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least a plebeian, girl of Knudsthorp, named Christiana :/ at home, and proceeded to the court of the Landgrave Wilsome say she was the daughter of a clergyman. By the liam of Hesse-Cassel, who was himself a persevering obinterposition of the king the fury of his family at this step server; so much so, that when, during an observation of was cooled. Never were man's prejudices subjected to a the new star of 1572, servants ran to tell him the house was more salutary course of discipline than those of Tycho on fire, he would not stir till he had finished. On leaving Brahé. In two short years the proud noble became an his court, Tycho wandered through Switzerland and Gerauthor, a lecturer, and the husband of a woman of inferior many, apparently seeking where he might best set up his rank. The students of the university desired to profit by observatory, and he had fixed his thoughts upon Basle. his knowledge, and on his positive refusal, the king, to But in the meanwhile ambassadors had been sent from whom he felt his obligations, made it his own earnest re Denmark to the Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, and that quest. No choice was therefore left to the unfortunate prince took occasion warmly to recommend Tycho Bralié recusant; and he accordingly delivered the public lecture and his studies to the notice of his own sovereign. The marked (H) in our preceding list, which, putting aside the latter (Frederic II.) accordingly sent for Tycho after his astrology, is a sensible discourse; and, excepting a hint at return to Knudsthorp in 1576, and offered him possession the beginning that nothing but the request of the king and for life of the island of Hven or Hoëne, taking upon bimof the audience (for politeness' sake) had made him under self all the expenses of his settlement. The offer was gladly take an office for which he was so unfit by station and me- accepted, and the first stone of the astronomical castle called diocrity of talent (for modesty's sake), does not contain any Uraniberg or Oranienberg (the city of the heavens) was allusion to the supposed derogation. He informs his au- laid August 13, 1576. There is a full description of it in dience at the end that he intends to lecture on the Prutenic Gassendi, as also in (D) and (E). The following drawing is tables, and he did so accordingly. This lecture was first extracted from the former. It is necessary to warn our published in 1610 by Conrad Aslacus (we cannot unlatinize readers that the clumsiness of the old wood cut is purposely Gassendi's name), who got it from Tycho himself.

imitated, owing to some critical remarks we have heard on Tycho Brahé had all this time intended to travel again. the figures in ASTROLABE (which see for the character of Ho set out in 1575, leaving his wife and infant daughter the instruments employed). .

[graphic]

Besides this, there was an observatory sunk in the ground, | atmospheric, or even sublunary, bodies. He observed altoand named Stellberg (city of the stars). These two build-gether seven comets, the last in 1596. ings contained 28 instruments, all extra-meridional, but It is not our intention to follow Tycho Brahé at length distinguished, as appears in (E), by many new contrivances through bis splendid career at Uraniberg: No space here for avoiding error, and by a size and solidity which rendered allowable would suffice to detail his results sufficiently for graduation to a single minute attainable; though it may be astronomical reference. We must therefore content ourdoubted whether the instruments themselves were calcu- selves with a few words on the state in which he found and lated to give so small a quantity (for that time) withi cer- left astronomy. The reader may fill up various points from tainty. Tycho's instruments are vaguely said to have cost the article AstroNOMY.* 200,000 crowns; the king allowed 2000 dollars a-year, be From the time of Ptolemy it may be said that astronomy sides a fief in Norway and a canonry in the church of bad made some advances, but these did not certainly comRoeskilde.

pensate the defects which time must introduce into tables In 1577 he began his observations, ana on November 13, of pure observation, unaided by any such knowledge of the 1577, saw the comet which is the subject of (B). This system as will make accurate prediction possible. If the luminary, and others of the same kind, gave occasion to

* In reference to that article, the reader of course must be aware that so his discovery that the spheres of the planets (Primum very large a number of facts and dates could not be taken from origival auMOBILE, PTOLEMAIC SYSTEM) could not be solid, since the thorities, but only from histories of reputation, and it cannot be more cornict were cut in all directions by the orbits of comets, which

than the latter. Or the loose way of speaking with regard to dates, we have

there complained; and there is an instance in Tycho Brahé where it is said must be called the first decisive blow against the received that he hegan to observe in Hočne, in 1582. This is true in a seuse, for ho notions. And Tycho was the first who proved comets to particularly) which led to the Rudolphine tables : but he had been observing have such a parallax as was incompatible with their being I though not with finished means or methods) from 1577.

Arabs did some good by their observations, they did nearly The stars, to the naked eye, présent diameters varying as much mischief by their theories; and the Alphonsine from a quarter of a minute of space, or less, to as much as tables are a proof that the astronomers of that day did not two minutes. The telescope was not then inrented which know their heavens so well as Ptolemy did his. It was im- shows that this is an optical delusion, and that they are possible for any one to make a considerable advance with points of immeasurably small diameter. It was certain

to such instruments as Tycho Brahé actually found in use, or Tycho Brahé, that if the earth did move, the whole motion without rejecting all theories of the heavenly bodies then of the earth in its orbit did not alter the place of the stars in vogue, and relying entirely upon observation. The test by two minutes, and that consequently they must be so of a theory is its accordance with nature; those of the time distant, that to have two minutes of apparent diameter, they in question were so defective that their falsehood might be must be spheres of as great a radius at least as the distance perceived by merely a little globe large enough to be held from the sun to the earth. This latter distance Tycho in one hand. Those who were engaged in observation Brahé supposed to be 1150 times the semi-diameter of the ought to have seen this: it is the merit of Tycho Brahé earth, and the sun about 180 times as great as the earth. that he was the first who did see it. But he did more Both suppositions are grossly incorrect; but they were comthan this: he saw also the means of remedying the evil, by mon groữnd, being nearly those of Ptolemy and Copernicus. his mechanical knowledge in the construction of instru- It followed then, for any thing a real Copernican could ments, his perception of the way in which those instruments show to the contrary, that some of the fixed stars must be were to be used, and the results of observation to be coin-| 1520 millions of times as great as the earth, or nine millions pared. He showed himself a sound mathematician in his of times as great as they supposed the sun to be. Now, one methods for determining refraction, in his deduction of the of the strong arguments against Ptolemy (and the one variation and annual equation of the moon, and in many which has generally found its way into modern works) was other ways. He proved himself to be at the same time an the enormous motion which he supposed the stars to have. inventor of the means of observation and of the way of The Copernican of that day might have been compelled using them, such as had not appeared since Hipparchus ; to choose between an incomprehensibly great magnitude, and it is to his observations that we owe, firstly, the deduc- and a similar motion. Delambre, who comments with brief tion of the real laws of a planet's motion by Kepler, and of contempt upon the several arguments of Tycho Brahé, their proximate cause by Newton. There are many instances has here only to say, "We should now answer that no star in which good fortune seems to have made a result of has an apparent diameter of a second. Undoubtedly, but more importance than the discoverer had any right to pre- what would you have answered then, is the reply. The sume, either from the skill or labour employed in obtaining stars were spheres of visible magnitude, and are so still; it: but in the case of Tycho Brahé we believe we are joined nobody can deny it who looks at the heavens without a teleby a very large majority in thinking that fortune deputed scope ; did Tycho reason wrong because he did not know her office, pro hâc vice, to justice, and that the eminence of a fact which could only be known by an instrument invented the success to which he has led the way is no more than is after his death? due to the excellence of the means which he employed, and Again, the mechanical difficulties attending the earth's the sagacity he displayed in combining his materials. motion were without any answer which deserved attention Where Hipparchus and Ptolemy have left half a degree of even in that day. That a stone dropped from a height uncertainty, Tycho Brahé left two minutes, if not one only. fell directly under the point it was dropped from, CoperThis Bradley afterwards reduced to as many seconds, in the nicus accounts for by supposing that the air carries it: he, case of the stars; and the ages of these three are the great as well as his opponents, believing that but for the air the epochs of astronomy, as a science of pure observation. spot at first directly beneath the stone would move from

We must now devote some space to the system which he under it. We are of opinion that the system of Tycho R..!! promulgated against that of Copernicus, and which is con was the only one of that day not open to serious physical sidered as the great defect in his astronomy. And first, objections, taking as a basis the notions of mechanics adwe must observe that it has been customary to keep the mitted by all parties. To us the system of Copernicus apname of Copernicus under every improvement which his pears a premature birth : the infant long remained sickly, system has undergone in later times. His notions were and would certainly have died if it had not fallen under received at his hands loaded with real difficulties, supported better management than that of its own parents. by arguments as trivial as those of his opponents; Galileo Frederick II. died in 1588, and Tycho remained unmohas answered the mechanical objections, Bradley has pro- lested under his son Christian IV. 'till 1596. Gassendi duced positive proofs, Newton has so altered the system relates that the nobles were envious when they saw fothat Copernicus would neither know it nor admit it, by over- reigners of importance come to Denmark solely to converse throwing the idea that the sun was fired in the centre of with Tycho; that the medical men were displeased at his the universe (which is the real Copernican system); and dispensing medicines gratis to the poor ; and that the mi thus mended in one part, augmented in another, overthrown nister had a quarrel with Tycho about a dog. Malte-Brun in a third, and positively proved in a fourth, all that is relates this more distinctly, apparently from the Danske known of the relative motions of the system in modern Magazin, or from Holberg's History of Denmark,' so that times is removed back two hundred years, called Coperni- it seems most probable that the destruction of the obsercan, and confronted with Tycho Brahé. Now the real vatory at Hoëne arose from a personal squabble between state of the case is this : that the latter did compound, out this minister, called Walckendorf, and a dog of Tycho, of the systems of Ptolemy and Copernicus, a system of his whose name has not reached us. The astronomer was graown, which, while it seized by far the greater portion of the dually deprived of his different appointments, and in 1596 advantages of the latter, was not open to the most material removed, with all his smaller apparatus, to Copenhagen, objection. (See a paper entitled, Old Arguments against A commission, appointed by the minister, had declared the Motion of the Earth, ‘Companion to the Almanac,'| his methods not worth prosecuting, and his instruments 1836.) And we assert, moreover, that of all the incon worse than useless. clusive arguments of that day, which concern the subject In the summer of 1597 he finally left bis country, and in question, the reply of the Copernicans to Tycho Brahé is removed with his wife, two sons, and four daughters, to the most inconclusive. The system of Tycho Brahé con Rostock, from whence he shortly removed to Wandsbeck, sists in supposing, 1. That the stars all move round the near Hamburg, at the invitation of Count Rantzau. At earth as in the Ptolemaic system. 2. That all the planets, the end of 1598, he received a pressing invitation from the except the earth, move round the sun as in the Copernican Emperor Rudolph II., promising him every assistance if he system. 3. That the sun, and the imaginary orbits in would remove with all his apparatus to the imperial domiwhich the planets are moving, are carried round the earth. nions. Thither Tycho arrived in the spring of 1599, having Imagine a planetarium on the system of Copernicus placed been detained during the winter at Wittenberg, by the cirover a table, above which is a light. As the earth moves, cumstance of a contagious disorder raging in Prague. The let the whole machine be always so moved, that the shadow emperor settled upon him a pension of 3000 ducats, and of the earth shall fall upon one and the same part of the offered him the choice of three different residences. He table. Then the motions of the shadows of the other chose that of Benateck, (Benachia or Benatica, Gass.) fire planets and of the sun will be according to the system of miles from Prague, and called the Venice of Bohemia. He Tycho Brahé. Mathematically speaking, it does not differ sent for the remainder of his instruments from Denmark, from that of Copernicus; we shall now consider it phy- and remained at Bemateck till February, 1601, when he sically

settled in Prague.

The celebrated Kepler joined him in February, 1600. When inflected as a substantive of the neuter gender, its Tycho had repeatedly written to invite him, having first termination in the nominative case is a short a, Brahmă entered into communication with him in 1598, when he (sometimes written Brahme or Brahm in English works on sent Tycho a copy of his Mysterium Cosmographicum. Hindu mythology), and thus declined it designates the The laiter advised him to lay aside speculations, and apply essence of the Supreme Being in the abstract, devoid of perhimself to the deduction of causes from phenomena. It is sonal individuality. When treated as a masculine word, it to following this advice that Kepler owes all his fame; so takes a long à in the nominative case, Brahmā, and thus that Tycho not only furnished him with the observations modified, becomes the name of the first of the three gods necessary, but was his adviser (and never was adviser more who constitute the triad of principal Hindu deities. wanted) in the way of using them. In the year 1601, they Brahmå, the impersonal divine substance, is with the were employed together in the composition of tables from Hindus not an object of worship, but merely of devout conthe Uraniberg observations, which tables they agreed should templation. According to the Vêdânta system of philobe called Rudolphine. But on the 13th of October, 1601, sophy, which recognizes the ancient sacred writings of the the effects of a convivial party, combined with inattention to Hindus as the authority of the doctrines which it advances, himself, produced a mortification of the bladder. He con- Brahmă is the great source from which the visible universe tinued for many days in pain, and died on the 24th of the and all the individual deities of mythology have sprung, month. During his delirium, he several times repeated 'ne and into which all will ultimately be re-absorbed.' 'As frustra vixisse videar,' which must be interpreted as some- milk changes to curd, and water to ice, so is Brahmă va. thing between a hope and a declaration, that he had not lived riously transformed and diversified, without aid of tools or in vain. Nor will he be thought to have done so by any one exterior means of any sort. In like manner the spider spins who ever found his longitude at sea, or slept in quiet while his web out of his own substance; spirits assume various a comet was in the heavens, without fear of the once sup- shapes; and the lotus proceeds from pond to pond without posed minister of God's anger. For if the list of illustrious organs of motion.' 'Ether and air are by Brahmă created ; men be formed, to whom we owe such benefit, it will be but he himself has no origin, no procreator nor maker, for found that his observations form the first great step of the he is eternal, without beginning as without end. So fire, moderns in astronomy. There was a report set abroad in and water, and earth, proceed mediately from him, being Denmark, that he had been poisoned by the emperor, pro- evolved successively the one from the other, as fire from air bably the imagination of those who had driven him from his and this from ether.' The human soul, according to the country. He was buried at Prague, and his monument same authority, is a portion of the supreme ruler, as a still exists there. (Malle-Brun.) He was of moderate sta- spark in the fire. The relation is not as that of master and ture, and latterly rather corpulent, of tlorid complexion and servant, ruler and ruled, but as that of whole and part.' It light hair. Gassendi refers to the portrait in his own work, is subject to transmigration, and the route on which, after in testimony of the skill with which ihe wound already men- the death of the human individual, it proceeds to its ultitioned was repaired ; and certainly, with the exception of a mate re-absorption in the divine essence, is variously devery great fuilness and cylindricality of figure about the scribed in divers texts of the Vedas. But he who has lower part of the nostrils, there is nothing there to excite attained the true knowledge of God does not pass through remark. In his younger days he cultivated asirology, but the same stages of retreat, proceeding directly to re-union latterly renounced it altogether. He has left no record of with the Supreme Being, with which he is identified, as a his chemical and medical studies. He was a copious writer river, at its confluence with the sea, merges therein altoof Latin verses. The following, which are a fair specimen, gether. His vital faculties and the elements of which his are part of those written by him upon one of his instruments body consists are absorbed absolutely and completely ; both which had belonged to Copernicus. They will show how name and form cease; and he becomes immortal, without highly he admired that astronomer.

parts or members.' (Passages from the Brahma-sútras, or Quid non ingeninm superat? sunt montibus olim

aphorisms on the Vedanta doctrine, by Bâdarayana; transIncassum montes congesti, Pelion, Ossa,

lated by Mr. Colebrooke ; Transact. of the Roy. Asiat. Soc., Ætnaque testantur, simul his glomeratus Olympus

vol. ij. passim.)
Innumeriqne alii, nec dum potuisse Gigantes,
Corpore pravalidos, sed mentis acumine inerteig

Brahmå, as an individual deity in mythology, is the
In superas penetrare domus. Ne inclytus, ille

operative creator of the universe; forming, with Vishnu (the Viribiis ingenii confisus, robore nullo, Pustibus his parvis celsum superavit Olympum.

preserver or sustainer) and Siva (the destroyer), the triad of O tanti monumenta viril Sint lignea quamvis;

principal Hindu gods. His epithets, which have been colHis tamen invideat salvum, si noscerei, aurum.

lected by ancient Sanscrit lexilogists, are numerous : some Some of his earlier observations are preserved at Copen- of the most usual are, Swayambhu, “the self-existent;' hagen. For the present state of Uraniberg, see Hotne. Paramoshihi, who abides in the most exalted place;'

It is our belief that the merits of Tycho have been under- Pitâmaha, the great father;' Prajapati, 'the lord of crearated, both as an inventor of instruments, and as a philo- tures;' Lökésa, the ruler of the world; Dhátrị, the sopher. As an observer, his works have spoken for them creator. In the mythological poems and in sculpture he is selves, in language which cannot be mistaken.

represented with four heads or rather faces, and holding in BRAHILOW, BRAILA or IBRAHIL, a fortified his four hands a manuscript book containing a portion of town, in Wallachia, at the mouth of the Sereth, which the Vêdas, a pot for holding water, a rosary, and a sacrifalls into the Danube on its left or northern bank. It is ficial spoon. (Moor's Hindu Pantheon, plates 3, 4, 5.) In not included in the independent territory of Wallachia, but the sculptures of the cave temple of Elephanta, he is reprehas been retained under exclusively Turkish dominion, sented sitting on a lotus supported by five swans or geese. and, with its adjacent dependencies, constitutes part of the (Transact. of the Lit. Soc. of Bombay, vol. i. pp. 222-225, sandshak of Silistria in Bulgaria. At this spot the Danube &c.) Exclusive worshippers of Brahmâ and temples dediis divided into six arms, one of which forms the port of Bra- cated to him do not now seem to occur in any part of India : hilow, while the islands they create are considered neutral homage is however paid to him along with other deities. The ground between the Turk and the Russian. The t. is de- Brahmans, in their morning and evening worship, repeat a fended by a strong citadel which commands the rivers below prayer addressed to Brahma, and at noon likewise they go it, is the seat of a pasha of three tails as its commandant, through certain ceremonies in bis honour: on the occasion possesses a pop. of about 30,000, has a valuable sturgeon of burnt offerings, an oblation of clarified butter is made to fishery, and exports great quantities of Wallachian corn to him, but it does not appear that bloody sacrifices are ever Constantinople. S. Hall places it in 45° 15' N. lat., 27° 54' offered to Brahma. Ai the full moon of the month Magha E. long.

(January-February), an earthen image of Brahmâ, with BRAHMA, a Sanscrit word, the name of the Supreme that of Siva on his right and that of Vishnu on his left Being in the religious system of the Hindus. The primitive hand, is worshipped ; and dances, accompanied with songs meaning of the word is not quite clear; it is evidently con- and music, are performed as at the other Hindu festivals. nected with the verbal root brih, to grow, to expand,' When the festivities are over, the images of the three gods whence brihat, “great;' and has been explained by some as are cast into the Ganges. A particular worship is paid to properly implying the widely expanded Being. The crude Brahmâ at Pushkara or Pokher in Ajmere, and at Bithore form of the word, or the name in its unintlected state, is in the Dooab, where he is said to have performed a great Brahman, and it is of great importance well to distinguish and solemn sacrifice on completing the act of creation; and a two-fold use of that term, accordingly as it is declined as the pin of his slipper, which he left behind him on the occa& substantive of the neuter or of the masculine gender. sion, and which is now fixed in one of the steps of the Brah

maverta Ghat near Bithore, is still an object of adoration, the Dupha Pani, which originates on the W. declivity of there. On the full moon of Agrahāyana (November-De- the mountains, over which the Phungan Bum pass (27° cember), a numerously attended fair is annually held there 30' N. lat.) leads to the countries on the banks of the Irain honour of Brahmâ. (Wilson, in the Asiat. Res., vol. xvi. waddi, and attains a height of 11,000 ft. Hence the p. 14, 15; Ward, View of the Hindus, &c., 2d edit., vol. ii. Dupha Puni flows between mountains in wild rapids to the p. 29, 30.)

E. and unites with the other branch, called the Noa Dihing BRAHMANS. [HINDUS, CASTES OF.]

above Logo. The upper course of the Noa Dihing is less BRAHMAPOOTRA, one of the largest riv. of Asia known, but it would appear that its source is farther from and in many respects one of the most remarkable on the the place of junction than that of the Dupha Pani, and globe. Sixty or seventy years ago this riv. was almost probably on the S. declivities of the Langtan Mountains. unknown to Europeans; though they had information about From Logo downwards the Noa Dibing is navigable for its neighbour the Ganges more than three centuries before boats. the beginning of our æra.

Nearly opposite the mouth of the Noa Dihing the Kundil The farthest branches of this riv., which has a common joins the Lohit. On the banks of this small river stands embouchure with the principal branch of the Ganges, rise Sadiya, the capital of Upper Asam : the Lohit is bere between 97° and 98° E. long., and between 28o and 29° N. | about 1200 ft. above the level of the sea. lat. Here, about 28° 30' N. lat., and 97° 30' E. long., West of Sadiya, but at no great distance, the waters of stands a snow-capped mountain range, which in the present the Lohit are increased by those of the Dihong, which brings state of our geographical knowledge must be considered the a volume at least three times as large as that of the Lohit most easterly portion of the Himalaya range: the Taluka, at their junction. A few miles from its mouth the Dihong the most N. of the sources of the Brahmapootra, has its is joined by the Diiong, a considerable river descending origin in these mountains. No European has yet seen its from the N.N.E., but by far the largest volume of water is source, but Wilcox was informed that it runs to the S.S.W. brought down by the Dihong itself, which flows as far as it in a narrow valley between high, steep, and mostly barren is known from the N.N.W. This river has been examined rocks, till it joins the Taluding, a riv. not inferior in size, only to a short distance from its mouth, where it was found which descends from the mountains of Nambio (28° N. rushing down in rapids, interrupted only by cataracts. The lat.), a ridge belonging to the Langtan chain, which latter great volume of its waters, added to other circumstances, divides the upper branches of the Brahmapootra from those renders it probable that this river is the same which is of the Irawaddi. After the junction of the Taluka and known in Tibet by the name of Sampoo or Yaru TzanghoTaluding the river continues its course to the S.S.W. be- tsin, which opinion is noticed more particularly at the end of tween high mountains, and about 20 m. lower is the most this article. E. point to which Wilcox advanced. Here the enclosing After its junction with the Dihong, the Lohit flows 'in a mountains are covered with jungle, with now and then an S.W. direction, and forms numerous islands, so that hardly intermixture of grass in spots. The riv. is full of foam, and in any place does the whole volume of its waters run in one the rocks in its bed are of such enormous size, that it is bed. Here it receives on the S. the Buri Dihing, a consihardly possible to conceive that they have been brought derable river, whose origin is near the banks of the Noa down by the riv. even in the rainy season, but their great Dihing, and separated from it by such low grounds, that at variety shows that they are not in situ. Sienitie granite, certain seasons of the year a portion of the last mentioned in which garnets are found 7-10ths of an inch in diameter, river flows to the Buri Dihing and constitutes as it were its serpentine of a flinty hardness, and primitive limestone are source, which has given rise to the opinion that the Nua most numerous.

Dihing at some remote period did not discharge its waters Near this place the riv. changes its direction, flowing for at the place where it now empties itself in the Lohit, but some miles to the N.W. between high mountains and in a constituted the upper branches of the Buri Dihing. The narrow valley; it then turns to the S., and a few miles Buri Dihing runs nearly in a due western direction, prolower down it issues from the mountains by a narrow pass, bably above 120 m., but its upper course is not known. called Prabhu Kuthár, in which the riv. is about 200 ft. A few miles after this junction, the Lohit divides into wide, and runs with great violence. Near this pass, on the two large branches, the northern of which is called Buri S. banks of the riv. is the Brahma-koond (the source of the Lohit, and the southern Buri Dihing, as if it was the conBrahma) or Deo Páni, a place of pilgrimage among the tinuation of the large affluent which joined it a few miles Hindus. It is nothing but a good sized pool, 70 ft. long farther up. These branches include the fertile island of by 30 wide, enclosed by high projecting rocks, from which Majuli, which extends from 94° 30' to 93° 40' E. long., about two or three rills descend into the pool. From this place 50 m. in length, with an average breadth of 9 m. Opposite the riv, has obtained its sacred name of Brahmapootra, this island the Buri Lohit is joined by the Suban Shiri, a the offspring of Brahma, though it is commonly called by river not inferior in volume of water to any of the tributaries the natives Lohit, or Lohitiya (Lauhitiya in Sansc., the red of the Brahmapootra, except the Dihong. It has not been river).

examined to any great distance from its mouth, but the After passing the Prabhu Kuthar the Lohit enters the abundance of its waters suggested to Wilcox the idea that valley of Upper Asam or Sadiya, where the hills retire to a it may be the lower course of the Mon-tsiu, a large river of distance of 30 or 35 m. from each bank. But though carry- Tibet ; an opinion which is very probable. ing a great volume of water, the Lohit becomes navigable Into the southern branch of the Brahmapootra, or the for large boats only at Sonpura, 12 m. above Sadiya. In Buri Dihing, falls the small river Dikho, on which the prethis distance the riv. does not intersect any rocky strata, sent capital of Asam, Jorhath, is situated, and lower down, but the torrents descending from the hills bring down in near the place where both branches reunite, the Dhunsiri, the rainy season an immense and yearly accumulating col- which rises at a great distance to the S. in the territories of lection of bolders and round pebbles of every size, which the Raja of Moonipore, in a country not yet explored by blocking up the river divide it into numerous channels, and Europeans. produce frequent rapids of short extent; all these circum After the Buri Lohit and the Buri Dihing have restances render its navigation extremely difficult and nearly united and flowed down for nearly 30 m. in one channel, impossible. In this tract the Lohit begins to display its divided only at a few places by small islands, the Brahmacharacter of dividing its stream and forming large longi- pootra divides again at the town of Bishenath (93° 15' E. tudinal islands, a peculiarity which is frequently observed long.) into two large branches, of which the northern and in its course through Asam. Near 96° 15' E. long., and larger retains the name of Lohit, and the southern is called 27° 51' 21" N. lat.., the riv. divides into two branches, of Kullung or Kolong. The island enclosed by the-e two which the N. and larger is called the Lohit or Buri Lobit, branches of the Brahmapootra extends in length upwards and the S. Sukato: these branches unite again about of 75 m., with a width of 20 or 25 m, in the midille. As 10 or 12 m. farther downward. The island thus formed is European travellers do not mention the native name of this about 2 m. wide.

island, Ritter calls it the island of Kullung. The Kullung From the Prabhu Kuthár to Sonpura the riv, runs branch of the Brahmapootra here receives a considerable nearly W., and in this tract its waters are only increased river, the Deyong, whose sources are situated far to the S. by small streams. But between Sonpura and Sadiya, in the kingdom of Katchar, and which breaks through the where it makes a bend to the S., the Lohit is joined by the chain of the Naga Mountains, like the Dhunsiri. Noa Dihing, a considerable riv., whose upper branches rise The Kullung branch of the Brahmapootra re-unites to above a hundred miles from its mouth. The best known is the Lohit a few miles above Gowahatty, below which town

mences.

the extensive valley of Asam may be considered as termi- | large rivers of the peninsula without the Ganges, and he hit nated ; for here the offsets of the Himalaya range on the on the largest, the Irawaddy. When Rennell surveyed N. and the Garo Hills on the S. approach ihe river within a the lower course of the Brahmapootra in 1769, he was struck short distance, and in many places leave but a narrow tract by its magnitude, and he collected some information realong its banks. The Brahmapootra runs here with an un- specting its upper course, which led him to conjecture that divided stream, and is hardly 1200 yards wide, which is its the Sampoo of Tibet discharged its waters by this channel. smallest breadth after its junction with the Dihong. Its The conjecture was confirmed by the information obtained stream is so exceedingly rapid, that in the rainy season by Turner at Teshoo Loomboo. Rennell inserted this river vessels are obliged to wait for a strong westerly wind, to in the first edition of his map of Hindoostan, where with enable them to stem the force of the current. Below Goyal- great ingenuity he hit nearly on the same place where at para, the Brahmapootra enters the plains of Bengal, wliere present the Dihong is found to break through the Himalaya it is only about 120 ft. above the level of the sea.

mountains. This representation of the union of the Sampoo The general direction of the Brahmapootra from the and Brahmapootra was not questioned till 1824, when ihe western extremity of the island of Kullung to its entry into British troops entered Asam, and it was discovered that the the plains of Bengal lies due E. and W., and it preserves sources of the Brahmapootra were situated much farther E. this direction still farther down to the town of Rangamatty. than the place where in Rennel's map the Sampoo enters Below Goyalpara it receives on the N. the Bonash or Manas, the vale of Asam. Lachlan and Julius Klaproth accorda con-iderable river which traverses the eastern portion of ingly conjectured that the Sampoo runs much farther to Botan, but whose course is nearly unknown, except so far the E., and, encircling the mountains at the sources of the as it runs through the plains of Bengal.

Brahmapootra, joins the Irawaddy. Klaproth, who had careNear Rangamatty the Brahmapootra declines to the S.W., fully examined the Chinese geographers, collected some and shortly afterwards takes a due southern course to passages which he thought sufficient to support his opinion. 25° N. lat., where it begins to run to the S.E. Between But the British officers, who remained in Asam, and 26° and 25° the first communication with the Ganges com especially Capt. Bedford and Lieut. Wilcox, ascertained

A small branch of the Brahmapootra running due that the Dihong, was a very large river. Their atS. falls into the Issamutty, a branch of the Teesta, which tempts to ascend it were frustrated partly by the nature joins the Ganges near Jaffiergunge; and another water- of the river within the mountains, where it comes down course, which branches off from the Brahmapootra a little in a succession of rapids and cataracts, and partly by farther down, and is called Lobnee, falls into the antient the mountaineers. But Wilcox succeeded in passing the bed of the Ganges below Jafliergunge.

mountain range between the upper branches of the BrahmaThe Brahmapootra continues its south-eastern course pootra and those of the Irawaddy, and he found that nearly to 24° N. lat., where it is joined by the Barak or in the country of the Bor Khamtis the Irawaddy is an river of Silhet. This latter river has its still unknown origin irconsiderable river, only 80 yards wide, and the natives in the mountains of Tiperah, and enters the kingdom of were not acquainted with any large river in the neighKatchar from the S. near 93° E. long. ; it then turns sud- bourhood. This renders it all but certain that the Sampoo denly to the W. and continues in this direction through the of Tibet does not join the Irawaddy, or any other river in prov. of Silhet; but E. of 92° E. long. it branches off in the adjacent countries. different channels, of which the southern and most consider On the other hand, as far as the course of the Sampoo able runs W.S.W. and falls into the Brahmapootra near the as well as of the Dihong has been fixed by astronomical obpoint where the parallel 24° is cut by the meridian 91°. servations, it is by no means improbable that both are the

From its junction with the Barak the Brahmapootra runs same river. The only point which has been determined on S.S.W. with large bends until it reaches the neighbourhood the banks of the Sampoo, by actual observation, is Teshoo of Fringybazar, where its channel widens to such a breadth, Loonboo, which Turner found at 89° 7' E. long. Farther that it struck with amazement our great geographer Rennel, down, the position of H'Lassa, which lies at no great disand led him to suppose that the Megna, which is the name tance from the Sampoo on its northern bank, has been calfor the river from Fringybazar to the sea, had at some re culated by Gaubil to be 88° 4' E. long, of Paris, or 90° 24' of mote period received the waters of the principal branch of Greenwich. Below H'Lassa the Sampoo continues its course the Ganges in addition to those of the Brahmapootra. He for a considerable distance to the E., until all information traced the old channel of the Ganges from Fringybazar to of its farther course is lost. The Dihong issues from the Dacca and Jaffiergunge, and hence through the lakes and mountains, according to the survey, at about 95° 30' E. long. morasses between Jaffiergunge and Nattore to Pootyalı Between H Lassa and this point there are therefore still and Bauleah. At present both rivers have separate em five degrees and six minutes for the known and unknown bouchures, though ihey approach so near one another that portion of the course of the river. their beds at some places are hardly two miles apart. Even It is impossible to draw any conclusion from the differafter they have left the continent their currents are still ence of lat., because the Chinese place Tibet much too far divided, that of the Ganges running to the W. of the island S. In D'Anville's map to Du Halde's description of China of Shabazpore, while the Megna sends its waters to the the known course of the Sampoo terminates at 26° 40' N. gulf of Bengal by the channel between the islands of lat., and on the Chinese map of Kienlong in 27° 30', and Shabazpore and Hattia.

consequently to the S. of the valley of the Brahmapootra : The whole course of the Brahmapootra, as here described, Klaproth accordingly, to support his opinion, has been may be estimated at 860 m. of which 160 m. belong to its obliged to place it at 28° 30', and Berghaus even at 29° 15' upper course E. of the mouth of the Dihong, 350 m. to its N. lat. But if we even admit the lat. of Klaproth, the distance middle course to Goyalpara, and the remainder to its lower of the termination of the known portion of the Sampoo course to the island of Hattia. The Ganges runs 1350 m., would only differ 24 minutes of lat. from the most northern and therefore exceeds the Brahmapootra by near 500 m. point on the banks of the Dihong, to which Wilcox ascended But the Brahmapootra carries down a much greater volume inis river (28° 6' N. lat.). of water. It was found, in January, 1828, that it discharged Klaproth supports his opinion of the identity of the near Goyalpara below the mouth of the Bonash, in one Sampoo and Irawaddy, by a few passages from Chinese second. 1 46,188 cubic ft. of water, while Rennel calculated geographers; but it is evident that all the countries that the prin«ipal branch of the Ganges in the dry season between the termination of the known course of the Samdischarges only 80,000 cubic ft. This fact is a stron 2 poo and China Proper were and still are as little known reason in support of the Dihong being the river which in to them as to us ; and as they had no knowledge at all of Tibet is known by the name of Sampoo ; but others are of the Lolit and the vale of Asam, they thought it necessary the opinion that ihe Sampoo joins the Irawaddy. We shall to unite the Sampoo with the most considerable river of brietly advert to this controversy.

the peninsula without the Ganges, the Irawaddy. To the At the time of D'Anville thé Brahmapootra was bardly passages of the Chinese geographer may be opposed the known further than by name. He therefore inserted it in decided opinion of the lamas of Tibet, who told Tuner his map of southern Asia as a small river running N. and that the Sampoo running to the S. unites its waters with S., nearly in the place where at present the Gadadhar or the river tlowing down from the Brahmakoond. Tehin tsiu de cends from the Himalaya of Bootan. He All these circumstances make it very probable that the knew, however, that the Sampo runs to the E., and that it Dihong is the continuation of the Sampoo. By adding this does not join the Kinche-kiang or Yantse-kiang. He riv. the course of the Brahmapootra is increased by upwards therefore conjectured that this river must join one of the of 1000 miles : this circumstance would sufficiently explain

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