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St. Louis.

BOUNTY, MUTINY OF THE. [BLIGH.]

! and the title of pair was only bestowed on the children of BOUNTY, QUEEN ANNE'S. (Benefice.] the king, the princes of the blood, and seigneurs of the most

BOURBON, the name of a family that succeeded the noble fiefs. A younger son of this Louis, duke de Bourbon, line of Valois in 1589, and has reigned in France from 1589 named Jacques de Bourbon, bore the titles of Count de la to the present time, with some intermission during the Marche and de Ponthieu. The domain of Vendôme having republic and the empire of Napoleon Buonaparte. The fami- come, as that of Bourbon had done before to Robert, to the lies both of Valois and Bourbon, were branches of the stock second Count of la Marche by marriage, his second son of Capet. The Bourbons had branched off earlier than the assumed the name of Bourbon Vendôme, and from him deValois; the former being descended from a son of St. Louis, scended the royal house of France; the elder branch became the latter from a brother of Philip the Fair. The genealogy extinct on the death of the famous Constable de Bourbon. of the Bourbons, here given, is chiefly taken from the elabo- The preceding table will convey at once a more distinct idea rate work of M. Desormeaux, historiographer of the House of the course of descent, and will give a synoptical and at the of Bourbon, &c. &c. This work is de l'imprimerie royale, same time clear view of the branches of the Bourbon stock, and may be considered as an official document and the best which have more immediately given kings to France. It authority on the points within its province. The following has not been julged necessary to give all the counts and have also been consulted :- Histoire des Bourbons,' 4 vols. dukes de Vendome. A hiatus has therefore been left be12.no., à Paris, 1793, Memoires et Recueil de l'origine, tween Louis de Bourbon, the first count de Vendôme, and Alliances, et succession de la famille Royale de Bourbon, Antoine de Bourbon, duke de Vendôme, and king of NaBranche de la Maison de France, a la Rochelle,' 1597. varre, the father of Henry IV. of France. Cose's Memoirs of the Kings of Spain of the House of BOURBON, CHARLES DE, Constable of France, Bourbon.' The ancestor of the Bourbon branch of the commonly called the Constable de Bourbon, or the Conroyal family of France was Robert the sixth and youngest stable Bourbon, was born on the 17th of February, 1489. son of Louis IX, commonly called St. Louis, a title which He was of the Montpensier branch of the Bourbon family, few of the so-called Saints have better earned, if the vir- being the second son of Gilbert de Bourbon, count de Monttues of justice, temperance, and rigid probity confer a claim pensier, viceroy of the kingdom of Naples. By the death to that title.

of his brother at the age of eighteen, he became the eldest Robert was born in 1256. In 1270 his father set out on son of his branch, on which the principal territories of the his African expedition, where he perished before Tunis. Bourbons were entailed. He was educated at Moulins, the Philip the Hardy, successor of St. Louis, gave Robert in palace of the eldest branch of his family, the dukes de marriaye to Beatrice of Burgundy, a princess of the blood, Bourbon, situated in the centre of their large possessions. only daughter and heiress of John of Burgundy, baron of He was carefully trained in all the athletic exercises, which Cliarolois, and of Agnes, dame de Bourbon and de St. Just, were regarded as by far the most important part of the edudaughter of Archambault, sire de Bourbon. By this mar- cation of the nobility of his time. But while his physical riage Robert united to his appanage of the Comté de Cler- education was thus attended to, he did not altogether negmont, the province of the Bourbonnois, and the Charolois, lect his mental: and the manner in which he received the and the seigneury of St. Just. His descendants took the lessons which were given him in the science of war, as far name of Bourbon.

as it could then be called a science, gave indication of no inconsiderable capacity; while his general, behaviour in

dicated more thought than could be expected from his Robert, Count de Clermont.

years.

The last duke de Bourbon, Pierre II., died leaving a Louis I., Duke de Bourbon.

daughter, Suzanne de Bourbon, who had been betrothed to

the duke d'Alençon. It being considered impolitic to allow Jacques de Bourbon, Count de la Peter I., Duke de Bourbon, became ex so many domains to accumulate in the person of the duke Marche,

tinct in the Constable, or rather in d'Alençon, and there being also a doubt respecting Suzanne John, Count de la Marche, married

de Bourbon's title, Louis XII. appointed a commission, com: Catherine de Vendôme,

posed of princes, ministers, seigneurs, councillors of state, Jacques II., Count de la Marche.

and lawyers, to examine the respective titles of Suzanne de

Bourbon and the count de Montpensier. The commissioners 1

reported that the right of Montpensier appeared incontestLouis de Bourbon, Count de Vendôme, able, but they proposed to settle the dispute by marrying the Vendôme, and of the royal family of two claimants. Louis XII. approved of the recommendaFrance of the name of Bourbon. tion, and the marriage look place accordingly. It required

small persuasion to reconcile the dowager duchess de BourAntoine de Bourbon, Duke de Ven bon to this arrangement, for she was well aware, having dôme, by marrying Jeanne d'Albret, herself presided over his education, of the superiority of the

young count de Montpensier, in mental as well as bodily

accomplishments, in capacity of understanding, as well as Louis, first Prince de Condé, from

Henry IV.

beauty, strength, and address over not only most nobles, of Condé and Conti.

but most men of his time.

In the marriage articles it was stipulated, 1st, that there l'hilip, Duke of Orleans.

should be a cession of all their property in favour of the surI

vivor ; 2nd, that the children who should be born of the Regent Orleans. Dauphin (Mouseigneur), son of Louis XIV. marriage should inherit all the domains of the house of

Bourbon ; 3rd, that, on failure of children, the whole sucLouis I., Duke of Orleans. Dauphin, Duke Duke d'Anjoh, who, by cession should devolve on Francis, Monsieur de Bourbon,

of Burgundy. the will of Charles only brother of Montpensier; 4th, Montpensier assigned a

ceeded to the throne jointure of 10,000 livres a year to his wife on the Bourbon

of Spain, and from nois. The king renounced for himself and his successors Lovis Dauphin, son whom are descended the pretended rights which the treaty of marriage of the

the royal houses of

Spaiu and Naples. duke Pierre II. with Anne of France, daughter of Louis XI., Louis Philippe, ditto.

gave to the crown over all the property of the House of

Bourbon, if he should die without male children. Louis Phiippe Auguste

Having become the richest of all the princes of his house Egalité.

who have not worn the crown, the magnificence of the new Louis XVIII., brother of do. Louis l'hilippe, now King of

duke de Bourbon corresponded with his wealth. He never Charles X., do, do.

travelled without a brilliant body of horse-guards, and withIn the time of Robert's son, Louis, the Bourbonnois was out being surrounded by the chief noblesse of his domains, created into a duché pairie. The owner, therefore, as- and his principal officers, who composed a court little iufesumed the title of duke de Bourbon, retaining the arms of rior to that of a powerful monarch. France. Duché puirie at that time denoted very high power The first essay in arms of the duke was in the expedition and dignity. At the time of this creation there were in which Louis XII. made in person into Italy. In this expeFrance only the dukes of Burgundy, Aquitaine and Brittany, dition Bourbon devoted himself with much industry and

his wise.

whom are descended the branches

Louis XIII.

Louis XIV.

1

Louis XV.

of Louis XV., and
father of Louis XVI.

Louis XVI.

Louis XVII.,

son of Louis XVI.

the French

zeal to the study of strategics. He selected for his friends his mother, Louisa of Savoy, Duchesse d'Angoulême. This and masters La Tremoille, Bayard, and others, who were princess, who at forty retained striking remains of beauty, distinguished as military leaders. He conversed with them and who was not a woman of very nice morality, is said to on plans of campaigns, marches, encampments, on the de- have entertained a violent passion for Bourbon; and Bourtails of discipline and subsistence. From the generals he bon is said to have treated her advances with coldness and went to subordinate officers who had acquired reputation. even disdain. The rage of a woman thus slighted has beAt night, when he retired to his tent or his cabinet, he re come proverbial; and Louisa of Savoy was not one to belie duced to writing his observations and the result of his con- the proverb. The king espoused the quarrel of his mother, ferences. Such is the labour of those, if we may be allowed of the cause of which charity would suppose him ignorant. to transfer the sentence of Johnson, who fight for immor- The consequence was, one of the most signal examples of tality.

ingratitude and injustice upon record. Bourbon returned to France in 1509. In the war of the They began by refusing the payment of the sums which league of Cambray he had an opportunity of displaying his he had borrowed in order to save the Milanese, as well as talents for war.

of all his appointments as prince of the blood, constable and Upon the death of Gaston de Foix, in 1512, the army of chamberlain of France, and governor of Languedoc. This, Italy demanded with acclamations Bourbon for their leader. however, was light compared to what followed; and was But Louis XII. did not comply with its wishes. It is re- the less to be considered as a wanton insult from the cirported that he appeared to be somewhat afraid of Bourbon; cumstance that Francis, partly by his own profligate expenthat he was heard to say that he should have wished to see diture, partly by the cupidity of his mother, was always in in him more openness, more gaiety, and less taciturnity. want of money, notwithstanding the resources opened to Nothing is worse,' added he, • than the water which him by the chancellor Du Prat, in the sale of the offices of sleeps.'

the magistracy. A breach between Francis and Bourbon Upon the accession of Francis I. to the crown, Bourbon was more easily effected from the contrast between their was immediately (1515) appointed constable. It will afford characters, which was great. Francis was gay, open, galsome notion both of the character of the times and the mag- lant, superficial, fond of pleasure, and averse from business ; nificence of the duke de Bourbon, to mention that at the Bourbon was grave, reserved, thoughtful, profound, and king's coronation, when Bourbon represented the duke of laborious. Normandy, his suite consisted of two hundred noblemen. In April, 15:21, the constable's wife, Suzanne de Bourbon,

The constable devoted himself assiduously to the duties died. He had previously lost the three children he had of his new office, the highest in a military government like by her. what France then was. He introduced many important The breach between the court and the constable daily regulations respecting the discipline of the troops. He par- widened. In a northern campaign against Charles V., ticularly directed his attention to the protection of the citi- Francis gave the command of the vanguard, which, by a zens and peasants against the insolence and oppression of practice established in the French armies, belonged to the the soldiery. His regulations under this head exhibit con- constable, to the Duke d'Alençon. From that moment siderable administrative talent: and his unbending auste- Bourbon regarded himself as degraded from his dignity. rity in enforcing the rules he had laid down showed that he He was frequently heard to quote that answer of a courtier fully understood how much a severe discipline conduces to to Charles VII., who asked if anything was capable of victory. The salutary effects of this system were shown shaking his fidelity :- No, Sire, no, not the offer of three very soon in the victory of Marignano, which was mainly | kingdoms such as yours; but an affront is.' owing to Bourbon's skill and valour.

Fresh injuries and insults were heaped upon Bourbon. Our space will only permit the notice of as many of the The chancellor Du Prat, in the spirit of the vilest pettifogevents in which Bourbon was engaged as are necessary to ger, by examining the titles of the house of Bourbon, thought the understanding of the main incidents that determined he saw, that by perverting the use of some words, he might his character and shaped his destiny. And these even in be able to deprive the constable of his estates, and convey a work like the present, are of more importance than per- them to the Duchesse d'Angoulême, or to the king. He haps they may appear to superficial inquirers ; for the events explained to the duchess that she had a right to the greatest of Bourbon's later career might be said to have influenced part of the property of the house of Bourbon, as the nearest in no ineonsiderable degree the destinies of Europe, and relative of Suzanne de Bourbon, and that the rest reverted hence those of mankind.

to the crown. Madame admired the ability and zeal of the When Francis I. returned to France in 1516, he left the chancellor, and entered fully into his views. She now constable in Lombardy as bis lieutenant-general. While flattered herself that Bourbon would choose rather to secure here he proposed to the court the conquest of the kingdom his rights by marrying her, than be reduced to misery. of Naples. "But while he was making preparations for this But the haughty and austere Bourbon, when his friends expedition, an unexpected invasion of the Milanese by the pressed him to marry the princess, placing in the most Emperor Maximilian of Austria took place. Against this favourable light her power, wit, and riches, said that he irruption Bourbon's first proceeding was to repair the forti- was so sure of his right that he was ready to try it before fications of Milan, for which purpose he levied a body of 6000 any or all of the courts ; he declared, moreover, that honour pioneers, by means of a loan, which his high character was far dearer to him than property, and that he would enabled him to raise. Aware that Francis was not in a never incur the reproach of having degraded himself so far condition to grant him any aid, he applied to Albert de la as to share his bed with a profligate woman. The result of Pierre, a renowned captain of the canton of Zürich; and he such a trial, under such a government as that of France at obtained, by his own credit, permission to levy a body of that time, may be easily foreseen. The parliament decreed 12,000 Swiss. These, after considerable delay, having at that all the property in litigation should be sequestrated : length arrived and received three months' pay in advance, which was to reduce Bourbon to beggary. refused to go out and attack the emperor, who was encamped It will be unnecessary in a work like this, to follow Bourat the gates of the town, on the plea that they would not bon step by step in the disastrous route that conducted him slaughter their fellow-countrymen attached to the service of from being the first subject in France, to be an exile and the emperor. Bourbon disbanded them on the spot; and an outlaw. We have traced his career hitherto with some they coolly departed with his money in their pockets, with minuteness, as tending to throw light on the nature of the the exception of Albert de la Pierre and his company of European governments in the sixteenth century. If such 300 men. It happened fortunately however that the Swiss a thing had happened in France, two or perhaps even one in the emperor's army, to the number of 14,000, mutinied century earlier, to a man so powerful as Bourbon, at once for their pay, which was one month in arrear, and which the ty station and by talent and energy, the probable result emperor had reckoned on discharging at the expense of the would have been very different. The struggle would most inhabitants of Milan. This event and its immediate conse- likely have terminated in Charles of Bourbon filling the quences caused the dispersion of the formidable army of throne of France in the room of Francis of Valois. But Maximilian.

about or somewhat before this time had arisen that devotion When Bourbon appeared after these events at the French to royalty, which would seem to have been first introduced court, which was then at Lyons, he was received by Francis by the plebeian legists or lawyers; who were probably led with great distinction. But gradually the king was observed by self-interest to adopt such a measure, in order at once to coul. Historians have usually ascribed this alteration of to obtain favour with royalty, and render royalty more the king's behaviour towards Bourbon to the influence of able to advance and support them against the old noblesso

of the sword. As it was, another fate was reserved for incredulity which is sometimes observed in uneducated Bourbon.

persons with respect to any report injurious to those they Francis having obtained intelligence that Bourbon had love or respect, refused to believe the account of his death, entered into a secret correspondence with the Emperor and persisted in expecting to see him return one day covered Charles V., Bourbon was obliged to make his escape from with glory, and reconciled to the king. France, which he did with some difficulty. Some proposals The authorities the same as in the preceding article, with which were afterwards made to him by Francis were rejected the addition of the French historians and Guicciardini. by Bourbon, who had good reason to distrust his sincerity. BOURBON is situated in the Indian Ocean to the E. of Bourbon was now thrown upon Charles V., who, though Madagascar. The town of St. Denis at its N.W. exnot a little disappointed at receiving a banished man in- tremity is in 20° 51' 30" S. lat., and 55° 30' E. long. ; from stead of a powerful ally, as he had first expected, appointed this place the island extends in a S. E. direction for about him his lieutenant-general in Italy. He surrounded him 60 m. with a breadth of about 45 m. The whole surface however with colleagues and spies.

may be about 2400 sq. m., or about 400 sq. m. more than In 1525 the result of the famous battle of Pavia, where the area of Norfolk. Bourbon commanded a body of about 19,000 Germans, whom This island was discovered by the Portuguese navigator he had raised professedly for the emperor's service, chiefly Mascarenhas in 1542, and at that time was not inhabited. by means of his high military reputation, afforded him It received the name of Mascarenhas or Mascareigne. The ample vengeance for his wrongs, in the destruction of the French in 1642 sent some criminals from Madagascar to it, French army, and particularly in the capture of Francis, and settled a colony in 1649, when they gave it the name of and the death of Bonnivet, his chief personal enemy. Bourbon, which at the beginning of the French revolution

But Bourbon, although to his military talents and skill was changed into that of Réunion, and afterwards into the victory at Pavia had been mainly owing, found that he Bonaparte and Napoleon. In 1815, on the restoration of was still regarded with distrust by Charles, and with jealousy the Bourbons, the island resumed its old name of Bourbon. by his generals. The slights and mortifications, too, to Probably all the island owes its origin to volcanic agency. which his fighting against his king and his native country The greater part of its surface consists of lava, basalt and subjected him, rendered his position anything but an agree other volcanic productions, and on the remainder traces of able or easy one; and contributed, with the roving and un- such rocks are frequent. Towards the SE. extremity there settled life he had led since his exile, to produce in him is a volcano constantly in action, and naturalists who have something of the recklessness, and even ferocity of the had an opportunity of examining the high mountains brigands he commanded, and to give to his natural ambition toward the N. W. extremity believe that this part also has much of the genuine and legitimate character of large and been an active volcano at some remote date. wholesale robbery. It was in the complex state of mind, The island consists of two systems of volcanic mountains made up of some such elements as these, that he came to and rocks, and a kind of plain which divides them. The the resolution of acting independently of the emperor, and north-western mountains form the larger system and cover commencing business, as king, on his own account. For- about half the surface of the island. Nearly in their centre tune seemed to throw in his way one means of accomplishing rises a huge mass of lava with three inaccessible peaks, this object, in attaching to himself, by the allurement of called the Salazes, whose absolute elevation is estimated by an immense booty, the army which the emperor did not Bory de St. Vincent at nearly 1500 toises, or 9600 feet. The pay. He formed the daring resolution of leading that army country surrounding this mass exhibits large tracts of lava to Rome, and giving up to it the riches of that famous city; or basaltic rocks of the most various description, and between and he immediately proceeded to put it in execution. them some basins or vales. The basaltic prisms are fre

This expedition has been considered one of the boldest quently disposed in regular columns, but these as well recorded in history. Bourbon was obliged to abandon his as the lava rocks are frequently split by deep narrow cominunication with the Milanese, to march for more than crevices. The soil which covers only a small portion of this a hundred leagues through an enemy's country, to cross region is evidently the product of decomposed lava, and for rivers, to pass the Apennines, and to keep in check three the most part is still incapable of supporting any vegetation. armies. Add to this, what rendered the enterprise import. It is of a red colour and resembles clay indurated by fire. ant as distinguishing it from others of a similar nature At some places however it is softer, and has been planted undertaken by large robbers, the moral danger and diffi- with coffee-trees; and in others, forests of timber-trees are culty of attacking the very centre of the power of catholi- growing. The rivers are only torrents, which descend from cism, as it were laying bare the mysteries of its sanc a great elevation.

Sometimes they are nearly dry; at tuary, and, to a certain extent, destroying the powerful spell others they carry great volumes of water, which they pour by which it had so long bound up the faculties of mankind. down the steep. declivities with incredible impetuosity. We do not think that the praise of any high exercise of moral Their course is through extremely narrow gorges, and in courage is due on this score to Bourbon, for it does not ap- deep beds. None of them can be used in irrigating the pear that he was guided by a consideration of the conse- adjacent country. The shores of the island are rocky, but quences hinted at above, but chiefly, if not solely, by the not generally very high, except along the S. W. coast necessity of the circumstances in which he was placed. between St. Paul and St. Petre. In a few places a narrow

On the evening of the 5th of May, 1527, Bourbon arrived beach separates the rocks from the sea; it is composed before Rome. On the following morning, at day-break, he of pieces of basalt and broken lava, which have undergone commenced the assault, being himself the first who mounted trituration in the sea, and afterwards been thrown ashore, the wall, and also, according to the French liistorian, the intermixed with some calcareous pebbles and shells. At first who fell, by a shot fired, it is said, by a priest. Ben- the N.W. point of this region lies St. Denis, the capital of venuto Cellini says, that it was he who shot Bourbon ; and the island, with a pop. of 7000 or 8000. It has no harbour, Guicciardini does not clear up the point. It is however of and only an open and dangerous roadstead. A pier secured small consequence, two facts being certain, that he fell in by iron chains has been constructed for the purpose of the beginning of the assault, and that his army took the enabling loats to land ; at the end of it is a ladder by city, in which they committed all, and more than all, the which persons who wish to go ashore may ascend; in all usual excesses of a sack.

other parts of the island they must jump into the water, Charles V. made it one of the conditions of peace with Besides the roadstead of St. Denis, ihere is another at St. Francis that the possessions of the constable should be Paul, which is perhaps better, but no other place round the restored to his family, and his memory re-established. island offers an anchoring ground for v'essels. Francis eluded, as much as he was able, the fulfilment of The plains which separate this volcanic region from that this condition. But the wreck of the constable's fortune in the S.E. district of the island, occupy perhaps one-third of was sufficient to render his nephew, Louis de Bourbon, the island. The two principal plains which extend across Prince de la Roche-sur-Yon, and afterwards Duke de the island, the plains of the Caffres and of the Palmists, Montpensier, one of the richest princes of the blood, although are divided by a rampart of volcanic rocks, and are at it did not form, perhaps, a third part of the revenues of the a considerable elevation above the level of the sea. From Duke de Bourbon.

the S. shores the country rises gradually for some miles, Bourbon is reputed to have been one of the handsomest and then extends in a kind of uneven plain, called that of men of his age; and he is said to have been an exemplary the Caffres. · Its surface is a succession of small plains, husband, and free from the gross licentiousness of the times. rising abore one another and intersected by hillocks. At He was much beloved by his vassals, who with that resolute the S. extremity this plain is 3600 st. above the sea, but

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Productions.

where it joins the plain of Cilaos, towards the S. E. volcanic | vessels there arrived 107, their crews amounting to 1514, region, its elevation may be nearly 5000 ft. Its soil is en- and their tonnage to 11,707. In 1825 Bourbon was visited tirely composed of triturated lava and other volcanic matter : by 153 French vessels, of which the crews amounted to a great part of it is without any kind of vegetation; in some 2414 men, and the tonnage to 31,833. The foreign vessels, places there are shrubs, but no trees. To the N. of it ex- 93 in number, had on board 1056 men, and their tonnage tends the plain of the Palmists, which rises to about 3000 ft. amounted to 9944. It is a perfect level, in the form of a circus, enclosed on all The articles of exportation are coffee, sugar, cocoa, cloves, sides, except towards the shores on the N., by a nearly and nutmegs, and a considerable quantity of timber, with perpendicular wall of mountains from 1500 to 2000 ft. some articles imported from France. The following list elevation, which are partly covered with high trees and rich shows the amount of the exportations in 1825, and to what vegetation: on the plain itself many trees are found, among countries they went: which the species of palms abounds, from which it derives its name. The descent to the shore is somewhat longer

Foreign commodities.

France than on the S. declivity of the island. The traveller ascends

8,629,755 fr.

289,992 fr. from the plain of the Caffres to the S.E. volcanic region by

India
674,848

386,90+

Mauritius two other extremely sterile plains, those of Cilaos and of the

137,754

635,984 Sands (aux Sables).

Madagascar 60,028

863,724 This volcanic region at the S.E. extremity, which pro

9,502,585 bably does not occupy more than one-seventh of the island,

2,176,605 is called the burned land (pays brûlé), from its soil being The island of Bourbon is the only settlement which the entirely composed of recent lava. There are few places in French now possess between Africa and India. (Bory de St. which signs of vegetation are seen. Nearly in its centre is Vincent, Voyage dans les Quutre Isles de la Mer Afrique; the present crater of the volcano, which nearly every year and Thomas, Essai de Statistique de l'Isle de Bourbon.) changes its place over an extent of 5 to 6 sq. m. This pre BOURBON, the name of several places in France; of sent centre of volcanic agency is only from 8 to 9 m. from the which only three are of sufficient importance to merit indi. S.W. extremity of the island, and the high mountains near vidual notice-viz., Bourbon Vendée, Bourbon L'Archamit are estimated to have an absolute elevation of about 7000 bault, and Bourbon Lancy. ft. The eruptions of this volcano succeed one another at Bourbon Vendée, the capital of the dep. of Vendée, stands short intervals.

on the little river Yon, a branch of the Lay. It is 227 m. A soil so arid as that of Bourbon could not maintain a

in a straight line S. W. from Paris, or 253 m. by the road vigorous vegetation if it were not continually supplied with through Orléans, Tours, Saumur, Chollet, and Montagne. sufficient moisture by the regular succession of land and It is in 46° 41' N. lat., and 1° 29' W. long. sea-breezes. The first, blowing from the high mountains The importance of this place is quite of modern origin, of the interior, are always cool, frequently cold; and in and, notwithstanding its name, is due to the favour shown the gorges they blow with great force. The wind is some to it by Napoleon. It was known in the middle ages by the times felt from five to eight miles from the shore. It name of Roche-sur-Yon, and was a small country town ceases at about 10 o'clock in the morning, and is succeeded (bourg) of little importance, except for a strong fortress by the sea-breeze, which brings with it fogs. These fogs which was delivered up to the English in 1369 by the are afterwards dissipated by the rays of the sun, and driven treachery of the governor, Jean Blondeau. This man having again to the sea. This circulation of the vapours produces afterwards fallen into the power of the duke of Anjou, was a great humidity, and rains are consequently frequent, by his orders put into a sack and drowned. Roche-sur-Yon especially during the S.E. winds, from July to October. was a principality belonging to the house of BourbonDuring the N.E. winds, from January to April, the rains Conti. are still more frequent, and often continual for many days, 'The town had sunk into obscurity and decay, when Bonaand very heavy. But in despite of this humidity of the air, parte thought proper to rebuild and constitute it the chief the climate is pleasant and healthy. During the winter, place of the dep. of La Vendée, appointing it for the seat from April to August, the highest peaks, are covered with of the prefecture. He gave it his own name, Napoleon ; snow. Hurricanes occur twice or thrice a-year.

made it a military station ; had a barrack, a guildhall, an The interior of the island is not inhabited, and perhaps exchange, and a handsome hotel erected, and streets and not habitable, on account of the sterility of its soil. The squares planned; so that there are all the requisites for a cultivated ground in no place extends more than 5 or 6 m. principal town, save houses and inhabitants. He wished to from the sea. Within these limits are cultivated maize, induce the people of La Vendée to live in towns, where they corn, a little rice, mandioca, sweet potatoes, ignames and would be less under the influence of their chiefs, and mcro haricots; and for exportation, a little sugar and cocoa, and orderly subjects : but it is not easy to break through naa great quantity of coffee, which is of excellent quality. tional habits; the Vendéans preferred remaining in their There are some plantations of cloves and nutmeg-trees, but half-burnt villages to settling in his new town, which, no the produce is neither abundant nor of good quality. The navigable river being near, offered them no facilities for most common fruits are guavas, bananas, citrons, tamarinds, trade, nor any other advantages to allure them from their lemons and oranges. In many parts of the interior, espe- rural haunts, their rural employments, and their rural cially at the feet of the higher mountains, are extensive sports.' (Journal of a Tour in France in 1816 and 1817, forests of timber-trees, which furnish a considerable article by Frances Jane Carey.) of exportation.

• When Louis XVIII, was called to the throne, the namo In 1825 there were, of domestic animals, 3718 horses, of the town was changed to Bourbon Vendie, and when 1803 mules, 505 asses, 4303 black cattle, and 2881 sheep. Bonaparte returned from Elba, to Napoleon again ; and it is In the woods are wild goats and wild hogs; and land- now Bourbon Vendée once more. (ibid.) turtles occur in the western districts. There are spiders as Napoleon devoted the sum of 3,000,000 francs, or about large as a pigeon's egg, and their web is so strong that 125,0001., to the construction of the edifices needful to mainmany have supposed it could be used like silk. Bats are tain its rank of a departmental capital. The vast plan numerous, and eaten as a great delicacy. On the shores traced by him remains howerer yet incomplete from want are found ambergris, coral, and many beautiful shells. of funds, and the large straight' streets are almost upin

The inhabitants are composed of a few families of pure habited. A canal, called by Malte Brun the Canal de la European blood, and a greater number of such as have Brét, but the course of which is not mentioned, has been inixed with the African races. There is a considerable projected, and may serve when completed to improve the number of free negroes, and a still greater number of slaves. ill-chosen site, and draw some commerce to the town: what In 1822 the population amounted to 17,037 whites, 5159 trade is carried on at present is in corn, cattle, and raper, free negroes, and 45,375 slaves. The number of the latter There is a handsome church in the Place Royale; and is rapidly decreasing.

small as the town is, it has a library, a liigh school, and a The island has a commercial intercourse with France, society of agriculture, sciences, and arts. There are alsu and with the ports along the E. shores of Africa, with baths. The pop. by the last return, previous to that of 1832, Madagascar, and with Mauritius. It is entirely carried on was 3129 (we believe this return was of 1826); and by the in French and foreign vessels. In 1824 the number of return of 1832 it was 3904, of whom 3494 were in the town French vessels visiting Bourbon amounted to 117, and their iiself. crews to 2018 men; their tonnage was 28,168. Of foreign í The arrond. of Bourbon Vendée comprehends 630 sq. in.

31

CALATINIUS ROMANUS IN GALLIA

or 403,200 acres, and is subdivided into 8 cantons and 73 | bitumen. They are used in nervous and rheumatic affeccommunes. The pop. in 1832 was 115,988.

tions. It is remarkable that although the great bath, which Bourbon L'Archambault, or L'Archambaud, is in the dep. is a Roman work, has continued to the present day, the of Allier, and near the little river Barge, a feeder of the springs fell into neglect and oblivion. In 1580 they were Ours, which falls into the Allier. It is about 160 or 162 m. again brought into notice, and the baths re-established by S. by E. of Paris in a straight line, or 197 m. by the road Henry III. The war of the league interrupted the imto Fontainebleau, Montargis, Nevers, and Moulins. It is provements going on, which were however resumed and in 46° 36' N. lat., and 3' 1' E. long.

continued by Henry IV. and Louis XIV. Many remains This town appears to have been known for its mineral of antiquity, statues, medals, and the relics of antient buildwaters to the Romans, who called them by the name of ings, have been from time to time dug up in and about the Aquæ Borinonis. It was a place of some importance in the place. The pop. is given by Malte Brun at 2500 in round eighth century; for in the wars which Pepin le Bref, father numbers. Visitors come hither in spring and autumn, and of Charlemagne, carried on against the duke of Aquitaine, seldom stay above a month. (Dictionnaire Universel de la Bourbon is mentioned as one of the places taken by him. France ; Malte Brun ; Expilly, &c.) It is thought to have obtained its name from the mud BOURBONNE-LES-BAINS, a town in France, in the (bourbe) contained in its waters, or perhaps from a deity dep. of Haute Marne. It is in the S.E. part of the dep. called Borvo (BOURBONNE LES BAINS). About the tenth and at the confluence of the small rivers, the Borne and century Charles le Simple granted Bourbon, with the sur-Apance, which latter riv. is a tributary of the Saône, 165 rounding district, to a favourite of his named Aymard ; and m. in Brué's map of France, or 170 in that published by the his descendants, the sires or lords of Bourbon, liaving in Soc. for the Diffus. of Useful Know., in a direct line S.Ě, by most cases borne the name of Archambaud, that name was E. from Paris; or 179 m. by the road through Provins, attached to the town itself (Dictionnaire Universel de la Troyes and Chaumont-en-Bassigny: in 47° 57' N. lat. and France). Others make the origin of the lordship of Bourbon 5° 46' E. long. to have been a century later. By marriage this lordship D'Anville considers that this town was known to the came to a younger branch of the royal family of France, Romans, and that it is marked in the Theodosian Table by and was in 1329 erected into a duchy by Philip VI. (de a square building, similar to those which in that table are Valois), or according to others, in 1327, by Charles IV. (le used to indicate mineral waters; though no name is extant Bel). From the first duke, Louis, grandson of Louis IX. as applied to this place. A Roman inscription has been (St. Louis) of France, descended a line of nobles, of whom found here which D’Anville says was sacred, Borvoni et the male descendants failed in the early part of the sixteenth Monce Deo; and from this he has given to the place the century, and the duchy came by the marriage of the heiress name of Aquæ Borvonis. (Notice de l' Ancienne Gaule.) to the count of Montpensier, who assumed the title of duke The inscription is however given by Expilly at full length, of Bourbon. [BOURBON.]

as follows:The town of Bourbon is in a beautiful and rich valley or hollow, between four hills, a few miles from the left bank of

BORBONÍ THERMARUM DEO MAMMONE the Allier; but the air is considered far from wholesome, owing to the neighbourhood of a marshy pool, and the situa

PRO SALUTE tion of the town in a hollow, surrounded by steep hills. On

COCILIÆ UXORIS EJUS EX VOTO EREXIT. one of the hills is the ruin of an ancient castle of the sires From this mention of Borbo or Borbon, as the presiding or dukes of Bourbon : the ruin consists of three towers in deity of the baths, it is likely we may deduce the etymology pretty good preservation. The church, which appears to have of the name Bourbon more correctly than is commonly done. been the chapel of the dukes of Bourbon, and an appendage (BOURBON L'Archambault.] to the castle, is remarkable for its beautiful stained glass In the beginning of the seventh century, a castle was windows. The town depends mainly on its mineral waters, built here to which an antient writer gives the name of which attract a number of invalids, who resort hither to Vervona ; but it does not appear that any historical infind relief from rheumatic or paralytic attacks. The waters terest attaches to Bourbonne. In 1717 the town was burnt are contained in three wells, and have a temperature of 58° almost entirely, and the antient castle shared the same to 60° of Réaumur, or 162° to 167° of Fahrenheit. The fate. season lasts from the middle of May to the end of Sep The town stands on a declivity, and presents little that is tember. The celebrated Madame de Montespan, mistress pleasing in its aspect. It would not claim notice except for of Louis XIV. died here in disgrace, if not in exile. The its waters and its military hospital. The temperature of pop. is given in round numbers by Malte Brun and Balbi the springs varies from 30° to 48° of Réaumur; or about at 3000.

100° to 140° of Fahrenheit, (Malte Brun); or to 62o of RéauThe river Barge, near which the town stands, seems to mur, or 172o. of Fahrenheit. (Encyclopédie Méthod.) expand into a marshy pool. It abounds in fish.'

Although too hot for one to bear the finger in them, they Bourbon Lancy is in the dep. of Saône et Loire, a short are drunk.without scalding the mouth. (Malte Brun.) There distance from the right bank of the Loire, about 166 to 168 appear to be three baths, or rather three establishments of m. in a straight line S.S.E. of Paris, or 218 m. by the road two baths each, called Le Bain du Seigneur, from having through Sens, Auxerre, and Autun. It is in 46° 37' N. formerly belonged to the lords of the soil; Les Bains des lat., and 3° 46' E. long.

Pauvres; and Le Bain Patrice. (Ex pilly, and Dict. UniBourbon Lancy, like the town above mentioned, was verselle de la France.) The waters are said to be good for known to the Romans for its mineral waters. It appears in gout, rheumatism, scurvy, gravel, venereal complaints, the Theodosian table uniler the name of Aquæ Nisineü. It palsy, and nervous affections; also for gun-shot wounds. is supposed to have derived its distinguishing epithet of They are taken by drinking and bathing; and the very Lancy, or as the geographers of seventy years since wrote mud or sediment is said to be serviceable used as a poulit, L'Anci or L'Aney, from one of the feudal lords of the tice. The season includes June, July, August, and Sepplace, who was named Ancellus or Anceau, otherwise tember. Anceaume or Ancelme.

The military hospital contains more than 500 beds. The The baths, which give to this town its chief claim to pop. of the town is given in round numbers by Malte Brun notice, are in the suburb of St. Leger. There are several at 3500; and by M. Balbi at 4000. There are some pleasprings; seven according to some authors (Expilly ; Dic- sant promenades. (Malte Brun; Expilly; Reichard's De-. tionnaire Universelle ; Encyclopédie Méthodique), nine scriptive Road-book of France) according to the more modern statement of M. Robert (Dic BOURBONNOIS, a district of Central France, one of tionnaire Geographique, Paris, 1813); of which nine, one is the thirty-two provinces or military governments into which, very cold, the rest warm, the temperature being about 50° before the revolution, that kingilom was divided. It was of Réaumur, or 145° of Fahrenheit. The great bath is bounded on the N. by Berri and the Nivernois ; on the E. thought to be a Roman work; it is circular, 60 French or 64 by Bourgogne or Burgundy; on the S.E. by the Lyonnais ; English feet, or according to Reichard only 42 feet in dia and on the S. by Auvergne; on the S.W. by La Marche; meter, paved with marble, and eapable of containing 500 and on the W. by Berri. Its form was very irregular: the persons. Near this is a large square bath, built for the greatest length from W.N.W. to E.S.E. was 92 m., and the poor. The waters are described as being limpid, tasteless, greatest breadth was 56. The greater part of it is included and without smell (so that they may be used in making in the dep. of Allier. bread), yet they are said to contain sea-salt, sulphur, and I The province was separated from Bourgogne partly by

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