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that though these tribes agree so well in their external cha- sandy plain that stretches along the shore from the boun racters, they have all a different language, even if a tribe dary of the republic of Uraguay Oriental to the Rio Mamconsists of only a few families, which is sometimes the case. bituba, a small riv. which enters the sea S. of the Morro de It is true that most of these languages contain some com S. Marta, and also the whole country between this plain mon roots, but the relationship is not so close that one can and the Rio Uraguay. This prov. is rich in cattle and be easily understood or learned because another is known. horses, produces the grains of Europe and rice, as well as

These tribes are still in a very low state of civilization, most European fruits; vines also succeed very well. In but they are not unacqainted with agriculture. With the ex- the most N. districts along the Rio Uraguay there are still ception of one tribe called the Muras, who live a wandering a few feeble tribes of independent Indians. life, all the aborigines of Brazil cultivate the ground and S. Pedro, the only harbour of this prov., is situated some plant the two kinds of mandioca, bananas and a species miles from the mouth of the Rio S. Pedro, on a sandy of palm trees. They have likewise divided their hunting- tongue of land. As vessels cannot approach near it, they grounds, and marked these divisions by boundaries. Still remain on the E. bank of the riv, at a place called S. Jozė. they derive the greater part of their subsistence from the S. Pedro contains between 3000 and 4010 inhabitants, and chace, the wild fruits of the forest, and from fishing. In carries on an active trade with Rio Janeiro. Porto Alegre, some tribes the men and women go naked, in others the the capital of the prov., situated on a bay formed by the women have some clothing. Certain tribes are cannibals Rio Jacuhy, is well built, and contains between 7000 and and eat their enemies, a fact well ascertained of the Boto- 8900 inh. cudos in Espirito Santo. But modern writers do not state 2. S. Catharina comprehends the hilly country along the that they kill their parents or relations and eat them, like coast between the Rio Mambituba and the Rio Šahy, the Battas of Sumatra. Most of them seem to have a very which separates it from S. Paolo, and also the island of imperfect idea of a Supreme Being, but they generally be- S. Catharina : it lies between 29° 20' and 25° 50'. Here the lieve in an Evil Spirit. The number of these savage tribes grains and fruits of Europe are cultivated together with probably exceeds 200 at least: Martius has enumerated 240; those of a hotter climate. It does not appear that there are many of them consist of only one or two families. This any free native tribes in this prov., but they sometimes enter is particularly the case with the tribes in the plain of the it from the W. side of the mountain-ridge. There are some Amazonas to the N. of the riv., where the people live in a good harbours on the coast, but the most frequented is that completely isolated state, and at great distances from one formed by the isl. of S. Catharina. The isl. of S. Catharina another. To the S. of that riy, the tribes are much more is above 30 m. long from N: to S., and from 4 to 8 m. wide; numerous, and often consist of several thousand individuals. its surface presents a succession of hill and dale, and a The Mundrucùs on the Tapajos are said to amount to great part of it is covered with fine trees; it abounds with 18,000, the Manhés to 16,000, the Guaïcurus, the plain of water, and has some fine lakes. It is separated from the the Paraguay, to 12,000; the Cajapos on the Paranahyba, an mainland by a strait, which in its narrowest part, where it afluent of the Paranà, to 8000; and the Cherentes on the is formed by two projecting capes, is not more than 200 Araguay, also to 8000.

fathoms wide. These capes divide the strait in two large All the aborigines, who lead an independent and roving ports, almost equal in size, and both very safe. The N. life, are called in Brazil Indianos bravos, or Gentios, in con and larger port is 10 m, wide, and deep enough for ships of tradistinction to the Indianos mansos (domesticated In war; it is one of the best ports in South America. The dians), who have settled among, or in the neighbourhood of town of Nossa Senhora do Desterro, the capital of the prov., the Europeans. It has always been the policy of the go- is on the W. side of the isl. upon a bay, a little to the vernment to induce a number of Indians to live in one E.S.E. of the narrowest part of the strait. It has between place, and to accustom them to agriculture. But these 3000 and 4000 inh., and some small manufactures of linen measures have seldom produced the desired effect, or if and cotton cloth, and of pottery. Many spermaceti whales they have, it has been observed that the Indians wasted are taken in the strait, and the oil is prepared in several away under numerous diseases, or returned at last to their places of the isl. and the adjacent mainland. Laguna, on former habits of life in the deep forests. Still there is a the continent, has a harbour for coasting vessels, and exports considerable number of these domesticated Indians, espe- grain, timber, and fish, which abound along this coast. cially on the coast, where they perhaps amount to 400,000 S. Francesco, near the boundary of the prov. of S. Paolo, individuals, as Freyreiss conjectures. They were brought and on an isl., has also a harbour for smacks, and exports together by the Jesuits, and induced to settle in villages, grain and a great quantity of timber and cordage. called in Portuguese aldeas, where they were accustomed to 3. S. Paolo extends over the greater part of the plain of agricultural labour. But on the suppression of that order, the Paranà, namely, that part of it which lies on the E. of the Indians left their abodes and returned to the woods, the Rio Paranà, and over the Campos da Vacaria, and the where they now cultivate a piece of ground, hardly sufficient sea-coast from the Rio Sahy, to the bay called Angra dos to give them a bare subsistence, and employ their time Reys. On the table-lands cattle and horses are raised in chietly in fishing and hunting. Their huts are better than great numbers, and grain, mandioca, and rice are cultithose of the savage tribes, and they profess Christianity. vated and exported. On the coast, sugar, tobacco, cotton,

The foreign settlers are either Portuguese, or negroes from and a little coffee, are raised. The W. districts, along the Africa who have been brought over as slaves, and for the Rio Paraná, from the mouth of the Rio Tiete to that of the most part are still in a state of slavery. The Portuguese Iguassu, are still in possession of independent tribes; and and the negro have intermingled with one another, and the country to the N. of the Tiete is exposed to incursions with the aborigines. The descendants of Europeans and from the Cajapos. This prov. has many good harbours for negroes are called Mulattos; those of Europeans and ab- coasting vessels, and some thriving towns along the coast. origines, Mameluccos; and those of the negroes and In Iguape, with 6500 inh., exports great quantities of rice. dians, Caribocos. The offspring of the Mulattos and ne Santos, the port of the town of S. Paolo, to which an exgroes, who are called Cubras, are also very numerous. The cellent road leads orer the mountains, is on the N. side of descendants of the negroes are called in Brazil Creoles. an isl., called S. Vincente, in the bay of Santos, and has a The Mameluccos are valued for their quiet disposition and harbour capable of receiving men-of-war. It has above their honesty.

7000 inh., and carries on a very considerable trade. On The whole population of Brazil is variously estimated, the same isl., but on the S. shore is the town of S. Vinfrom three and a half to five or six millions; but the different cente, the first establishment of the Portuguese in Brazil; independent aboriginal tribes, which still possess more than it is now only inhabited by fishermen. S. Sebastião, farther half the surface of the country, are not included in this to the E., is on the strait of Toque, which is more than account. It is conjectured that the negroes may amount to 2 m. wide, and separates the isl. of S. Sebastião from the about two millions, of which number more than three-fourths continent. The town has a harbour for coasting vessels, are slaves; and the descendants of Europeans to somewhat | 4500 inh., and exports timber and grain. Besides the town

The remainder are Mulattos, Mameluccos, Caribo- of S. Paolo (S. Paolo), which contains between 30,000 and cos, Cubras, &c.

40,000 inh., there are two other considerable places in the Brazil is divided into nineteen provinces, of which fifteen interior, Sorocaba and Curytiba. Sorocaba, situated to the are situated along the ocean, and four in the interior. W. of S. Paolo, has 11,000 inb., and considerable trade in Along the coast, beginning from the S., are the following cattle and grain. In its neighbourhood is the Morro de provinces :

Arasoyaba, which is several miles in circuit, and consists 1. S. Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul comprehends the entirely of iron ore. Curytiba, on the N. skirts of the Cam

more.

pos da Vacaria, is said to have a pop. of 12,000 : it sends sara, and the bay of Cururippe. Alagoas, the capital, is on the produce of that country to the coast.

the S. side of the lake of Manguaba, which is 30 m. long, At Porto Feliz on the Tiete, commences a very extensive 3 m. wide in the widest part, and connected with the water-communication, which unites the most W. districts sea by the riv. Alagoas. Porto Calvo, situated upon the of Brazil with the coast; but it is now much less used than margin of the riv. bearing the same name, 20 m. from the formerly.

sea, exports a great quantity of dye-woods. Penedo de S. 4. Rio Janeiro, comprehending the coast between the W. Francesco, a populous and commercial town, on the banks extremity of the bay, called Angra dos Reys, and the mouth of the Francesco, about 25 m. from its mouth, contains of the Rio Cabapuana, extends from 50 to 60 m. inland. 11,000 inh. To it belongs the greatest portion of the Serra do Mar; and 9. Pernambuco consists of two parts, one on the coast, the Serra de Mantigueira stretches along its W. boundary. and the otlier on the table-land. The latter is distinguished It is mountainous, but contains also extensive valleys. The by the name of Sertão de Pernambuco. The country along grains of Europe do not thrive in this prov.; but rice, man the shores extending between the riv. Una and Goyanna is dioca, and maize, are extensively cultivated. Coffee is in general tlat, but farther inland it presents a succession raised to a greater amount than in any other prov., and of hill and dale, intermixed with some level grounds of cotton is also largely raised. Savage tribes occur only to considerable extent. Where it approaches the Sertão the the N. of the Rio Parahyba. It has some excellent har surface is stony and sterile. The Sertão, which extends bours, especially those of Rio Janeiro, and of Angra dos along the left banks of the Rio S. Francesco, between the Reys. The latter is formed by two isl., Ilha Grande and prov. of Bahia and Goyaz, as far as the Rio Carinhenha, Marumbaya, lying in a parallel line with the coast, and an affluent of the Rio S. Francesco, (near 159 S. lat.) is a contains some excellent roadsteads. Two of its three en portion of the table-land of Brazil, and comprehends the trances are from 5 to 8 m. wide, with a depth of about 30 greater part of the salt steppes already described. Other fathoms. This prov. does not contain any considerable portions however afford excellent pasture for cattle, and on town except Rio Janeiro, the capital of Brazil. "Rio Ja- the banks of the riv. the plantations of cotton are rapidly NEIRO.)

increasing. Besides the common productions of tropical 5. Espirito Santo extends from the Rio Cabapnána to climates, sugar and cotton are cultivated, ami dye-wood is the Rio Belmonte along the coast, and from 60 to above got in the forests, nearly 100 m. from the sea. The inde100 m. inland. Some districts are hilly, but the greater pendent tribes, which existed in some parts of the Sertão, part of the prov. consists of extensive low plains. A small have lately been subjected or expelled. The numerous harportion of it is under cultivation, and produces sugar, bours are only adapted for small craft, except those of Cacotton, rice, mandioca, and maize in abundance. Fish | tuama, Recite, and Tamandare. The port of Catuama is. abound along the whole extent of the coast. The W. dis- at the N. entrance of the strait, which divides the isl. of tricts are occupied by the independent aborigines, among Itamaraca from the continent, and near the N. part of the whom the Botocudos are distinguished by their bravery coast. Recife is the harbour of the town of Pernambuco; and cannibalism. Along the coast are the isl. called the and the part of Tamandare lies about 30 m. S.W. of Cape Abrolhos. There are some harbours, but only fit for trad- S. Augustinho. The last named is the best, and capable of ing vessels. Victoria, or Nossa Senhora de Victoria, the holding large vessels, being 4 and 5 fath. deep at the encapital of the prov., is on the W. side of an ist. 15 m. in cir- trance, and 6 fath, within. cumference, in the large bay of Espirito Santo, which is Beside the towns of Recife and Olinde, which compose deep enough for frigates, and has safe anchorage. The the t. of PernaMBUCO, there is Goyanna, at the junction town contains 12,500 inh., who carry on an active commerce of two rivers, 15 m. from the sea, which exports considerable in the produce of the country. Caravellas, the most com- quantities of cotton. It has above 5000 inhabitants. mercial town of Espirito Santo, is opposite the Abrolhos, on 10. Parahyba do Norte extends about 60 m. along the the riv. Caravellas, which is only an arm of the sea extend coast from the Rio Goranna to the bay of Marcos, and 210 ing 10 m. inland, of considerable width and very deep; but m. at its greatest width from E. to W. More than twothe entrance is only accessible to small vessels. The town, thirds of its surface have an arid soil and are not cultivated. which contains above 4000 inh., exports chietly mandioca, The cultivated lands are in the vicinity of some rivers and tlour, and fishi, the garoupa being taken in great numbers on the mountain-ridges, which are generally covered with near the Abrolhos and the reef extendiny E. of them. trees and have a strong soil. The principal products are Porto Seguro, near the mouth of the small riv. Buranhen is sugar, cotton, mandioca, maize and tobacco, with excellent a considerable place, with a good but not deep barbour. fruits. Its few ports can only receive small vessels ; but Its inhabitants are principally occupied in the garoupa from Cape Branco a reef extends nearly 18 m. N., between fishery.

which and the beach there are 9 and 10 fath, water, in which 6. Bahia. [BAHIA; ST. SALVADOR.]

vessels can ride in safety. 7. Seregipe d'el Rey comprehends the country to the N. Parahyba is on the right bank, 10 m. above the em bouof the riv. Rio Real, as far as the embouchure of the chure of the riv. of the same name, which, though about Francesco, and 140 m. inland. Its surface is a plain, with 3 m. wide at its mouth, allows ships to ascend only for 3 m.; the exception of a few hills; but the W. portion is con- nothing but smacks can come up to the t., which contains siderably higher than the E., which is covered with forests, above 12,000 inh., and its commerce in the produce of the intermingled with patches of cultivated ground. The W. prov. is considerable. country is generally stony, with few woods or fertile 11. Rio Grande do Norte extends along the coast from tracts, and is very deficient in water. It supplies only the bay of Marcos to a range of hills called the Serra of Apvery indifferent pasture for cattle. In the E. district the pody, by which it is separated from Searà, and it runs 100 plantations of sugar and cotton are numerous.

There are in. inland. Its surface is generally uneven and hilly; at a no independent tribes in this district. The harbours are few places it rises into mountains ; forests, however, are rare formed by the mouths of the rivers, which are neither and of no great extent. In general the soil is very dry and best large nor deep.

adapted to the cultivation of cotton, in addition to which manSeregipe, the capital of the prov., is situated near the riv. dioca and maize are raised abundantly. Along the river ApParamopama, an arm of the Rio Vazabarris, 18 m. from pody near the boundary of Searà and a few others, are several the sea: coasting vessels come up to the town. It has a salt-lakes, from which great quantities of excellent salt sugar-house, a manufactory of tobacco, and some tan-pits. are extracted. No independent Indians at present exist The pop. is stated by Schäfer at 36,000, but this seems an here, but the descendants of the aboriginal tribes are numeexaggerated estimate. Estancia, the inost populous an: rous. The few harbours of this extensive coast are not commercial town in the prov., 18 m. from the sea on the deep. Natàl, the capital of the prov., is advantageously Riu Real, carries on an active commerce in the produce of situated on the right bank of the Rio Grande, near 2 im. the country.

above its mouth. It has also an easy communication with 8. Alagoas (Dos) extends along the shore from the the inland districts, the riv. being navigable for large barks mouth of the Francesco, to that of the small riv. Una, and near 40 m. Its commerce in the produce of the country is about 140 m. inland. It resembles in aspect the prov. of increasing, and the pop. is about 18,000. The Island of Seregipe, the W. districts being sterile, and producing in Fernando de Noronha, 3° 30' S. lat., about 250 m. E. N. E. the E. districts the same articles, with tobacco besides. of Cape S. Roque, belongs to this prov. It is 10 m. long, There are no independent tribes in this province. It has generally hilly and stony, with a few small portions of two good harbours, the united ports of Jaragua and Pajus- land capable of cultivation. Convicts are transported bere,

12. Seard, or Cearà, extends from the Serra Appody to its larger affluents. On the banks of the Tocanting and Mathe Serra Hibiapaba, which terminates between the riv. deira, which two rivers have been navigated for some time, Camucim and Parnahyba, in hills not far distant from the there are also a few feeble settlements, but none on those of sea, and separates it from Piauhy. It is computed to mea- the Xingu and Tapajos, nor on the rivers between the Masure, from N. to S., above 300 m. The surface of this prov. deira and Hyabary. As some attempts have been recently is generally uneven, but the valleys are wide and not deep; made to navigate the Tapajos, it is probable that new settlethe elevations are not great, except towards the S. and W. ments may be made on that riv. In this portion of the prov. boundary-line. The soil is in general sandy, arid and sterile, of Parà, is the capital, Pará (Para), and the following except on the broad summits of the mountains, where it is places :-Braganza or Cayté, on the banks of the riv. Cayté, rich and covered with forests. In the latter districts grain about 20 m. from the sea, is an old town and a considerable and mandioca are cultivated. Along the rivers cotton is place; the port is often resorted to by the coasting vessels grown... The district about the upper branches of the Rio : which navigate between Maranhão and Parà. Cameta, the Jaguaribe, the principal riv. of the prov., is the most fertile most considerable t. next to Parà, is situated on the left bank and populous. This prov. often suffers much from long of the Tocantins, above 30 m. from its mouth. It has condroughts. The descendants of the aborigines are numerous, siderable trade with Parà and the prov. of Govaz, and about especially in the less fertile districts. The shores, which' 8000 inh. Santarem, near the mouth of the Tapajos, is the in some parts are steep, in others flat and sandy, have , depôt of the numerous articles of commerce collected in the no ports except for small coasting vessels.

forests around it and farther up the Amazonas; it is also Searà, the capital, is situated near the beach, about 7 m.' visited by barges which navigate towards the country farN. W. of the mouth of the riv. Seara. It bas no barbour; ther W.' It has above 2000 inh. about 10,000 inh., and very little commerce. A raçaty,! The prov. of Parà comprehends also considerable tract on the E. bank of the Jaguaribe, 8 m. above its mouth, is N. of the Amazonas, from the E. coast to the Rio Nhathe most commercial and populous town in the prov. It has munda. This tract, which is considered as part of Gui26,000 inh., and exports cotton and hides'in large quantities. ana, is almost entirely occupied by independent tribes. The The tide, which runs 30 m. up the riv., facilitates the navi. few European settlements only occur on the sea-coast and gation. Sobral, not far from the bank of the Camucim, the on the banks of the Rio Amazonas. The most important second town in commerce and pop., is about 70 m. from are :--Macapa, at the mouth of the can. of Braganza, the the sea.

Its port is Granja, on the left bank of the Camu- principal branch of the Rio Amazonas, opposite the Archicim, 20 m. from the sea.

pelago of isl, which that great riv. forms here. It is a 13. Piauhy has only a coast of about 60 m. between the consislerable town with a fortress, and carries on an active Serra Hibiapa ba and the mouth of the Rio Parnahyba, commerce in the produce of the country. Its pop. is above which riv. divides it from Maranhão ; but it extends 400 m. 2000. Montalegre, situated on a small isl. in the riv, Guinland to the source of that riv. This prov. is only hilly on rupatuba, 7 m. from its junction with the Amazonas, is a the boundary-line of Searà and Pernambuco; it is particu- considerable place, and has some trade. Obydos, formerly larly adapted to the breeding of cattle, the pastures in the Panxis, is near the E. mouth of the Rio Oriximina, which southern portion of the plain of the Parnahyba being exten- joins the Amazonas. In this place, at the distance of about sive and excellent. Besides catile, cotton is exported, and, i 700 m. from the sea, the Amazonas runs in one channel, in addition to other grains, rice and mandioca are particu- about 900 fathoms wide, and up to this point the tide Jarly cultivated. Independent tribes still exist in the S. ascends. It has some commerce and nearly 2000 inh. district, between the rivers Parnahyba and Gorguea. It has Between the town of Macapa and Cape do Norte a narno port, except that formed by the E. mouth of the Rio Par-' row channel extends along the coast, which is formed by nahy bá, called Higuarassu. Oeyras, the capital, is situated some islands that line the coast at a short distance from it; on a small riv., which, three m. lower down, falls into the in this channel the current called pororoca, is most strongly Caninde, a tributary of the Parnahyba. It is a small town felt. At full and change, the tide, instead of gradually rising with 1700 inh. Parnahyba lies on the Higuarassu, the E. in six hours, attains its greatest height in a few minutes, and and most considerable branch of the Parnahyba, 15 m. from is accompanied with a terrific noise. [BORE.] the sea, and carries on an active trade in hides and cotton. The isl. of Maraj) or Ilha dos Joannes is the largest isl. Its pop. amounts to 2600.

of Brazil, extending above 90 m. from N. to S., and at least 14. Maranhão comprehends the western portion of the 120 from E. to W. It perhaps contains about 10,000 sq. m. plain of the Parnahyba, extending along the coast 350 m. The N. shores are washed by the sea, the W. partly by the from the western mouth of the Rio Parnahyba to that of the principal branch of the Rio Amazonas and partly by the Turyvassu, and nearly 400 m. inland. It is more billy can. of Tagipuru, which unites the great riv. to the Rio das than Pianhy, especially in the S. districts, but towards the sea Bocas, a fresh-water bay, at the E. extremity of which the extremely productive in rice and cotton, which are exported Tocantins has its embouchure. This bay and the Rio do in large quantities. All the S. and central districts and Parà enclose the isl. on the S. and E. Its surface is even, most of the W., forming all together perhaps more than half and its own numerous rivers, some of which have a course of the prov., are still occupied by independent tribes. It has 70 or 80 m., inundate, in the rainy season, considerable some good harbours, the best of which are the bays of S. tracts on the W. and S. side. About one-hall of the isl., Jozé and of St. Marcos, formed by the isl. of Maranhão, consisting of that part which borders on the ocean and the which is 20 m. long from N. E. to S. W., and 15 m. its Rio de Parà, is nearly without wood and pastured by great greatest width. To the W. of the bay of S. Marcos, the herds of cattle and horses; the other half is covered with shores are skirted by a series of small and low islands up to high trees and abundance of underwood. The pop. is prothe bay of Turyvassu, the limits of the prov, on the side of bably not much above 10,000. Parà. Besides the capital, S. Luiz de Maranhão [MA 16. S. Jozé do Rio Negro, which is not much less than RANHAO], it contains two considerable places, Alcantara Para, extends likewise on both sides of the Amazonas; on and Cachias. Alcantara, on the W. of the bay of S. Marcos, the N. side between the Rio Nhamunda and the limits of which has a port capable of receiving large coasting vessels, the rep. of Ecuador; on the S. between the Rio Madeira is a large well-built town, and carries on a considerable and the Hyabary, the limit towards Peru. The isl. of Tupitrade in the produce of the country. Cachias is situated nambarana is included in this pro., and also the country's. on the Itapicurù, where that riv. begins to be navigable for and E. of it. The Eurpoean settlements here are still less large barges, in a district which is productive in cotton : numerous and less important, and are only found on the Rio it is a considerable thriving town. Its pop. may amount to Negro and its tributary, Rio Branco, on the Yapurà, and 10,000.

the Madeira, except a very few on the Rio Amazonas. The 15. Parà is the largest of the prov. of Brazil, extending country between the Madeira and Hyabary has never been from the Rio Turyvassu, W. nearly to the isl. of Tupinam- visited by Europeans. N. of the Amazonas are many barana, along the S. bank of the Amazonas; and farther to small tribes, and S. of it the numerous tribes of the Mundthe S. to the E. banks of the Rio Madeira. This portion of rucús, Mahés, Muras, and others. Barra do Rio Negro, Parà comprehends the greater part of the plain of the Rio the capital, is situated on the banks of the Rio Negro, das Amazonas, and also considerable portions of the table- about 4 m. from its mouth, and contains above 3000 inh. land; nearly the whole of it is still in the possession of in- Tabatinga, on the Amazonas, situated near the boundarydependent tribes, the European settlements being very small line of Ecuador, is a very small place. and at great distances from one another. They only occur The isl. of Tupinambarana, which is above 150 m. long, on the banks of the Rio das Amazonas, and at the mouth of lies near the S. bank of the Amazonas, from the mouth of

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the Madeira W. Between it and the main land on the S. is Soco. Tejuco, the capital of the diamond district, and the a large, deep, and navigable channel, called can. de Irarià, seat of its administration, is situated between high mouninto which many riv. empty themselves. When the Ma- tains, on the small riv. S. Antonio, which falls into the deira is swollen, the current runs through this channel E.; Icquetinhonha: it has 6000 inh. In its neighbourhood is but in the dry season it runs partly in the Madeira, and Villa do Principe, which is nearly as large. partly to the Amazonas, by different mouths. The isl. is The communication between the prov. of Brazil is only low and covered with impenetrable woods. Nearly in the easy so far as it can be effected by sea or the Rio Amazonas. middle it is divided by a narrow strait called the Furo dos The mountains dividing the table-land from the coast are Ramos, which unites the Irarià with the Amazonas. in general steep and difficult to pass. There are only thrze

17. Matto Grosso (Great Forest) occupies the centre of S. roads over them. The most S., which leads from Santos to America. It comprehends the greater portion of the table- S. Paolo, is a carriage-road, and the best of all. Another land between the Madeira and the Araguay, the tributary road leads over the Serra da Mantigueira from Rio de of the Tocantins, the portion of the plain of the Upper Ma- Janeiro to Villa Rica, but it can only be travelled on horsedeira belonging to Brazil, the plain of the Paraguay, and the back. The third, which runs from the banks of the Rio W. portion of the table-land of the Paraná, up to the banks S. Francesco to Jacobina, and thence to Bahia, is still of that riv. A great portion of the table-land N. of the Serra worse. Between Goyaz and the country further E. are dos Vertentes seems to be a desert of little value, of which two roads. One passes from Villa Boa to Villa Rica, the Campos dos Paricis are the worst part; and no Euro- and the other from Natividade to the Rio S. Francesco. peans are settled here. The table-land of the Paranà is The country further W. communicates with the E. prov. better, and has extensive pastures; but it is still entirely only by one road, which runs from Cuyaba to Villa Boa ; possessed by the independent Indians, more especially the another road connects Cuyaba with Villa Bella. Before Cajapos. But on the riv. falling into the Paraguay, there are the last-mentioned road was made, the prov. of Matto numerous European settlements, though they are generally Grosso communicated with Rio Janeiro by the way of small. In many places gold is found, which circumstances. Paolo, and by an inland_navigation of great diffigave rise to the settlements, though the mines at present culty. Departing from Villa Bella, the barges ascended are poor or neglected. The low country on both sides of the Rio Alegre, an affluent of the Guaporé, whose upper the Paraguay is mostly occupied by the Guaïcurùs. On course is separated from the Rio Agoapehy by a portage of the plain of the Upper Madeira, along the banks of the only 4800 yards. Hence they descended the Rio Agoapehy Guaporé, there are also many European settlements: gold and Jaurà to the Paraguay. From the Paraguay they enabounds here; but the greater part of the country is pos- tered the Tacoary, afterwards the Cochim, and lastly the sessed by independent tribes.

Campuāo. Where the navigation on this riv, ceases, there Villa Bella, the capital, a considerable town, situated near is another portage of 7 m., by which the riv. Sanguisuga is the Guaporé, has 25,000 inh. and considerable mines in its reached. This riv. unites with the Rio Vermelho, and both neighbourhood. Cuyaba, not far from the banks of the fall into the Rio Pardo, a tributary of the Parand. The Rio Cuyaba, an affluent of the Rio de S. Lourenço, which Paranà was then ascended to its junction with the Tiete, is a tributary of the Paraguay, is noted for the quantity of and this latter riv. was then navigated as far as Porto Feliz. gold which was found here in the beginning of the last cen- The remainder of the road to S. Paolo and Rio Janeiro was tury. It is still a considerable place, though the mines have by land. This route has been almost abandoned since a greatly fallen off. Villa Maria, on the E. bank of the road has been made between Cuyabà and Villa Boa. Paraguay, in a very fertile country, is a thriving town. A road passing through João del Rey connects S. Paolo

18. Goyaz occupies the centre of the Brazilian table-land, with Villa Rica ; and another passing through Oeyras and including the basin of the Tocantins to its contluence with Cachias connects Bahia with Maranhão. the Araguay and the countries on the E. bank of the Ara The navigation on the Rio das Amazonas and on the guay, together with the hilly country on the Paranahyba, an Parnahyba is easy, but that on the Madeira has been almost aflluent of the Paranà. European settlements are common entirely abandoned, on account of the great number of only on some of the upper branches of the Tocantins and cataracts. The Tocantins and Araguay are navigated with Araguay, where gold was found in abundance. There are difficulty; but the Tapajos seems to present fewer obstacles. a few small settlements along the Tocantins up to its con Commerce of Brazil. - The scarcity of the means of in. fluence with the Araguay. By far the greater portion of land communication prevents the prov. of Matto Grosso and the country is in possession of independent tribes; among Goyaz, which lie at a great distance from the sea, from which the Cajapos on the Paranahyba, and the Chevantes, bringing their agricultural produce to any market, and between the Tocantins and Araguay, are the most numerous. their export is consequently limited to gold and diamonds. Villa Boa, the capital, situated on the Rio Vermelho, an Minas Geraes, which is connected by tolerable roads with aflluent of the Araguay, in a country rich in gold, contains Rio Janeiro, Bahia, and S. Paolo, and also enjoys the ad. 7000 inh. Nossa Senhora do Pilår, a considerable place vantage of an easy navigation on the middle course of the near the ridge, which divides the affluents of the Tocantins S. Francesco, exports its gold and precious stones, and also from those of the Araguay, is in the neighbourhood of some coffee and cotton: S. Paolo exports its more bulky and rich gold mines. Natividade, a town 35 m. from the E. heavy products by the port of Santos. bank of the Tocantins, is the most commercial place of the The foreign commerce of Brazil is more extensive than prov.: it sends its produce to Bahia.

that of any other country of America, except the United 19. Minas Geraes comprehends the E. and, as it appears, States. The vessels of all nations are admitted on the same most elevated portion of the Brazilian table-land along the conditions, and their cargoes pay the same duties. The most upper course of the Rio de S. Francesco, together with the important articles of exportation are sugar, 1,500,000 cwts. most N. part of the table-land of the Paranà. It is rich in annually ; coffee, 720,000 cwts., and cotton, from 230,000 gold, iron, and diamonds. Gold is found, particularly in the to 250,000 bags. The exportation of cocoa, hides, tobacco, upper branches of the Francisco and its two affluents, the rice, horns and horn-tips, dye-wood, sarsaparilla, and indianParoapeba and Rio das Velhas; and diamonds in the rubber is also considerable. The smaller articles are isinIcquetinhonha and Abaeté. The countries about these riv. glass, indigo, castor-beans, castor-oil, and different drugs. are well settled by Europeans, except the Abaeté; but a The following are the ports frequented by European ves. large portion of the prov. is possessed by Indian tribes, sels. From S. Pedro in Rio Grande do Sul are exported among which are the Botocudos, the Purůs, and the Co-three-fourths of all the hides brought from Brazil; formerly roados. Villa Rica, since 1822 called Villa Imperiale del they were sent chiefly to Rio de Janeiro, and a few to Oiro Preto, the capital of the prov., is situated near the Bahia, but now a considerable portion is exported direct to Serra Itacolumi, in the midst of mountains rich in gold: it Europe, and chiefly to Antwerp. The greatest part of the has 8200 inh. Marianna, at no great distance further to jerked beef which is prepared in the prov. is consumed by the E., has also considerable mines in its neighbourhood, the slaves in the S. prov. of Brazil; but a part is exported and 7000 inh. S. João del Rey, on a small riv. which unites to the Havanna, as well direct from S. Pedro, as from Bahia with the Rio Grande, the principal branch of the Paranà, and Rio Janeiro. Wheat and tallow go to Rio Janeiro. has above 6000 inh. In its vicinity are some mines, but it Santos sends the numerous productions of S. Paolo to Rio derives more importance from the road between S. Paolo Janeiro ; and also a few cargoes of rice and some sugar to and Villa Rica passing through it. Sabarà, on the Rio das Europe, chiefly to Lisbon: a considerable part of the sugar Velhas, contains 6000 inh. In its neighbourhood are con- exported from Rio Janeiro is brought from Santos. siderable mines, among which are the rich mines of Congo Rio Janeiro exports a great quantity of coffee, which now

amounts to 550,000 bags annually, being ten times the France sends to Brazil, chiefly from the ports of Havre quantity exported from all the other Brazilian ports. It is and Brest, some articles of fashion, trinkets, furniture, wax sent to all parts of Europe, chiefly to Antwerp, Hamburg, candles, hats, dry fruits, some glass goods, and wine. From and Trieste, as well as to the United States. Next to coffee, Holland and Belgium are sent beer, glass goods, linen, sugar is an important article of exportation, being from geneva, and paper; from Germany, Bohemian glass, linen, 16,000 to 18,000 cases annually: it goes almost entirely to and iron and brass utensils; from Russia and Sweden, iron, Europe, and chiefly to Hamburg ; but when European copper utensils, sail-cloth, cords, ropes and tar; from Porprices are low, part of it has occasionally been sent to Buenos tugal

, wine, brandy, fruits, hats, and European manufacAyres and round Cape Horn. The smaller articles are tures; from the United States, considerable quantities of hides, brought from Rio Grande do Sul and S. Paolo, rum, wheat, flour, biscuits, soap, spermaceti candles, train-oil, tar, dye-woods, and drugs: the first two are considerable. leather, boards, pitch, potashes, and some rough articles of

Bahia, or S. Salvador, is the principal port for the ex- furniture and coarse cotton cloth. portation of sugar, which annually amounts to from 50,000 The maritime intercourse between Brazil and the neighto 60,000 cases. It also exports 40,000 bags of cotton, bouring republics is not considerable. The most active is some tobacco, rum, rice, cacao, rosewood, and drugs. The that carried on with Buenos Ayres, to which sugar, tapioca, sugar goes principally to Hamburg and Trieste, and the and some other agricultural products are sent, and whence cotton to England, a small portion only being sent to the Paraguay tea or maté is brought back. France. To Lisbon and Oporto are sent part of the sugar, Formerly an active trade was carried on with the coasts tobacco, rum, and cacao, and all the rice; and to the coast of Africa, whence, in some years, 40,000 slaves were imof Africa much rum and the inferior quality of tobacco. ported, chiefly from Benguela, Cabinda, and Mozambique.

Pernambuco supplies cotton, sugar, and Brazil-wood. The But the slave trade has been abolished, and since that time cotton, amounting to above 100,000 bags annually, comes the traffic has probably much decreased. From Mozammostly to England; the sugar being less fit for refining, is bique are imported gold-dust, ivory, pepper, Columbo root, distributed in small portions to many markets: it amounts ebony, and some East India goods; from the western coasts to about 15,000 cases. The Brazil-wood of best quality is of Africa, wax, palm-oil, ivory, ground-nuts, sulphur, and found in the neighbourhood of Pernambuco, and is exported some gum-arabic; from the Cape Verde islands, sulphur, on account of the government, which has a monopoly in it. gum-arabic, and salt. The intercourse with Goa and Macao Though this article is also found in the provs. of Rio Janeiro is not great. From these places are brought cotton pieceand of Bahia, it is of a quality so inferior to that grown near goods, fine muslins, and printed cottons, silk stuffs, porceCape S. Roque as to bear no comparison in value. The lain, tea, India ink, cinnamon, pepper, and some camphor. smaller articles are hides, cocoa-nuts, ipecacuanha, and For some years after the opening of the Brazilian ports to other drugs.

free trade, nearly all the commerce was with England and Maranhão exports chiefly cotton, rice, tapioca, hides, and Portugal ; but on the general peace in Europe in 1814, the horns, with isinglass and some drugs. The cotton, amount- northern ports of the continent began to participate in it. ing to about 50,000 bags, goes chiefly to England (36,000), As almost all the most important products of Brazil are exand the remainder to Portugal and Spain. The rice and cluded from consumption in England by enormous duties, tapioca (mandiocca flour) is sent to Portugal. The hides other countries are gradually, though slowly, supplanting (100,000) are divided between England and the United the British in the Brazil trade. States : France and Belgium receive only a small number. Probably the British trade with Brazil is on the whole What is called Maranhão cacao is the produce of Parà, and greater now than ever it was, but it by no means comprises is not now exported at all from Maranhão.

the same proportion of the whole of the Brazilian commerce. Parà, though a larger town than S. Pedro and Santos, is The whole trade of Brazil has certainly increased very cona place of much less trade: its exports consist of a greater siderably, and though the English share in this trade has variety of articles. Cacao is the chief article; next to it also increased, yet its proportion to the whole is not what it India-rubber, then isinglass, hides, cotton, castanha-nuts, once was. For some years British shipping carried nearly and many kinds of drugs. In some years a very little sugar the whole produce of Brazil, but now it carries less than has been exported, but in general both Maranhão and Parà two-thirds. North American, Hamburg, Swedish, and require supplies of that article from the S. provinces. other tiags have entered into competition with the British,

Foreign vessels have begun to enter the ports of Searà, and so successfully, that the Americans are annually acAracaty, and Parahyba, but the commerce of these towns quiring a larger share of the trade. The principal cause of is comparatively insignificant: from the first are brought this change is that the bulky articles, such as Brazilian some few cargoes of cotton, and from the two last sugar and sugar, coffee, and cacao, being loaded with heavy duties in cotton.

England, are consumed wholly in other countries, and only On the whole, nearly all the sugar of Brazil finds a brought to England for re-exportation; but by carrying market at Hamburg, Trieste, and Portugal; the rice is, these articles direct to the countries of their consumption, with a trilling exception, sent to Portugal; the coffee is much expense is saved, and in doing this foreigners emdivided between the continent of Europe and the United ploy their own vessels. The only chance the British have States, the latter having increased their imports to nearly for securing the important carrying trade in Brazilian produce one-third of the whole quantity in late years. Almost all would be by a material reduction of the duties in England. the cotton, rosewood, India rubber, and isinglass is brought History. - Brazil was discovered in the last year of the to England. The hides are distributed between England, fifteenth century. The voyages of Columbus and Vasco the continent of Europe, and the United States. The to- de Gama, who first sailed across extensive seas, had taught bacco is sent to Portugal and to Gibraltar, previous to being navigators to adopt the practice of entering at once upon smuggled into Spain ; and to the coast of Africa. The the open ocean. Accordingly Pedro Alvares de Cabral, rum, which is exported, finds a market chiefly on the Afri- who, after the return of Vasco de Gama, was sent by the can coast, and in some ports of Portugal.

king of Portugal with a large navy to the East Indies, The annual exports from Brazil may be estimated at about directed his course from the Cape Verde islands to the S.W., 5,000,0001., of which nearly one-half is exported to England and was carried by the equatorial current so far to the W. by British vessels; of the remainder about three-fourths go that he found himself very unexpectedly in sight of land in to the continent of Europe in Swedish, Danish, Portuguese, 10o S. lat. This country was Brazil, which he saw first on and Hamburg vessels, and the rest is carried to America. the 3rd of May, 1500. He sailed along the coast as far as

The imports into Brazil may likewise be estimated at Porto Seguro (16° S. lat.), where he landed and took posabout 5,000,0001. More than four-fifths are brought from session. He sent an account of his discovery to Lisbon, England and its colonies in English vessels. The most im- and continued his voyage to India. The king afterwards portant article is cotton fabrics, which amount to nearly sent Amerigo Vespucci, a Florentine, to examine the coun1,500,0001.; next to these, woollen articles, linen, brass and try, who took a rapid survey of nearly the whole of its copper ware, butter and cheese, iron and steel, wrought and shores, and upon his return published an account of it, with unwrought, hardware and cutlery, hats, arms and ammuni a map. To this publication this navigator is indebted for tion, soap and candles, and tin. Many cargoes of cod are the honour of having given his Christian name to the new sent from the British fisheries in North America ; and from continent. the British colonies potashes, India cotton piece-goods, silks Vespucci, and others who were sent somewhat later, re and spices. Nearly the whole of this commerce is carried ported that the country was not cultivated, and did not offer on by vessels from London and Liverpool.

any great commercial advantages, but that they had found

VOL. V.-3B

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