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1722. Pound died in 1724, and in the next year Bradley | Mechanical Philosophy, where we should certainly not began the observations which led to his great discovery. have gone to look for it, nor, we imagine, would Pro

The circumstances connected with the discovery of fessor Rigaud : namely, in the chapter on Seumanship, vol. ABERRATION are already described. The scene of the iv. p. 629. His story is as follows :—The celebrated astrofirst observations was at the house of Mr. Molyneux at nomer Dr. Bradley, taking the amusement of sailing in a Kew, which afterwards became the palace of that name, pinnace on the river Thames, observed this, " the phenolately pulled down, a memorial inscription of the discovery menon above described," and was surprised at it, imagining having been placed there by William IV. The associated that the change of wind was owing to the approaching to or observations of Bradley and Molyneux detected the mo- retiring from the shore. The boatmen told him that it tion of y Draconis, and other stars, and established approxi- always happened at sea, and explained it to him in the mately the law of the motion of the first. That the motion best manner they were able. The explanation struck him, in declination depended in some way or other on the lati- and set him a musing on an astronomical phenomenon tude of the star was evident, and in this state the matter which he had been puzzled by for some years. This acstood, when Bradley in 1727 erected a zenith sector for him- count differs some material points from that of Dr. self at Wanstead. The original entry of the first night's ob- Thomson, and is not given by Dr. Robison in terms which servation at Kew, which confirmed the fact of an unex- imply that he considered himself as the authority. Perhaps plained motion in y Draconis (Dec. 21, 1725), is preserved in further evidence may be obtainable. Bradley's own hand-writing. The following, written on a Upon this discovery, several observations must be made, torn bit of paper, is the earliest of the observed phenomena relative to its importance in astronomy. It is the first which led to ihe greatest discovery of a man who has, more positively direct and unanswerable proof of the earth's than any other, contributed to render a single observation motion. In the next place, the explanation given was not of a star correct enough for the purposes of astronomy : purely an hypothetical one, or one which would allow of Dec 21st Tuesday 5h 40' sider. time

any velocity being attributed to light which would best Adjusted ye mark to ye Plumb Line

answer to observed phenomena, but required that the velocity & then ye Index stood at 8

already measured by Römer's observations of the retarda5° 48' 22'' ye star entred

tion of the eclipses of Jupiter's satellites should be the 49 52. Star at ye Cross

sufficient reason for the annual oscillations of the fixed stars. 51 24 Star went out

A very simple geometrical analysis of the problem shows could

that when the angle of aberration is greatest, its sine must At soon as I let go ye course

be the quotient of the earth's velocity divided by the velocity screw I perceived ye Star too

of light. Taking the first at 19 miles per second, depending much to ye right hand &

upon the correctness of the measurement of the earth's orbit so it continued till it passed

and of the length of the year, and the second at 200.000 yo Cross thread and within a quarter

miles per second, which depends upon a third and distinct

phenomenon, namely, the observations of the time of eclip-es of a minute after it had passed

of Jupiter's satellites at different periods of the year, we find graduat

à priori, that the sine of the greatest angle of aberration, if I turned yo fine screw till I saw

aberration there be, must be .00009, which is the sine of 19 y light of y' star perfectly

seconds nearly, and has been made in round numbers. The bissected, and after y obser

greatest aberration from the mean place observed by Bradley vation I found yo index

was 20 seconds and two-tenths, in which the most correct at 114. so that by this

modern observations, in masses of thousands at a time, have observation ye

not shown an error of more than three-tenths of a second. mark is about 3't

This is one of the reasons why we have said that, in the too much south.

union of theoretical sagacity with practical excellence, but adjusting

Bradley stands unrivalled. Newton, Laplace, &c. were not yo mark and plumbline

observers. Flamsteed, Cassini, &c. were not great theorists. I found y* Index at 81

Halley, who of all the men of Bradley's time, united the Bradley began his observations at Wanstead with a better largest knowledge of both, was so far from being the equal instrument than that at Kew., and capable of taking in a of Bradley in minuteness of observation, that he constantly larger range of the heavens. He soon confirmed the general declared his suspicion of the impossibility of detecting a fact which he had observed, and it only remained to assign part of a second. 'Kepler was skilful in the detection of the the cause. There is traditional evidence to the following laws which phenomena follow, but not in that of physical anecdote, first given by Dr. Thomson in his History of the causes. In our opinion, Hipparchus is (difference of cirRoyal Society, and adopted by Professor Rigaud :-*When cumstances considered) the prototype of Bradley. The time he despaired of being able to account for the phenomena of the discovery of the cause of aberration was probably which he had observed, a satisfactory explanation of it about September, 1728 (Correct ASTRONOMY, vol. ii. p. occurred to him all at once when he was not in search of it. 535, where it might be inferred that both the phenomenon He accompanied a pleasure party in a sail upon the river and the cause were discovered in the same year), and was Thames. The boat in which they were was provided with communicated immediately to the Royal Society (Phil. a mast which had a vane upon the top of it. It blew a Trans. No. 406, vol. xxxv, p. 637). In 1728 Bradley moderate wind, and the party sailed up and down the river began lectures at Oxford, and in 1732 removed his resifor a considerable time. Dr. Bradley remarked, that every dence to that University. We pass over the various labours time the boat put about, the vane at the top of the boat's by which he sustained the character of the best astronomer mast shifted a little, as if there had been a slight change in in Europe,' given to him by Newton, and proceed to the the direction of the wind. He observed this three or four year 1742, when he was appointed astronomer royal. This times without speaking ; at last he mentioned it to the was almost the last act of Sir Robert Walpole 's adminissailors, and expressed his surprise that the wind should shift tration, who, as Professor Rigaud has well observed, so regularly every time they put about. The sailors told appears to have determined that one of the first points he him that the wind had not shifted, but that the apparent would secure before his retirement was the nomination in change was owing to the change in the direction of the boat, question : he declared his intention of resigning in the and assured him that the same thing invariably happened House of Commons on the 2nd of February, and Bradley's in all cases.' By tracing this phenomenon to its cause, appointment was dated the 3rd. From this time to 1747 he namely, the combined motion of the boat and the wind, he was engaged (among other things) in the career of observawas enabled to give the solution of the star's motion, tion which led to his second great discovery of nutanamely, a small change of place arising from the spectator tion, communicated in that year (Phil. Trans. No. 485, giving to the ray of light the effects of his own motion, as vol. xlv. p. 1). The phenomenon in its most simple state explained in the article ABERRATION.

may be thus represented : the earth's axis, instead of deSince we wrote the above, we have found what leaves us scribing a cone, describes a fluted cone; or, the pole of the at liberty to say that Dr. Robison is the authority for the equator, instead of moving uniformly round the pole of the preceding account, who was old enough to have possibly ecliptic in a small circle, describes a wavy or undulating heard it from one of Bradley's contemporaries. He (Dr. curve with a milled edge, if we may so speak, with about Robison) has given the anecdote himself in a part of his / 1400 undulations in a complete revolution. The merit of

Bradley consists, firstly, in his determination of so small a private proporty, and that the daughter of the latter requantity, since the greatest effect of nutation is only half ceived compensation for relinquishing her right to her that of aberration, and distributed through 19 years instead father's papers ; 2. That a salaried office of only 1001. a of one ; secondly, in his discovery of the circumstance on year, with the duty of improving as much as possible the which it depends, namely, the position of the moon's orbit planetary tables, and the method of finding the longitude, with respeci to the equator. This orbit shifts the position by no means implied an obligation to consider the actual obof iis noies gradually, making them complete a revolution servations made as the property of the government: and in about 184 years. This was also found to be the period 3. That the Royal Society having first made and abandoned in which the pole of the equator describes one of the waves a claim, the government instituted its suit in 1767, and above mentioned, and subsequent investigation has confirmed abandoned it in 1776, before the observations were presented, the dependence of the greater part of the nutation on the not to Lord North personally, but in trust for the University motion of the moon's node, by showing the former to be a of which he was chancellor. Dr. Maskelyne wrote under consequence of the non-sphericity of the earth, and of the feelings of pique at being refused the sheets of the obmoon's attraction on the protuberant parts. [Nutation.] servations as fast as they were printed ; this, though it

There is a third investigation of Bradley which stands would have been, under ordinary circumstances, a churlish out from the rest, and displays considerable mathematical proceeding, might perhaps have been advisable in regard to 'sagacity: we refer to his empirical formula for the law of the officer of a government that had pretended a claim to the refraction. He was assisted in the necessary computations property of the work, which, though dormant at the time, by Maskelyne, who first appeared before the world as the the University could not know to have been formally abanpupil of Bradley. In this very delicate research, the latter doned. And it has been suggested to us, that there is no had again gone beyond his contemporaries in the evalu- method of abandoning a suit in the Exchequer, as a pracation of minute quantities. His table is even yet very tical relinquishment of proceedings is no bar in that court to good for the first forty-five degrees of zenith distance; their revival at any future time. The observations in quesand his determination of the latitude of Greenwich (an in- tion were published at Oxford in two volumes ; the first in vestigation depending for its accuracy upon that of the 1798, under the superintendence of Dr. Hornsby; the second tables of refraction) does not differ more than half a second in 1805, under that of Dr. Abraham Robertson. They go from that deduced by Mr. Pond from 720 observations with from 1750 to 1762, and are about 60,000 in number. both the mural circles.

But these observations might have remained a useless In 1751 the alteration of the style took place, and Bradley mass, except for occasional reference, to this day, had it not appears to have had some share in drawing up the necessary been for the energy of a distinguished German astronomer, tables, as well as in aiding Lord Macclesfield, his early Frederick William Bessel, who at Lilienthal and Königsfriend, and the seconder of the measure in the House of berg successively, and from 1807 to 1818, added to other Lords, and Mr. Pelham, then minister, with his advice on laborious occupations the enormous task of reducing and the subject. But this procured him some unpopularity, drawing conclusions from all Bradley's observations, pubfor the common people of all ranks imagined that the altera- lished in the latter place and year under the title of Fundation was equivalent to robbing them of eleven days of their menta Astronomice pro anno 1755, deducta ex observanatural lives, and called Bradley's subsequent illness and tionibus viri incomparabilis James Bradley. “This work decline a judgment of heaven. This was, as far as we has always been considered one of the most valuable contriknow, the last expiring manifestation of a belief in the butions to our astronomy. It exhibits the result of all wickedness of altering the time of religious anniversaries Bradley's observations of stars, reduced on a uniform system, which had disturbed the world, more or less, and at different and is always referred to by succeeding astronomers as the periods, for 1400 years. In the same year Bradley obtained representative of Bradley's observations." (Professor Airy, a pension of 2501. from the crown. From that time he con Rep. Brit. Ass. vol. i. p. 137.) tivued his observations, of which we shall presently speak, It may be said that Bradley changed the face of astrotill the 1st of Sept. 1761, in the observations of which date nomy. The discoveries of aberration and nutation, and the his handwriting occurs for the last time in the Greenwich improvement of the tables of refraction, the attention to registers. He then retired among his wife's relations at minute observation, and the tact with which every instrument Chalford in Gloucestershire, where he died July 13, 1762, was applied to the purposes for which it was best adapted, and was buried at Minchinhampton. His health had been were so many great steps both in the art and science. Before failing for some years, though he was originally of a strong his time every instrumental improvement was a new cause constitution, and always of temperate habits. His wife of confusion, by pointing out irregularities which seemed to died before him in 1757, and he left one daughter, but his baffle all attempts both at finding laws and causes. Neverline is now extinct.

theless, the name of Bradley hardly appears in popular Thus far we have obtained our materials for facts from works, nor will do so until the state of astronomy is better the life by professor Rigaud, above cited. This account understood. Let any man set up for the founder of a sect, does not mention the subsequent history of the manuscript and begin by asserting that he has found out the cause observations made at the observatory of Greenwich, nor of attraction, or the structure of the moon ; let him exalt does the life in Kippis’s Biographia Britannica. The fol- himself in the daily papers, and he must be unfortunate lowing is Dr. Maskelyne's account (Answer to Mudge's indeed if in three years he is not more widely known in Narrative, &c. Lond. 1792): – Dr. Bradley's valuable this country than its own Bradley, one of the first astronoobservations were made in the course of twenty years from mers of any. 1742 to 1762, and consist of thirteen volumes in folio. They BRADSHAW, JOHN, president of the court which were removed from the Royal Observatory, before I was tried Charles I. Bradshaw was of a good family in appointed to the care of it, by the doctor's executors, who Cheshire. His mother was a daughter and coheiress of thought proper to consider them as private property; and Ralf Winnington of Offerton. Noble and Chalmers state during a suit instituted on the part of the crown, in the Ex- that the place of his education is not recorded. But his chequer, to recover them, they vere presented in 1776 to will establishes this, for he makes legacies to certain schools Lord North, now Earl of Guilford, Chancellor of the Uni- at which he says he had received his education. He was a versity of Oxford, and by him presented to the University, student of law in Gray's Inn. He had considerable chamber on condition of their printing and publishing them. The practice, especially among the partisans of the parliament, University put them immediately for that purpose into the and he is admitted by his enemies to have been not without hands of Dr. Hornsby, Savilian professor, &c., whose bad ability and legal knowledge. (Clarendon.) state of health has been alleged as the cause of the delay of In October, 1644, he was employed by the parliament, in the publication. The account of Dr. Hornsby, in the pre- conjunction with Prynne and Nudigate, to prosecute Lords face of the publication in question, differs from the prere- Macquire and Macmahon, the Irish rebels. In October, ding in an important particular. The above would allow 1646, by a vote of the House of Commons, in which the us to infer that the University of Oxford accepted a donation peers were desired to acquiesce, he was appointed one of the right to make which was under litigation, with a strong the three commissioners of the great seal for six months ; primă farie case against it. Now Dr. Hurnsby mentions, and in February following, by a vote of both houses, chief 1. What is very well known, that both the predecessors of justice of Chester. In June, 1647, he was named by the Bradley, Flamsteed and Halley, were allowed to consider parliament one of the counsel to prosecute the royalist their own observations as their own property; that the former Judge Jenkins. October 12, 1648, by order of the parlia: printed, and his executors published, his observations as ment, he received the degree of serjeant.

VOL. V.-2T

On January the 1st, 1648-9, it was adjudged by the State, which sat that day; and when Colonel Sydenham, one Commons that by the fundamental laws of the land, it is of the members of the council, endeavoured to justify the army treason in the king of England for the time being to levy in what they had done, and concluded his speech by saying, war against the parliament and kingdom. On the 4th an according to the cant of the day, that they were necessitated ordinance was passed for erecting a high court of justice to make use of this last remedy by particular call of for trial of the king. The commissioners for the trial of the Divine Providence;' weak and extenuated as he was,' the king elected Serjeant Bradshaw their president. Lord says Ludlow, yet animated by his ardent zeal, and constant Clarendon says that at first he seemed much surprised and affection to the common cause, he stood up, and interrupt. very resolute to refuse it. The offer and the acceptance of ing him, declared his abhorrence of that detestable action ; it are strong evidence of Bradshaw's courage and the and telling the council, that being now going to his God, staunchness of his republicanism.

he had not patience to sit there to hear his great name so The court ordered, that John Bradshaw, Serjeant-at- openly blasphemed. He then abruptly left the council, and Law, who is appointed president of this court, should be withdrew from public employment. He survived this but called by the name, and have the title of Lord President, a few days, dying November 22nd, 1659, of a quartan ague, and that as well within as without the said court, during which had lasted a year. • A stout man,' says Whitelock, the commission and sitting of the said court.' The deanery and learned in his profession : no friend to monarchy.' house in Westminster was given him as a residence for He declared, a little before his death, that if the king were hiinself and his posterity; and the sum of 50001. allowed to be tried and condemned again, he would be the first man him to procure an equipage suitable to the dignity of his that should do it.' He was buried with great pomp in office. The parliament further settled 40001. a-year upon Westminster Abbey, whence his body was dragged at the him and his heirs, in landerl property. He was also made restoration, to be exposed upon a gibbet, with those of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. He had previously Cromwell and Ireton. been appointed Chief Justice of Wales and of Chester, The leading feature in Bradshaw's life-that which makes besides being Lord President of the Council of State. The his name the property of history-was his acting as preaccumulation of so many offices in one man certainly looks siding judge in the trial of the king; a transaction, in the something like pluralism in the Commonwealth: and unless words of Hume, 'the pomp and dignity, the ceremony of great allowance be made on account of the dignity of the which corresponded to the greatest conception that is sugwork done, the remuneration must appear somewhat dis- gested in the annals of human kind;- the delegates of a proportioned to the quantity of it,

great people sitting in judgment upon their supreme* When Cromwell seized the government, Bradshaw was magistrate, and trying him for his misgovernment and one of those who offered all the opposition in their power, breach of trust,' How did he conduct himself on that and never went over to him. Bradshaw's conduct, in courage occasion ? With the mixture of dignity, firmness, modera. and firmness, almost equalled Ludlow's. His bold answer tion, and humanity, which befitted bis high office? or, as to Cromwell, when he came to dissolve the council, is well asserted by Clarendon, with all the pride, impudence, and known. When Cromwell insisted upon every one's taking superciliousness imaginable ?". Did he, in the words of out a commission from himself, if they chose to retain their Noble, behave to fallen majesty with a rudeness that places under his government, Bradshaw absolutely refused, those who preside in our criminal courts never use to the alleging that he had received his commission as Chief lowest culprit ?** What was the fact? Charles having Justice of Chester, to continue quamdiu se bene gesserit, repeatedly refused to acknowledge the authority of the and he should retain it without any other, unless he could court, Bradshaw addressed him thus :- Sir, this is the be proved to have justly forfeited it by want of integrity; third time that you have publicly disowned the court, and and if there were any doubts upon it, he should submit it to put an affront upon it; but truly, Sir, men’s intentions ought trial by twelve Englishmen. He soon after set out on the to be known by their actions; you bave written your meancircuit, without waiting further orders ; nor did Oliver thinking in bloody characters throughout the kingdom. Ludlow it prudent to prevent or recal him, as he had said nothing says, that to Charles's repeated assertions that he was rebut force should make him desist from his duty.

sponsible only to God, Bradshaw answered, that seeing It was not to be expected that such conduct would find God had, by his providence, overruled that plea, the court much favour in the eyes of Cromwell. He attempted to was determined to do so likewise.' Bradshaw, on giving oppose his election for Cheshire; and though Bradshaw sentence, resorted to precedent. He instanced the case was returned by the sheriff, as others in the Cromwellian of many kings who had been deposed and imprisoned by interest returned another, neither sat, it having been so their subjects, particularly in Charles's native country, decided in the case of double returns. Bradshaw's power where, out of a hundred and nine, the greater part had and popularity must have been very considerable; for, not- either been dethroned, or proceeded against for mis-governwithstanding his having been engaged in several designs ment; and even the prisoner's own grandmother removed, against the power of Cromwell, one of which was connected and his father, while an infant, crowned in her stead. (Rushwith the Fifth Monarchy-men, who were to destroy and pull worth, vii., 1396.; Whitelock, p. 376; Ludlow, Hutchindown Babylon, and bind kings in chains and nobles in son, Clarendon, &c.) fetters of iron, his highness did not dare to seize him, but His will, which is dated March 22, 1653, contains several continued to watch and defeat his designs with his charac- remarkable facts. He directs his brother Henry to expend teristic policy, Bradshaw however was deprived of his 7001. in purchasing an annuity for maintaining a free school office of Chief Justice of Chester.. The two former friends at Marple, 500l. for increasing the wages of the master of watched each other with the vigilance of two crouching Bunbury school, and 500l. to increase the wages of the tigers, each waiting for the exact moment to make the master and usher of Middleton school. There are two codi. decisive spring that was to destroy the other. And we may cils to the will; and by one dated September 10, 1655, he give some credit to the observation of certain of the royalist gives 101. to John Milton. The will was proved December writers, that Bradshaw would have had no objection to 16, 1659. (Ormerod's Cheshire, vol. iii. p. 409; and the chaperform for Oliver, the unhereditary tyrant, the same office ractor of him by Milton, in the Defensio Secunda pro Pohe had performed for Charles, the hereditary one; and that pulo Anglicano.) he would not have been sorry to have had an opportunity to BRADY, NICOLAS, a divine whose name is known convince the world that he was no respecter of persons. chiefly in connexion with that of Nathan Tate, his versi

On the death of Oliver, and the abdication of his son fying collaborator in producing the new version of the Richard, Bradshaw obtained a seat in the Council of State, Psalms of David, which has since become generally used was elected Lord President, and appointed a Commissioner in the Church of England, in the place of the obsolete of the Great Seal; but his health, which had been some version made in the reign of Edward VI, by Sternhold time declining, became so precarious that he was unable to and Hopkins. Brady was the son of an officer in the perform the duties of that office.

royalist army during the civil war in 1641, and was born The last act of Bradshaw's life was consistent with the free October 28, 1659, at Bandon, a town of Ireland, in the and brave spirit which he had always shown. The army county of Cork. At the age of twelve he was sent to had again put a force upon the House of Commons, by Westminster school, whence he proceeded to the college seizing the Speaker, Lenthall, on his way thither, and

• Supreme magistrate is a contradiction in terms; supreme being upplithereby suspending all further proceedings of the existing cable only to the sovereign, and magistrate a name for a subject. hume government. The almost expiring but unsubdued spirit of though he professed to write on government, never seems to have understood Bradshaw felt the insult, He repaired to the Council of the meaning of sovereignty, though Hobbes had made it sufficiently clear,

Lives of the Regicides, i

of Christ-Church, Oxford. He subsequently graduated at and Moncorvo. The territory is very mountainous, being Trinity College, Dublin; which, in testimony of lis zeal crossed in every direction by the ramifications of the serras and assiduity in the Protestant cause, conferred upon him of Gerez, Canda, and Padornelo. There are notwithstand. gratuitously, during his absence in England, the degree of ing many ralleys, in which rich crops of grain and fruit D.D. He was appointed chaplain to Bishop Wettenhall

, are raised. The district is irrigated by a number of by whose patronage he obtained a prebend in the cathedral large streams, all of which flow generally from N. to S., of Cork. 'At the time of the Revolution he made himself and are affluents of the Duero. The district contains conspicuous among the most active partisans of the Prince 88,896 inh. distributed in 1 city, 10 towns, and 274 pars. of Orange, and on three occasions prevented the execution BRAGANGA, Brigantinum, the capital of the district, of King James's orders to destroy with fire and sword the is situated in a very agreeable and fertile plain on the town of Bandon, his native place. On the establishment of Tervenza, an affluent of the Sabor; it was erected into a the new dynasty of William and Mary, he was deputed by duchy by Alonso V. in 1442, the eighth possessor of which, his fellow townsmen to present to the English parliament a John II., was raised to the throne of Portugal in 1640, petition for redress of the grievances which they had suf- under the title of John IV. From that king the present fered under James; and remaining in London, he became royal family of Portugal is descended. The town was forminister of the church of St. Catherine Cree, and lecturer merly a fortified place, and now contains a castle almost in of St. Michael's in Wood-street. He was afterwards ap- ruins. It has nothing remarkable except one large square pointed chaplain, first to the Duke of Ormond, then to in the castle, two out of it, and a sparious plain where the King William and Queen Mary. He held also the office nobility and gentry of the place hold their races and other of minister at Richmond in Surrey, and at Stratford-on- amusements of chivalrous origin. Pop. 3373; 41° 51' N. Avon in Warwickshire. From his several appointments lat.; 6° 40' W. long, alone he derived at least 6001. å year; but being a bad BRAGANGA, HOUSE OF, is the original title of the economist, he was obliged, for the purpose of increasing his reigning dynasty of the kingdom of Portugal. The origin income, to undertake the keeping of a school at Richmond. of the Bragança family dates from the beginning of ihe He died at the age of sixty-six, on the 20th of May, 17:26 : fifteenth century, when Alfonso, a natural son of King João, the same year in which he published by subscription his or John I., was created by his father duke of Bragança and • Translation of the Æneids of Virgil,' in 4 vols., 8vo., which lord of Guimaraens. Affonso married Beatrix, the daughter is now almost entirely unknown. Among several of his and heiress of Nuno Alvarez Pereira, count of Barcellos smaller productions is a tragedy, entitled 'The Rape, or the and Ourem. From this marriage the line of the dukes of Innocent Impostors.' He published at different times three Bragança, marquises of Villaviçosa, &c., has sprung. By volumes of his sermons, of which three additional volumes the fundamental laws of the Portuguese monarcliy, passed were published after his death by his son; but the repu- in the Cortes of Lamego in 1139, all foreign princes are tation of Dr. Brady rests solely upon his share in the new excluded from the succession, and the consequence has been metrical version of the Psalms; of the merits of which every that, in default of legitimate heirs, the illegitimate issue of one who possesses a Prayer Book may judge for himself. the royal blood has been repeatedly called to the throne. BRADYPUS. [Ai and Sloth)

When the line of the Portuguese kings became extinct by BRAGA, a comarca of Portugal, situated almost in the the death of King Sebastian in Africa, 1578, and by that of centre of the prov. of Entre-Duero e Minho, and surrounded bis successor Cardinal Henrique, 1580, both dying without by the districts of Barcellos, Viana, Valença, Amarante, issue, Antonio Prior of Crato, and natural son of the Infante and Guimaraens. The territory, though very mountainous, Dom Luiz, Henrique's brother, claimed the succession, but contains some fertile valleys, which being sheltered from the Philip II. of Spain, whose mother was a Portuguese prinnorthern winds, enjoy a high degree of temperature. It is cess, urged his own pretensions to the crown of Portugal in watered by the rivs. Cavado and Deste, or Este. The despite of the laws of Lawego, and he enforced his claim by former of these streams rises in the Serra de Gerez, N.E. means of an army commanded by the duke of Alba. [An. of the capital of the comarca, and flowing S.W. empties TONIO; ALBA.] The Portuguese submitted, Antonio died itself into the sea near Esposende ; the latter has its source an exile, and Philip and his successors on the throne of E. of the same capital, and flowing in a direction nearly Spain continued to hold the crown of Portugal also till 1640, parallel to the former, enters the ocean near Villa-do-Conde. when the Portuguese, weary of the Spanish yoke, revolted The productions of the soil are the same as in the rest of and proclaimed Dom João, the then duke of Bragança, their the prov. The whole district comprises one city, one town, king, ne being the next remaining heir to the crown. He and 101 par., containing a pop. of 49,838 inh. The chies assumed the title of João IV., and was styled 'the fortunate.' occupations of the people are agriculture and the manufac- The crown of Portugal has continued in his line ever since. ture of hats and hardware.

John IV. was succeeded by his son Affonso Henrique, who, BRAGA, the Braccara Augusta of the Romans, the capi- being dethroned in 1668 for his misconduct, his brother tal of the comarca, is one of the most antient cities in Por- Pedro assumed the crown. Pedro was succeeded in 1706 by tugal, and was the capital of the kingdom when the Suevians bis son João V., who, dying in 1750, the crown devolved were masters of it. It is now the seat of an archbishop, upon his son Joseph I. Joseph was succeeded in 1777 by who is the primate of Portugal. Until recently ruins of a his daughter Donna Maria I., who afterwards becoming inRoman amphitheatre and an aqueduct existed ; but at pre- sane, her son Dom João was made prince regent in 1792, sent no reinains of its antient grandeur are found, except and at the death of his mother in 1816 he assumed the title some coins, and five milestones belonging to the five Roman of King João VI. He married a Spanish princess, by whom roads leading into Braga, which one of the archbishops re- he had two sons, Pedro and Miguel, and several daughters. moved to a square in the S. part of the city.

In 1822 his eldest son Pedro was proclaimed Constitutional The town is situated on an eminence in a fertile valley, Emperor of Brazil, which became thereby independent of watered by the riv. Deste on the S. and by the Cavado on Portugal. In 1826 King John VI. died at Lisbon, and his the N., and is about 15 m. from the sea. This valley is son Dom Pedro being considered as a foreign sovereign, covered with quintas or country-houses, and planted with Dom Pedro's infant daughter Donna Maria II. was prooak, vine, orange, and other fruit trees. The oranges of claimed queen of Portugal. Dom Pedro died in SepBraga are the best in Portugal. About 3 m. E. of the city tember, 1834, at Lisbon. His son Pedro II. is now (1835) stands a lofty hill, commanding a delightful view of all the emperor of Brazil. plain, on the summit of which is built the renowned sanc. BRAHE', TYCHO. The influence which the labours of tuary of Jesus do Monte.

this great reviver of correct astronomy exercised upon the The city itself contains nothing remarkable. The streets science of his own and succeeding ages, would justify a are very narrow and irregularly laid out. There are two more minute detail of his life than we can here give. It squares, and a great number of fountains. The principal will be convenient to place all references at the beginning building is the cathedral, a stately fabric of the old perpen- of this article, which we shall accordingly do. (See also dicular style, which was rebuilt by Count Henrique, the general references in ASTRONOMY.) first king of Portugal. The pop. of Braga is reckoned at The life of Tycho Brahé was written by Gassendi; first edi19,097. 41° 33' N. lat., 8° 23' W. long.

tion, Parisiis, 1654, with copperplate crown in the title page; BRAGANGA, a comarca of Portugal, in the prov. of second edition with two title-pages, both · Hayæ Comitum, Tras-os-Montes, and in its northern extremity. It is sur the first, 1665, marked · Editio secunda auctior et correctior, rounded by the Spanish provinces of Leon and Galicia, the second, 1664, without any mark of second edition, and and by the Portuguese comarcas of Chaves, Mirandela, with an empty space for the crown. The two editions do

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not appear different in matter. Both contain the 'Oratio of the sphere, and the ephemerides of Stadius. In 1562 Funebris,' &c. of John Jessenius. See also Teissier, 'Eloges his uncle, who intended him for the law, sent him to Leipdes Hommes savans,' iv. 383; Blount.Censura,' &c.; ' Epis- zig with a tutor. But he would attend no more to that science tolæ ad Johannem Keplerum,' &c., 1718; Riccioli, 'Chroni- than just enough to save appearances; he disliked the con in Almagesto Novo,' v. i. p. 46. For modern accounts study, and made a punning epigram on it as follows:of his astronomy see Delambre. Ast. Mod. ;' and in English

Jus patinæ et legum sunt nomine jura sub uno, the chapter on Tycho Brahé and Kepler in Narrien's 'Ac

Grandia condunt et grandia jura vorant.' count of the Progress of Astronomy, Baldwin, 1833. The In the meanwhile he spent his time and money on astronolife in the ‘ Biog. Univ.' is by Malte-Brun. The writings of mical instruments; and, while his tutor slept, used to watch Tycho Brahé are as follows. The capitals serve to separate the constellations by aid of a small globe noi bigger than his different works.

fist. With these slender means he was able to see that both (A) * De Nova Stella,' anno 1572, &c.; ' Hafniw' (Copen- the Alphonsine and · Prutenic tables gave the places of the hagen), 1573. Extremely scarce, afterwards inserted in the planets visibly wrong, and particularly so in the case of a Progymnasmata : English translation, 1582 (copy in the predicted conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter in 1563. He Bodleian, Hyde, cited by Lalande). (B) “De Mundi took strongly into liis head the correction of these tables, and Ætherei recentioribus Phenomenis liber secundus, qui est de his first instrument was a pair of common compasses, which Illustri Stella Caudatâ anno 1577, conspecta 1588?' Is La- he used as an instrument for observing the angles between lande correct, · Bibl.' 119? We have a copy answering in stars. By drawing a circle with the same radius as the leg all respects to his description, but with title marked Prague, of the compasses, and laying down angles upon it, he was 1603 ; we cannot find 1588 at the end, as he says. The able to find the Alphonsine tables more than a month in statement in the preface is not the same as he gives, but the error, and the Prutenic several days. He procured a better point is of little importance. (C) * Apologetica Responsio,' instrument, and corrected the deficiencies of its graduation &c., Uraniburg, 1591, an answer to an unknown opponent by a fable. This instrument was a parallactic rule, or raon the parallax of comets. (D) * Epistolarum astronomica- dius, in the manner of Gemma Frisius. rum libri, Uraniburg, 1596; some have on the title-page He was recalled in 1665, by the death of an uncle, and Frankfort, 1610, others Nuremberg, 1601. (E) · Astrono soon became disgusted by the contempt with which his miæ Instauratæ Mechanica, Wandesburg: 1598, reprint, equals and associates spoke of all liberal knowledge. His Nuremberg, 1602; plates only reprinted in Mem. Acad. uncle Steno, however, recommended him to follow his faSci., 1763. (F) Astronomiæ Instauratæ Progymnasmata,' vourite pursuit, and he left his country once more, and took begun at Uraniberg, finished at Prague, 1601 (in the title- up his residence at Wittenberg in 1666, from whence he page) published posthumously: the executor's preface is was driven to Rostock in the autumn by the plague. While dated 1602. It contains the great mass of Tycho Brahé's in this place, a quarrel arose between him and one Pasberg, results of observation, though headed from beginning to end a Dane of family like himself, at a public festival. The * De Novâ Stellâ, anni 1572. The treatise (B) with title affair was decided by single combat, and Tycho lost all the page, Prague, 1603, is always called and sold as the second front part of his nose. A contemporary, cited by Gassendi, volume of these · Progymnasmata,' and though it treats of hints that they took this method of settling which was the various other matters is headed throughout as De Cometâ better mathematician of the two. Tycho always afterwards anni 1577. And (D) is very often made a third volume. wore an artificial nose made of gold, but so well formed The same works (all three), with alteration of title-page and coloured as to be hardly distinguishable from the one only, Frankfort, 1610. (G) In the Cæli et Siderum, &c. Ob- with which he began life; and he always carried a small servationes,' &c., Leyden, 1618, are two years' Bohemian box of ointment, with which to anoint this artificial member. Observations of Tycho Brahé. (H) 'De Disciplinis mathe In 1569 he went to Augsburg, where, being pleased with maticis Oratio in qua Astrologia defenditur,' an academical the place, and finding astronomers there, he determined to lecture of 1574, printed, not by Tycho, but by Curtius, remain. He here caused to be constructed a large quaHamburg, 1621. (1) Geistreiche Weissagung,' &c., 1632 ; drant, such as twenty strong men could hardly lift, with translation of (A) with the astrological part, omitted in (F), which he observed while he remained there. He left date 1632, no place mentioned by Lalande. (K). Opera Augsburg and returned home in 1571, when his uncle Omnia,' Frankfort, 1648, reprint of the two first in (F). Steno offered him a part of his house, with the means of (L) Lucii Barretti Sylloge Ferdinandea,' Vienna, 1657, erecting an observatory and a laboratory; for Tycho had contains Tycho's observations, 1582-1601. (M) “Historia become much attached to chemistry, and declares himself Cælestis, Augsburg, 1666, by this same Barrettus, con that from his twenty-third year he attended as much to that tains all Tycho's observations. Other title-pages · Aug. science as to astronomy. He constructed only, a large sexVind.,' 1668, Ratisb., 1672, Diling., 1675. Errors pointed tant, for he always intended to return and pursue his stuout in Bartholinus • Specimen recognitionis,' &c., Copenh., dies in Germany, finding the public life of a Danish noble 1668. (N) Kepler, “Tabulæ Rudolphinæ,' Ulm, 1627. to be a hindrance. An event however happened in 1572, These are the final tables deduced from all Tycho's observa- which, if our memory serves us, has been sometimes stated tions. There is either an original life of Tycho, or a trans- in popular works as the first excitement he received to study lation of Gassendi, in Danish, translated into German by astronomy-with what correctness we have seen. ReturnWeistriss, Leipzig, 1756. Tycho Brahé printed his works ing from his laboratory on the evening of November 11, at his own press of Uraniburg, so long as he remained there, 1572, he cast his eyes upon the constellation Cassiopea, and probably distributed them principally in presents. When and was thunderstruck by there perceiving not only a new they became dispersed, the booksellers varied the title-pages, star but one of greater splendour than any in that consteland hence all the confusion of the preceding list. We sup- lation. The country people also saw it, and he immepose those marked (F) were put together after the Frankfort diately set himself to determine its place and motion, if any. reprint (K), to look like them, if indeed that be a reprint. Happening to visit Copenhagen early in the year 1573, he

The family of Brahé was originally Swedish, but Tycho, carried with him his journal, and found that the savans of the grandfather of the astronomer, and Otto bis father, be- the university had not yet taken notice of the phenomenon. longed to a branch which had settled in Denmark. Tycho He excited great derision at a convivial party by mentionBrahé himself was the eldest son and second child of his ing his discovery, which however was changed into astonishfather, and was born at Knudsthorp, near the Baltic (lat. ment on his actually showing them the star. They there56° 46' N., according to Gassendi), on the 14th of Decem- upon became urgent that he should publish his notes, ber, 1546. His father had ten children, of whom the last, which he refused, being, as he afterwards confessed, under Sophia Brahé, was known in her day as a Latin poetess, and the prejudice that it was unbecomiug for a nobleman to was also a mathematician and astrologer. This family was publish anything: but afterwards, seeing how many and as noble and as ignorant as sixteen undisputed quarterings worthless were the writings on the same subject, and being could make them; but Steno, the maternal uncle of Tycho, pressed by his friends at Copenhagen, he sent his account, volunteered to take charge of him. Perceiving that he had with additions, to one of them for publication. The star talent, his uncle employed masters to teach him Latin, much itself continued visible, though gradually diminishing in against the will of his father, who intended him to do nothing brightness, till March, 1574. It was at one time as bright but bear arms. In 1559 Tycho was sent to the University of as Venus. (CASSIOPEA.] Copenhagen, where his attention was called to astronomy by As soon as Tycho had conquered his aristocratic aversion the pretensions of the astrologers, and by the total eclipse of to being useful, he committed a much more serious offence the sun, August 21, 1560. He began to study the doctrine | against his order by marrying, in 1573, a peasant, or at

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