soon as made to Halley, who published them in 1739 in logues sur la manière de bien penser dans les Ouvrages England : but an account of the whole was published in d' Esprit, 1687, in which the interlocutors Eudoxe and PhiParis, in 1740, under the title of. Figure de la terre,' &c. lanthe address each other in a strain of adulatory compliIn 1752 followed a justificatory tract on several disputed ments little suited to the investigation of truth. Voiture is points; in 1753 a treatise on navigation, abridged in octavo the hero of the piece, and Rapin is extolled as fully equal by Lacaille in 1769, and reprinted in 1781 and in 1792, to Virgil. This false criticism received a very severe handwith notes by Lalande. In 1754 Bouguer published an ling from Barbier d'Aucour, the writer of Les Sentimens de attack on La Condamine, relative to the part of the great Cléante, 2 vols., 1671-2, in La Harpe's opinion the only survey claimed by both. The latter replied with temper; polemical tract, excepting Les Provinciales of Pascal, which and as his tract was the more amusing of the two (an obser- ever was worthy of more than temporary reputation. In vation both of Condorcet and Biot), he carried the public 1683 Bouhours published a Life of Ignatius, and not long with him. It seems to be admitted on all sides, that Bou- afterwards one of Francis Xavier. The latter is chiefly guer had no ground of offence whatsoever, and that La remarkable as having been selected for translation by DryCondamine behaved towards him with great respect and den soon after his profession of the Romish faith. Xavier moderation.

was the saint, to whose prayers Ann of Austria believed Bouguer was afterwards employed to verify the degree that she was indebted for her son, Louis XIV., after twenty measured by Dominic Cassini between Paris and Amiens. years of barrenness; and Dryden, in his Preface to Mary of This he did in conjunction with Cassini de Thury, Camus, Esté, states that the queen of England in like manner has and Pingré. The results were published in 1757. He died chosen the apostle of the Indies as one of her celestial August 15, 1758, while preparing a new edition of his work patrons.' A judicious abridgment of the Life of Xavier, on the gradual extinction of light, which was afterwards excluding all that is incredible, profane, trivial, and absurd, completed and published by Lacaille in 1760. In this work but fully exhibiting the heroic self-devotion, the courage, he mentions an invention of his in 1748, which he calls the the patience, the acuteness, and the perfection of the indefaheliometer, and which is in fact the first double object glass tigable missionary, would be a work of deep interest, and micrometer, and was properly so called. That of Dollond, we think, of not a little utility. Bouhours published in which is the more easily used, and is esteemed the better 1697, a French translation of the Vulgate New Testament, instrument, was invented independently a few years after- in which he is confessed on all hands to have failed. Some wards, and consists in an object-glass divided into two minor devotional pieces may be added to the list of his halves. [MICROMETER.] Bouguer attacks the Royal So- writings. He died in the college at Clermont at Paris, ciety of London, which a second time had had recourse to May 27, 1702, in the 74th year of his age. the proceeding mentioned in the life of Auzout, and had BOUILLAUD, or BOULLIAU, latinized BULLIALpublished (but not till after Bouguer's discovery had been DUS (ISMAEL), born at Loudun, Sept. 28, 1605, died made known) the prior invention of an Englishman named Nov. 25, 1694, at Paris. He was originally a Protestant, Savery. He reminds them of the circumstance to which we but became a Roman Catholic, and retired into the Abbey have just referred, and, as Delambre remarks, having a of St. Victor, at Paris. He travelled in various parts of better case than against La Condamine, he is more mode- Europe in the service of John Casimir, king of Poland. rate in his language.

Nothing more of his life is remembered; but such of his As a scientific character, Bouguer must stand in the first works (which were many, see the Biogr. Univ. and Lalande rank of utility. The operations in Peru are among the first Bibliogr. Astron.) as by themselves or their consequences of their species, and the species one of the most difficult entitle him to a place here, are in the following list. Bouilkind of scientific investigations.

laud was a combination of a fanciful speculator and a hardBOUHOURS, DOMÍNIQUE, was born at Paris, 1628. working calculator, a good scholar, and well versed in the He studied at the college of Clermont, professed with the history of astronomy, His notion that light is a sort of subJesuits at sixteen years of age, and was appointed by that stance intermediate between mind and matter entitles him society to read lectures in the Belles Lettres and rhetoric, to the first appellation, and his Philolaic astronomy to the both at Tours and at Paris. A heavy infirmity soon dis- rest. qualified him from the task, and he was compelled by the The earlier followers of Copernicus were accustomed to recurrence of grievous headaches to embrace an occupation rank themselves, and to be considered by others, as followers apparently just as ill-adapted as that which he quitted to re of some one or other among the antients who advocated, or lieve his peculiar complaint. He entered upon the tuition were supposed to have advocated, the motion of the earth; of the sons of Henry, duc de Longueville. That nobleman, either Pythagoras, Aristarchus, or Philolaus. The first who regarded him with singular affection, died in his arms, work we shall notice of Bouillaud is his Philolaus, seu de and Bouhours published an account of his illness and last vero Systemute Mundi, 1639. After this he gave an edition moments, Paris, 1663. His second publication was Histoire of Theon of Smyrna, 1644, and in the following year his de Pierre d'Aubusson, Grand Maître de Rhodes, 8vo., 1667, Astronomia Philolaica (in his own catalogue of De Thou's which has been translated into English. He was then en- library he calls it Astrologia,) which contains: 1. Prolego gaged on a commission to the Roman Catholic refugees from mena on the history of astronomy, which are often cited, England to Dunkirk; and was introduced to the substantial and are the basis of several facts. 2. An exposition of a patronage of Colbert by two critical works, Remarques et system of astronomy, which is Copernican as to the annual

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