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with the Seine. The district of Bresse is bounded on the

Totals S. by the Rhône, and watered by the Ain which falls into Lemur en Auxois, on the Armançon 3,985 4,088 the Rhône. These three basins are separated from each Semur en Briennois, near the Loire other by a range of hills which, entering Bourgogne from Seurre, on the Saône

3,571 3,591 the s., from the district of Beaujolais, run nearly due N. Viteaux, on the Brenne, a feeder of the to the neighbourhood of Château-Chinow, separating the basins of the Rhône and the Loire, and at Château-Chinow for an account of the above-mentioned places

, we refer divides into two parts, one of which running N.W. separates the reader to their respective articles, for the larger towns : the basin of the Seine from that of the Loire; while the the others, so far as they call for notice, will be found in other, which includes the Côte d'Or, runs N.E. towards the account of the departments of Côte d'Or, and SAÔNE Langres and the Chain of the Vosges, and separates the and LOIRE. basin of the Seine from that of the Saône, or more properly The history of Bourgogne presents perhaps more points the Rhône. Two important canals cross the country ; one, of interest than that of any other district in France. Le Canal du Centre or du Charollais, unites the Loire at History of Bourgogne-Celtic periodThe Ædui.Digoin near Charolles with the Saône at Châlons sur When Cæsar invaded Gaul, Bourgogne, for the most Saône; the other, Le Canal de Bourgogne, unites the part, was the territory of the Ædui, whose capital Bibracte, Saône at St. Jean de Losne with the Yonne, between afterwards Augustodunum, was the modern Autun. PorAuxerre and Joigny, following very nearly the course of tions however were occupied by other tribes; as Bresse and the rivers Ouche and Armançon.

Bugey by the Ambarri (dependents of the Adui), and by a Watered by so many rivers, possessing a fine climate and part of the Allobroges, and of the Sequani, which last fertile soil, Bourgogne may be regarded as one of the dis- people also occupied those portions of Challonnois and Le tricts of France most favoured by nature. Grain of all Dijonnois, which were on the left or S.E. bank of the Arar kinds is plentiful, vast numbers of sheep are fed in the or Saône. The Lingones possessed parts of Dijonnois, pasturages, and the forests yield timber for the builder and including Dijon itself, and of L'Auxois, and Le Pays de la the shipwright, and fuel. Hemp, fruit, fish, and game, are Montagne ; while the Senones possessed L'Auxerrois, and plentiful : but the principal article of produce is wine, which the Mandubii

, a small tribe, part of the Auxois, and the is among the very best in France. The following wines Aulerci Brannovices part of dependents of the Ædui, the may be mentioned as of the finest quality : the red wines Brienneis, which is part of the duchy of Bourgogne. of Auxerre, La Romanée-Conti, Chambertin, Richebourg, Of these people, who were all of the great Celtic race, Clous-Vougeot, La Romanée-Saint-Vivant, La Tache, St. the Ædui were the most important. They had been, long George, Corton, Les Torins, and Chenas; and the white before Cæsar's arrival, the head of one of those factions, wines of Puligni (growth of Montrachet), Pouilley and into which, with a remarkable propensity to party division, Fuissey. The wines of the district are known by the general the Celtæ were separated. Their principal rivals were the name of Vin de Bourgogne (Burgundy wine). For further Arverni and the Sequani (who inhabited, respectively, information as to the natural features, productions, trade, Auvergne and La Franche Comté), but they maintained &c. of Bourgogne, see Aix, AUBE, Côte d'Or, Saône and the predominance so long as the contest lay between them LOIRE, and YONNE, among which department this ex- and the other people of the Celtic race. Their power seems tensive and valuable territory has been shared. (Malte to have been confirmed by their alliance with the Romans, Brun, Dict. Univ. de la France.)

who had gradually

subdued that part of Gallia which lay to the Bourgogne, in the extent we have been considering it, S. and E. of the Rhône and the Mons Cebenna (Cevennes was formerly divided into the prov. of Bourgogne properly Mountains). Shortly, however, before Cæsar's arrival, the so called, and the three dependent districts of Bresse, Arverni and the Sequani, despairing to make head successBugey (including Valromey), and Gex. The prov. of fully against the supremacy of the Ædui, determined to Bourgogne was again subdivided into the Duchy so called, call in the Germani to their aid; and a large body of these, (comprehending Le Dijonnois, L'Autunois, Le Châlonnois, crossing the Rhenus (Rhine), utterly defeated the Ædui (or districts of Dijon, Autun, and Châlons,) L'Auxois, and and their dependents in two battles, in which the vanLe Pays de la Montagne,) and the dependent counties of quished lost all their senate, all their nobility and all their Le Charollois, Le Mâconnois, L'Auxerrois, and Bar sur- cavalry. The Adui were compelled to give up as hostages Seine; which counties took their names from the towns of the chief men of the state, and to swear that they would Charollois, Mâcon, Auxerre, and Bar. (Garreau, Descrip- neither seek aid of the Romans nor refuse perpetual subtion de Gouvernement de Bourgogne.)

mission to the victorious Sequani. (Cæsar de B. G., i. 31, The principal towns of this important government, of vi. 11, 12.) While in this depressed condition, the Helvetii which Dijon was the capital, with the river on or near which (Swiss), the most warlike of the Celtic nations, with their they stand, and their pop. in 1832, so far as we can ascertain allies, abandoning in a body their native country, set out for it, we give for convenience sake in a tabular form. Where the shores of the Atlantic (the country of the Santoni, Saintwo numbers are given for the pop., the first is that of the tonge), where they determined to settle. Their road lay town itself (population agglomerée), the second that of the through the country of the Ædui, which they ravaged, withwhole commune.

out encountering any effectual opposition. The only hope

Pop. . Totals of this wretched nation was now placed in their Roman Arnay-le Duc, near the Arroux

2,416 2,563 allies : and they sent ambassadors to Cæsar, who had just enAvalon, on the Voisin, a branch of the Cure 5,089 5,569 tered upon the government of the Roman provinces of Gallia Autun, on the Arroux

8,610 9,921 Citerior, and Ulterior Illyricum (which comprehends the Auxerre, on the Yonne

10,989 11,439 N. of Italy and the S. of France), pleading that they had Auxonne, on the Saône

3,477 5,287 always so conducted themselves towards the Romans that Bar sur Seine, on the Seine

2,269 9,272 their lands ought not to have been wasted, their children Beaune, on the Bouzoire, a branch of the

led into slavery, and their towns stormed almost under the Dheune

9,908 eyes of the Roman army.' (Cæs. de B. G. i. 11.) Their Bourbon Lancy, near the Loire, about

2,500 request was complied with: Cæsar marched against the Bourg, on the Reys-souse, a feeder of the

Helvetii, cut off their rear guard while on the point of Saône

7,826 8,996 crossing the Arar, and in a second engagement entirely Belley, near the Furaud, a feeder of the Rhône 3,550 4,286 defeated them with great slaughter, and compelled them to Châlons sur Saône, on the Saône

12,220 return home. He then, by the desire of the Ædui and Charolles, on the Reconce

2,781 2,984 other Celtic people, led his victorious army against the Châtillon sur Seine, on the Seine

3,689 4,175 Germans and defeated them, their king Ariovistus escaping Dijon, on the Ouche

25,352 25,552 + across the Rhine, with a very few survivors of his numerous Gex, near the Valserine, à feeder of the

army. Rhône

1,750 2,834 During the greater part of Cæsar's command in Gaul, Jean, (St.) de Losne, on the Saône

1,744 the Ædui appear to have adhered steadily to the interests Mâcon, on the Saône

10,998 of the Romans; but in the general revolt which took place Nuits, on the Meuzin, which unites with

in the seventh year of his government, they were induced the Bouzoire and flows into the Dheune

to join their countrymen in the struggle for national indeSaulien, near the head of the Creusevaux,

pendence. A body of their troops under Eporedorix and a branch of the Arroux

3,050 | Verdumarus (who had been sent by Cesar when he

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knew of the revolt of their countrymen) took possession sole successor of the race of Clovis, reunited under his own of Noviodunum (Nevers), where Cæsar had deposited the sway the portions of the kingdom of the Burgundians which hostages of the Galli, as well as the corn, money, and bag- at the conquest had been allotted to the victorious princes; gave for his army; and having carried away the hostages, and in 561 Goutran, his son, who succeeded to the kingdom divided the spoil and burnt the town. Cæsar forth with of Orleans, and to a portion of the territory of the Burguncrossed the Liger (Loire) by a ford and marched E. towards dians (but much of what these people had subdued was the country of the Sequani, while the Galli held a general attached to the kingdom of Austrasia), took the title of king council at Bibracte (Autun) to determine to whom the chief of Bourgogne, and fixed his usual residence at Châlons sur command should be intrusted. The Ædui had required Skone. It is needless to trace the history of this kingdom that it should be given to them, but the confederates pre- in the confused period which followed; sometimes it was ferred the tried courage and skill of Vercingetorix, the united with its sister kingdoms, Neustria, Austrasia, and Arvernian ; and the Ædui, though mortified, were obliged to Soissons, or with one or two of them; at others it was sepasubmit. The war now assumed a very serious character, rate and single, It followed the fortune of war or of inand the affairs of the Romans were in a most critical situa- heritance, and its boundaries varied also according to cirtion. The Ædui and their allies were however defeated in cumstances. From the year 613 or 614 it was constantly an engagement of the cavalry, with the loss of Eporedorix and united with one or more of the other kingdoms of the Franks. some other men of note who were taken prisoners ; and the To the weakness and incapacity of the Merovingian princes main body of the confederates retired, closely pursued by succeeded in 745 the more vigorous government of Pepin le the Romans, to Alesia (Alise, or rather a mountain near Bref (the Short). Upon the division of the territories of Alise, a little town of the Auxois in Bourgogne), under the Pepin between his sons Carloman and Charles or Charlewalls of which, in a very strong position, the Galli en- magne, the kingdom of Bourgogne fell to the former, but camped. Vercingetorix, dismissing his cavalry to their upon his death became part of the widely-extended empire respective states, with directions to gather all their forces of Charlemagne. In the partition of this empire, after a and come to his relief, remained with eighty thousand bloody war, among the children of Louis le Debonnaire, chosen men to sustain the siege which Cæsar had already son and successor of Charlemagne, A.D. 843, the kingdom begun, and endeavoured by economy and wise management of Bourgogne was divided; the part W. of the Saône fell to make his scanty store of provisions last till the return of to the lot of Charles le Chauve (the Bald), the part E. of his countrymen.

the Saône to the Emperor Lothaire. Cæsar, aware of the inadequate number of his forces to

Supposed Third Kingdom of Bourgogne.-In the division guard lines of circumvallation of the extent required to hem of the territories of the Emperor Lothaire between his three in the enemy's army, if constructed in the usual manner, sons, some authors have asserted that one of the kingdoms took unusual pains in strengthening his lines. The besieged resulting

from the division was called the kingdom of Bourwere reduced to great distress for want of provisions; but gogne. This kingdom comprehended what has since been their spirit was unbroken, and they determined in a general known as the governments of Dauphiné and Provence, council, if no relief came, to kill those whom age rendered which had been included in the kingdom established by the unfit for war, and to feed upon their carcases rather than to Burgundians in this part of Europe, and had been also surrender. At last the unexpected succours came, to the partially included in the second kingdom of Bourgogne number of two hundred and forty thousand infantry, under the Merovingian Goutran. But Plancher in his and eight thousand horse. Repeated attacks were made Histoire de Bourgogne asserts that this kingdom bore the upon the Roman entrenchments both from within and name, not of Bourgogne, but of Provence; and although it without, but in vain: the relieving force was defeated with was within the limits of the antient kingdom of Bourgogne, dreadful slaughter and dispersed, and the besieged were it does not appear to have included more than a very small left to their fate.

part, if any, either of the province of Bourgogne as described In this extremity the gallant Vercingetorix summoned a at the beginning of this article, or of the county of Bourcouncil of his countrymen, declared that he had undertaken gogne or Franche Comté. Those portions of the province the war, not from any peculiar interest of his own, but for of Bourgogne which were in the dominions of the Emperor the general liberty of the country; and that as they must Lothaire (Bresse, Buges, &c.), were included in the kingnow yield to their destiny, he was willing to be the sacrifice dom of Austrasia, which came to Lothaire, second son of to the general good, whether they chose to satisfy the the emperor, and which took from him the name of LothaRomans by putting him to death, or to deliver him up alive ringia, whence the more modern name of Lorraine. This to the enemy. They chose the latter course: and Vercin- portion of Bourgogne underwent various changes in followgetorix was put into the hands of Cæsar. The Ædui sub- ing years. That part of Bourgogne which was compremitted and obtained better terms, so far as can be judged, hended in the dominions of Charles le Chauve passed by than they had reason to expect: their persons were restored; succession to his son Louis le Begue (the Stammerer), and and when they had passed, with the rest of their country in the partition of the states of this prince it fell to the lot men, nder the dominion of Rome, they seem to have still l of Carloman. It continued ever after, when the dominions been treated with peculiar distinction. The capture of of Carloman and his brother Louis II. were united into the Alesia took place in b.c. 51.

kingdom of France, to be a portion of that kingdom. Bourgogne under the Romans.-Upon the division of Gallia Supposed later Kingdoms of Bourgogne - Bourgogne into four provinces by Augustus Cæsar, the districts after- Cisjurane, Bourgogne Transjurane, Arles. It has been wards comprehended in Bourgogne formed part of Gallia | already noticed ihat in the partition of the states of the Lugdunensis ; and upon the subdivision by the Emperor Emperor Lothaire, A. D. 855, one of the kingdoms, that of Probus, were mostly included in Lugdunensis Prima. Some Provence, formed by the partition and alloited to Charles, portions were howevercomprehended in Lugdunensis Quarta, the youngest son of Lothaire, has been incorrectly styled and Maxima Sequanorum, which last division had been, ac- by some the kingdom of Bourgogne. This kingdom was of cording to the arrangement of Augustus, included in Gallia short duration, ending with the life of its first and only Belgica, though the inhabitants of it were of Celtic race, king, A.D. 863. In 879 another kingdom of Provence, to

First Kingdom of Bourgogne.-Early in the fifth cen- which some authors give the title of Bourgogne Cisjurane, tury the Burgundians, a branch of the Vandals, one of the was formed by Boson, a powerful French noble. It comprepeople occupying the antient Germany (under which name hended Provence, Dauphiné, and afterwards part of the was comprehended the country from the Rhine to the Lyonnois and Viennois. Borysthenes), who had gradually approached the Roman During the troubles that succeeded the death of Charles frontier, crossed the Rhine into Gallia, and established then- | le Gros (the Fat), king of France and emperor of Germany, selves there. This was probably about a.d. 407; and in a under whom the empire of Charlemagne had been reunited. few years they so far spread their conquests tỉat they gave a kingdom was formed by the successful ambition of name to the first kingdom of Bourgogne of Burgundy, com- Rodolph, one of the nobles of that country (comprehending prehending the whole S. E. of France, and extending be- the various countries cast of the Saône included in the yond the Rhône, and even the Loire. This kingdom was former kingdom of the Burgundians), to which the vague conquered (A,D. 534) by the Frankish princes, descendants and extensively applied name of Bourgogne Superieure, or and successors of Clovis, viz., Childebert, king of Paris, and Upper Burgundy, was given. This kingdom was called Clotaire, king of Soissons, and perhaps Theodebert, king of Bourgogne Transjurane, and comprehended Switzerland Austrasia. [BURGUNDIANS.]

and some smaller districts. Rodolph, its first king, was Second Kingdom of Bourgogne.-In 555 Clotaire, the elected in 888.

About A.D. 930 these kingdoms were united in the person the son of Hugues Capet, is said to have bequeathed the of Rodolph II. king of Bourgogne Transjurane. He was Duchy of Bourgogne to his younger son Robert, Henri the competitor with Hugues, king of Provence, for the dominion elder son becoming king of France. After a dispute and of northern Italy; and Hugues, to secure the peaceable war between the brothers, the testamentary disposition of possession of this, ceded to Rodolph, with certain reserva- the late king was confirmed, and Robert became Duke de tions, his own original kingdom of Provence. The two Bourgogne and founder of the first royal race by which kingdoms thus united were called the kingdom of Gaule that dignity was held. Eudes, one of his descendants, died Cisalpine and Bourgogne Jurane, and, in after ages, the on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land A. D. 1102, soon after kingdom of Arles. This kingdom may be considered as the time of the first crusade. Another of his descendants, terminating in the year 1032, when it came into the hands, Hugues III., visited the Holy Land as a crusader in 1171, of Conrad, the Salic emperor of Germany. After this time and again he accompanied Philippe Auguste, king of France, the kingdom of Arles was divided into provinces which in the crusade which he undertook in 1190.91, in conjuncformed part of the Germanic empire, or owed feudal sub- tion with Richard I. of England. Upon the return of jection to it. Some writers consider that Boson and his Philippe to France, after the capture of Acre, the duke of successors in the second kingdom of Provence bore the title Bourgogne was placed at the head of the French crusaders of kings of Arles before the union of the kingdoms of Pro- who remained in the Holy Land, and by his fear or jealousy vence and Bourgogne Transjurane.

prevented the advance of the Christian army when within County of Bourgogne or Franche Comté.--Although the sight of the city of Jerusalem. He withdrew with his history of this district belongs rather to Franche Comté, yet crusaders to Tyre, where he died in 1192. Another of this it formed no part of the kingdoms of Bourgogne Transjurane race, the Duke Eudes III., engaged in the war against the and Arles. It was part of the kingdom of Austrasia, given Albigenses, or, as Plancher expresses it,' he took the cross A.D. 835 by the Emperor Lothaire to his son of the same in 1209 and joined the other lords, who, for the love of truth name as already noticed. It was divided for a time upon and zeal for the Catholic religion, took arms to beat and the death of Lothaire the younger, and being reunited after- destroy the Albigenses, heretics so much the more dangerwards formed part of the kingdom of Germany. Upon the ous, as they affected to follow an apostolic, penitent, and death of Louis III. king of Germany (A.D. 912), it came by altogether disinterested life.' The same Eudes was present succession to Charles le Simple, king of France; under at the great battle of Bouvines in Flanders, A. D. 1214. whom the county of Bourgogne, consisting at first of the The Duchy of Bourgogne, considerably augmented by difcity of Besançon, and some surrounding districts, was erected ferent acquisitions, came by inheritance to Jean II., king of A.D. 915 in favour of Hugues, the first count.

France, in the year 1361, upon the death of Philip of Duchy of Bourgogne-Earlier Dukes - The Duchy de Rouvre, last duke of the first race of the blood royal of Bourgogne consisted of a considerable part of the territory France. It was during the sway of this first race of dukes which has been described at the commencement of this that several of the towns of Bourgogne acquired municipal article, with some adjacent territories which were long ago rights and constitutions; and their deputies took their seats disjoined from it, as the city of Langres in Champagne, in the assemblies of the states of Bourgogne, of which they and the city of Nevers, with its surrounding district of the constituted the third component body, le tiers état. Nivernois. Some add also the city of Lyon; but the dukes Second race of Dukes of Bourgogne of the blood royal of Bourgogne seem never to have exercised any authority in of Frunce. These princes played a much more important virtue of their title over that city, which therefore cannot be part than the preceding. regarded as part of their domain.

Philippe le Hardi, fourth son of Jean II., king of France, It appears then that the name Bourgogne as given to a received from his father (Sept. 1363) the Duchy of Bourcountry has had very different applications. We have gogne, to be held by him and his lawful heirs; and the 1. The original kingdom, comprehending not only the dis- grant was confirmed in 1364 by Charles V., son and suctrict which is the particular subject of this article, but also cessor of Jean II., and brother of Philippe. The duke was the whole S. E. of France and Savoy. 2. After the extinc- distinguished by courage ; he was present when only fifteen tion of this kingdom, the name of Bourgogne appears to at the battle of Poitiers, where he was taken prisoner, and have been given to the districts composing it, though there he held command in the armies of his brother in the wars was no jurisdiction exercised over it under that title except which he carried on against the English. He married in the case of the second and later kingdoms, to which, Marguerite, daughter and heiress of the count of Flanders, whether correctly or not, its name is given. Of these later and upon the death of his father-in-law came into possession kingdoms, that formed by Goutran in the 6th century ap- of the Comtés de Flanders, Artois, Bourgogne (Franche pears to have been the only one which was nearly coexten-Comté), Rethel, and Nevers : by prudence and mildness sive with the original kingdom. Those of later date com he calmed the troubles which had agitated Flanders. Upon prehended only certain portions of that kingilom to the E. the death of Charles V. he was one of the guardians of ihe and S. of the Rhône and Saône. 3. The county or the new king, Charles VI., who came to the throne a minor, and Franche Compté. 4. The Duchy, nearly coincident with afterwards had the government of the kingdom when that that part of the province or military government of later prince became a lunatic. times which lies N. W. of the Saône, and which, be it ob In the year 1396 he sustained a severe blow in the capserved, was from the time of Charles le Chauve part of the tivity of his son, Jean, count of Nevers, who conducted a kingdom of France. 5. The province including the Duchy, troop of the choicest of the young nobility of France to the the districts of Bresse, Bugey, &c.

succour of Sigismond king of Hungary against Bajazet or The earliest dukes or governors of Bourgogne under the Bayazid, sultan of the Turks. In this troop, more eminent Frankish princes were revocable at the pleasure of the for high birth than for numbers, were the Count d' Eu, consorereign; but in process of time their dignity and autho- stable of France, Jean de Vienne, admiral of France (who rity became hereditary, and from Richard le Justicier had formerly defended Calais against Edward III. of Eng(brother of Boson king of Provence, already mentioned), land), Le Maréchal de Boucicaut. Confident in their couwho held the title of duke in the latter part of the 9th cen rage, they rashly engaged near Nicopolis on the S. bank of tury, the dignity descended by inheritance to Henri (brother the Danube with the vastly superior forces of Bajazet, and of Hugues Capet king of France), in the middle and latter were either killed or taken prisoners. The defeat of this part of the 10th century. But although the practice of in- presumptuous band involved that of the whole Christian heritance thus grew up, it was not yet recognised as legal; it army, of which they formed the advanced guard. The aged was rather a concession made by the weakness of the kings and heroic De Vienne perished in the field; the duke of to the fast-increasing power of the great mobles. Hugues Nevers, the constable, De Boucicant, and a few others of Capet, however, there is good reason to suppose, granted the highest rank were ransomel ; the greater part of the the Duchy as an liereditary and proprietary dignity to his prisoners were massacred in cold blood by Bajazet's order. brother Henri. On the death of Henri, Bourgogne came Philippe le Hardi died in 1404, aged sixty-three. into the hands of Otta-Guillaume, his step-son, and from Jean, duke of Nevers, who had obtained the name of him again it passed (A.D. 1015), either by force or concession, | Suns-peur from his undaunted demeanour when before to Robert, king of France, son of Hugues Capet. Robert Bajazet, came to the dukedom of Bourgogne on the death granted the Duchy to his son Henri, who succeeded him on of his father, being then thirty-three years of age.

Не ihe throne of France as Henry I., and thus reunited the succeeded also to the rivalry which had existed between his ducal coronet with the crown.

father and Louis, duke of Orleans, brother of the imbecile First ruce of Dukes of the blood royal of France. --Robert, Charles VI. These princes had disputed the government,

and the duke of Bourgogne had obtained the superiority. I with the dauphin, in an interview with whom, at the bridge But on his demise the duke of Orleans had held sway of Montereau-sur-Seine, he was assassinated 10th Sept. until, by an unexpected march upon Paris, A.D. 1405, Jean 1419. His body, after remaining all night naked and exSans-peur

obtained possession of the king's person and of posed on the ground, was carried in a pauper's bier to the the capital, which was devoted to his interest. A reconcilia- church of Notre Dame, in Montereau, from whence it was tion was effected, and the princes carried themselves with removed, in the course of the following year, on the capevery appearance of cordiality to each other. But these ap- ture of Montereau by the Bourguignons and the English, pearances were deceitful:

the duke of Orleans was assassi- to Dijon, and buried in the church of the Carthusians nated in the streets of Paris, and after dissembling for a there. few days, the duke of Bourgogne confessed that he was the Philippe, surnamed le Bon, the son of Jean Sans-peur, author of the foul deed,' at the instigation,' as he said, 'of succeeded to the duchy, being then twenty-three years of the Devil. Various causes have been assigned for this age. The general cry for vengeance against the assassins atrocity: political rivalry, revenge for an insult offered to of the late duke, co-operating with the solicitations of Isahis honour as a husband, the desire of anticipating a similar belle de Bavière, queen of France, as well as with his own attempt which the duke of Orleans was devising, are va- feelings, prompted Philippe to offer his alliance to Henry V. riously assigned. At first the duke of Bourgogne appeared of England. Henry was too skilful a politician to refuse to feel shame, if not remorse, for this murder, and retired to the offer, and a treaty was concluded between the two his own dominions; but growing bolder, he justified the princes, the object of which was the ruin of the dauphin. act, charged the late duke of Orleans with disloyalty, and The duke in consequence assembled troops, reduced all the returning with an armed force to Paris, procured, under the towns that lay in his way, joined the English forces, reking's hand and seal, a pardon ‘for what had lately hap- duced Montereau, and entered Paris by the side of Henry V. pened to the duke of Orleans.' The kingdom now became Some time afterwards Philippe attacked St. Riquier on the divided into two factions, the Bourguignons or Burgundians, Somme, then one of the strongest places in Picardy, and and the Armagnacs.

took prisoner with his own hand Xaintrailles, or Saintrailles, A war with the Liègeois called away Jean Sans-peur a celebrated French captain, who attempted to relieve it. from Paris, and enabled the opposite faction to obtain a On the deaths of Henry V. of England and Charles VI, short-lived supremacy. The people of Liège, irritated by of France in 1422, the regency of France during the mithe neglect of their bishop elect, brother-in-law of the duke, nority of Henry VI., son of Henry V. (to whom, hy virtue had elected another bishop. The disputed crosier was con. of the treaty of Troyes, the succession of the French crown tested, not in an ecclesiastical court, but in the battle-field. fell), was offered to the duke of Bourgogne; but he declined Jean Sans-peur gained a great victory on behalf of his it in favour of John duke of Bedford, uncle of the young brother-in-law, who acquired by his cruelty after the victory king. The marriage of Bedford with the sister of Philippe the odious and un-episcopal surname of . Sans pitié.' Jean rendered their union closer; but that union had nearly been now returned to Paris; his opponents retired before him, broken up by a dispute and a war between Jean duke of and abandoned the city, but removed the king. A treaty Brabant, cousin to Philippe, and Humphrey duke of Glouwas however negotiated, and a forced reconciliation between cester, a younger brother of Bedford. Jacqueline, heiress Jean and the children of the murdered prince took place at of Brabant, Holland, Zeeland, and Friesland, had married Chartres in 1409. Jean retained his supremacy, and his Jean, and brought to him the rich inheritance just mentriumph seemed to be completed by an alliance which he tioned; but mutual wrongs produced a separation, and a formed with the Queen Isabella of Bavaria,

divorce had been obtained on the plea of consanguinity. The opposite party however gathered strength; and The duke of Gloucester married the divorced Jacqueline, though hostilities were not absolutely declared, armed bands, and by virtue of this marriage claimed her inheritance, and gathered by each faction, used great license in the country. embarked a considerable force to take possession of it. The A temporary accommodation, concluded at the palace of the duke of Bourgogne took up the cause of the Duke Jean of Bicêtre (originally Winchester, or in French, Vinchestre), Brabant, gained several advantages over the English, and A.D. 1410, was only a prelude to more serious disturbances. took Jacqueline (who had been abandoned by Humphrey) Open hostilities took place, and the duke of Bourgogne prisoner. She escaped; but afterwards, Duke Jean being allied himself with the king of England, Henry IV., who dead, and Duke Humphrey having divorced her, she put was however detached from his interest, and won over to her domains under the administration of the duke of Bourthat of the princes. Another accommodation, negotiated at gogne, to whom, upon her death in 1436, the whole deBourges (A.D. 1412), restored some appearance of tran- scended in full possession. Philippe acquired by bequest quillity to France. Jean still seems to have retained pre- in the same year the county of Namur, and thus became dominance, at least in the capital, which was the residence one of the most powerful princes of Western Europe. of the king and the dauphin, and where his partisans, com Various circumstances had tended meanwhile to cool his posed of the vilest of the rabble; committed great disorders. attachment to the interests of England; and he had more H ilities breaking out again, he was afterwards compelled than once negotiated openly or secretly with Charles VII. ; to leave Paris, where his opponents established themselves. nay, in 1429 he negotiated a truce for his own provinces. Not content with this, they pursued the duke, who had He did not however then entirely abandon the English, to assembled his troops and returned to the neighbourhood of whom his alliance was now more than ever necessary, their Paris, but had retired on finding it was defended. Another own power having much declined; and he even accepted peace, that of Arras, put an end to these disturbances for a the office of lieutenant-general of the kingdom, under time (A.D. 1414): Jean was excluded from the capital, and Henry VI., the duke of Bedford resigning his general authough still powerful, was no longer predominant.

thority as regent, and reserving only the government of In 1415 Henry V. of England invaded France, and in the Normandy. It was about this time that the duke of Bourgreat battle of Agincourt the flower of the Armagnac party gogne instituted the order of the Golden Fleece, on occasion fell. Jean upon this marched toward Paris, but with strange of his marriage at Bruges in January, 1430, with Isabelle of irresolution stopped short at Lagny, and being ordered by Portugal. the Constable, the Count d'Armagnac, to retire, did so. In the same year, 1430, the duke took the field on the The tyranny of the constable however soon caused the side of the English, and captured several towns in Picardy. Parisians to embrace again the Bourgognon interest: they On the capture of Compiègne, the Maid of Orleans fell into opened the gates in the night to the captains of that party, the hands of his followers: her subsequent fate is well upon whose entry the rabble again signalized their ferocity known. About this time the Duke Philippe engaged as an' by the massacre of the Constable d'Armagnac and others. auxiliary in the contests about the succession of Lorraine ; Jean entered Paris some time afterwards, and was compelled and his troops took Réné nf Anjou one of the claimants prito witness further massacres by the mob in his interest, soner. The death of the duchess of Bedford, sister of Phiwhom he could not restrain. His life and power were how- lippe, in 1432, weakened the ties which bound him to England, ever approaching their close. Jean, with his ally the queen, and the negotiations of Arras and the death of the duke of having the king in his power, was at enmity with the Bedford in 1435 dissolved it. Peace was concluded between dauphin, who had become chief of the Armagnacs. He Charles VII. and Philippe; the former disavowing the tried to negotiate with the king of England, who, amidst murder of the Duke Jean Sans-peur, and promising to the disputes of faction, was extending his conqnests in punish the murderers, and ceding to the latter several disFrance, and had just taken Rouen (A.D. 1419). Failing tricts adjacent to his present domains. Some authorities however in this negotiation, he attempted a reconciliation state that the death of the duke of Bedford did not precede

this treaty, but that it was occasioned by grief at the hearing than any other lordships which were upon the earth. He of it.

was declared by the general council of Bâle, A. D. 1433, Upon the peace of Arras the duke of Bourgogne assisted First Duke of Christendom.' by his troops in the recovery of Paris from the English ; Charles le Téméraire, or the Rash, last duke of Bourand in 1436 or 1437 he attacked Calais, which he attempted gogne of his race, had distinguished himself by valour, restunsuccessfully to wrest from his late allies. Following years lessness, and ferocity of character during his father's lifewere occupied by troubles in the Netherlands, where the time. As count of Charollois he had engaged in a league contest between the rich burghers of the great manufac- of the great nobles of France against Louis XI. in 1464. turing towns and their feudal lords was continually re At the head of this league were Charollois, the duke of newed. Philippe was wounded at Bruges, and had great | Berri, the king's brother and heir to the throne; the dukes difficulty in quelling the disturbances.

of Bretagne, Alençon, and Bourbon; the bastard of Orleans, The year 1440 was distinguished by the closing of the Dunois, who had acquired great reputation in the war breach between the houses of Orléans and Bourgogne. against the English ; and the counts of Foix and ArPhilippe, moved it is supposed by the activity of character magnac. They were, it is likely, prompted by apprehenwhich had been unexpectedly developed by Charles VII., sions of the advance of the kingly power, which was fust and desiring to strengthen hiinself against it, procured the verging to an absolute monarchy, and threatened the exrelease of the duke of Orléans, son of that duke who was tinction of the power of the great nobles; but they gave to killed in Paris by Jean Sans Peur, and gave him his niece their alliance the imposing title of the Ligue du bien public, Mary of Cloves in marriage.

*League of the public weal.' In this contest Charollois sigAfter a campaign against the people of Luxembourg, nalized his valour rather than lis military, skill in the indewho had disregarded the authority of their countess, who cisive battle of Montlhery, a few miles S. of Paris. · Louis, was aunt of Philippe, the duke was involved in fresh besieged in Paris, and alarmed by unfavourable intelligence troubles in the Low Countries. The people of Ghent re- from the provinces, hastened to agree to the demands of the volted, decapitated some of the duke's officers, and marched confederates ; and in the treaty of Conflans made large against Oudenarde. Successive defeats humbled the high concessions, which he hoped to revoke at a future opporspirit of these burghers, and negotiations were commenced ; tunity. During the negotiations he fearlessly trusted him. but the people of Ghent violated the treaty, and the war self into the encampment of Charollois; and Charollois in assumed the character of a war of extermination. At length, return ventured unconsciously within the Boulevards of in 1451, Philippe defeated the rebels in a great battle; more Paris. He returned however unharmed, to the great satis, than 20.000 of the vanquished fell by the sword or were faction of his followers, who had not forgotten the murder drowned in the Scheldt ; but the clemency of the victor was of Jean Sans Peur at the bridge of Montereau. He also displayed in granting easier terms than could be expected. manifested his character in the troubles in the Low CounThe Ghentois were severely mulcted and deprived of a part tries which disturbed the close of his father's life; he of their privileges ; but we do not read that any blood was crushed the obstinate resistance of Dinant on the Maas, shed.

and gave up the population to massacre or slavery, and the The capture of Constantinople, in 1454, caused a great town to the flames with the most ruthless ferocity. sensation in Europe ; and Philippe among others was much In 1467 Charles le Téméraire succeeded to the duchy of alarıned at the advance of the Ottoman power. At a great Bourgogne; and the following year (1468) was marked by entertainment at Lille, he took a solemn oath that if the an event, which has, through Sir Walter Scott's interesting king of France would maintain peace in his dominions, he romance of Quentin Durward,' become familiar to the would go against the great Turk and engage with him English reader, namely, the visit of Louis XI. to Peronne. either in personal or general conflict. The poverty of Phi- By his artifices and negotiations Louis had separated the lippe, the consequence of his magnificence and profusion, confederates who had formed the Ligue du Bien Public, prevented the fulfilment of this vow.

and had recovered much of what he had been forced to In the troubles which disturbed the latter part of the concede to them: but his most formidable enemy remained reign of Charles VII., the dauphin Louis, afterwards Louis unimpaired in strength and resources, and Louis deterXI., took refuge in the dominions of the duke of Bourgogne, mined upon attempting to cajole him by negotiation. With who assigned to the fugitive a handsome maintenance. The a show of complete confidence in Charles's honour, he old age of Philippe himself was imbittered by a similar cause visited him at Peronne, a town of Picardie, on the Somme, to that which darkened the close of Charles's reign-a dis. then in the duke's hands; while by his agents he was agreement with his son the count of Charollois. This young secretly prompting the people of Liége to rise against their prince, whose character afterwards obtained for him the epi- bishop, who was under the protection of Charles By an thet of le téméraire, or 'the rash,' had many disputes with unlucky concurrence the rising of the Liégeois took place his father, and occasioned him much vexation. A differ- while Louis was yet in Charles's power; and when the ence with his former protegé the dauphin, who had suc- intelligence of the rising, with many exaggerations, reached ceeded Charles VII., and was now king under the title of Peronne, Charles was moved to almost unbounded fury. Louis XI., occasioned by an attempt on the part of Louis It was reported that the bishop of Liége, and the duke's to extend the gabelle into the dominions of Philippe, and representative, the Sieur d'Himbercourt, had been mursome fresh troubles in the Low Countries, further imbit- dered; and Sir Walter Scott has represented the murder tered the duke's declining years. Philippe died at Bruges of the bishop as taking place now, whereas it did not occur in 1467, having governed the ducal possessions, which he until the year 1482, after the death of the duke. Charles had considerably augmented, for nearly forty-eight years. immediately put sentinels over Louis, and after taking He appears to have possessed at the time of his death the a few days to moderate his rage, he compelled his priduchy and county of Bourgogne (the modern Bourgogne soner to swear to a treaty, and to accompany him in an and Franche Comté); the duchies of Brabant, Limbourg, expedition to punish the revolted Liégeois. The town, and Luxembourg ; the counties of Hainault, Holland, Zee- though unprepared for resistance, was obstinately defended land, and Namur; the marquisate of Antwerp, and the by the burghers, who in a gally had nearly captured both lordships of Friesland and Malines: in a word, nearly all the Charles and Louis ; but after a few days it was entered by countries now comprehended in the kingdoms of Holland storm; the inhabitants, few of whom were killed in the and Belgium. He appears to have been a prince of many assault, (which took place on the Sunday, while they placed shining qualities, the encourager of learning and of the arts. an undue reliance on the sanctity of the day,) were driven He patronised Jean Van Eyck of Bruges, the discoverer or away; and most of them met a lingering death from hunger, inventor of oil-painting, and caused his pictures to be copied cold, or fatigue, or from the peasantry of the neighbouring in tapestry; the only manufactures of which then in exist countries. The town was burned with the exception of the ence were in his dominions. The library of Bruxelles and religious edifices and the houses requisite for lodging the the university of Dole seem to have owed their origin to ecclesiastics who served them. Soon after this, Louis was him. Erasmus regarded Philippe as worthy of comparison permitted to return to Paris. with the greatest men of antiquity ; and Philippe de Co The following years of Charles's reign were occupied by mines says, “His subjects had great riches on account of the intrigues and counter-intrigues of himself and 'Louis, the long peace which they had enjoyed, and owing to the by a brief and fruitless attack upon France by Edward IV. excellence of the prince urder whom they lived, one who of England, who had allied himself with Charles and clipped (tailloit) his subjects little ; and it seems to me with the Constable St. Pol, brother-in-law of Louis. But that these lands might better be termed lands of promise | Louis managed to buy off the English; and St. Pol, who

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