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tion, he killed himself. (Diodorus Siculus, xxii.; Fragm. on horseback were to pay a penny; those on foot a halfp. 300, Bipont. edit.; Pausanias, x. 19-23.)

penny. Other passengers were exempt. The state of the BRENT GOOSE (zoology). [Goose.]

bridge was long a cause of complaint, and various alteraBRENTA, called by the Romans Medoacus Major, a riv. tions were made to adapt it to the increasing number of of North Italy, derives its source from two small lakes near passengers. In 1824 the present bridge was built, which Pergine, in the mountains of the Tyrol, a few miles to the is of stone, of one arch, 34 ft. between the parapets, 50 ft. E. of Trento, flows E. through a long and narrow valley wide in the water-way under the bridge, and 15 ft. high to between high mountains, then turns towards the S. at the summit within the arch. Primolano, where it enters the Venetian territory. At New Brentford church was rebuilt in 1764. The living Bassano the Brenta issues from the mountains into the is a curacy subordinate to Hanwell, and was at one time great Paduan plain. At Limena there proceeds from it a held by John Horne Tooke. There are seven daily schools, cinal called La Brentella, which joins the Bacchiglione. of which two are national, and three Sunday schools, in The Brenta continues its course in a S.E. direction, passing New Brentford ; in Ealing, which includes Old Brentford, near Padua to the N. of it; it then assumes a course nearly there are 17 daily schools, one of which is endowed, and due E. towards the lagoons of Venice. Near Strà, it re- two others are partly endowed; eight boarding schools, and ceives a canal from the Bacchiglione, which passes through four Sunday schools. At Ealing there is a labour-school Padua. At Dolo, below Strà, a cut was made by the princes for the poorer classes. Some organic remains were dug up of Carrara, lords of Padua, which carries part of the waters in a field near Brentford, of which an account is given in of the Brenta in a S. direction for nearly 20 m. to Brondolo, the Phil. Trans. for 1813. The Grand Junction Canal at the S. extremity of the Venetian lagoons. This cut is comes into the Brent a little below Hanwell, and is thus called Brenta Nuova. The main stream of the Brenta, carried to the Thames at Brentford. however, continuing its course to Fusina, where it entered In 1616, Edmund Ironside, having obliged the Danes to the lagoons opposite to Venice, occasioned considerable raise the siege of London, pursued them to Brentford, and mischief by the violence of its current and its frequent defeated them with great slaughter. On the 14th of Nooverflowing, to prevent which the Venetians made a second vember, 1642, an action occurred between the royalist and cut at La Mira, a little below Dolo, which cut runs nearly parliamentary forces at Brentford, in which the latter were parallel to the other, and E. of it, until both streams join defeated. Patrick Ruthen, earl of Forth, in Scotland, was, near Brondolo, where they enter the sea. This second for his services in this action, created, by Charles I., earl of cut is called Brenta Nuovissima. The original bed of the Brentford, a title which became extinct with him in 651. Brenta, from La Mira to Fusina, was at the same time In 1689 the title was revived by King William, who gave it em banked and made into a canal with locks, and it took to Duke Schomberg; Schomberg's son, who died in 1719, the name of Brenta Morta, 'the Dead Brenta. Some call was the last earl of Brentford. Six Protestants suffered at it also Brenta Magra, “the Shrunk Brenta.' The com- the stake in the town of Brentford on 14th July, 1558. munication between Padua and Venice is carried on by (Lysons Environs of London; Report of Middlesex means of this canal, by which the boats from the interior Magistrates on the Bridges of the County, 1826; Popusupply Venice with provisions. (Coronelli Atlante Veneto.) lation and Education Returns.) The banks of the Brenta below Padua have been long cele BRENTWOOD. (Essex.] brated for the number of fine mansions and villas of the BRENTI'DES, a family of coleopterous insects, beVenetian patricians, which follow each other for several longing to the section Rhynchophora and sub-section Recmiles. In the time of Venetian wealth and greatness, the ticornes. Distinguishing characters :-body much elonbanks of the Brenta were like a splendid suburb of Venice. gated; tarsi with ihe penultimate joints bilobed ; antennæ The most remarkable palaces are those of Giovannelli at filiform, or in some with the terminal joint formed into a Noventa; Imperiali

, formerly Pisani, at Strà; and near it, club; proboscis projecting horizontally, generally long; in the palace Tiepolo; the palace Tron, at Dolo; the palace the male longer ihan in the female; palpi minute. Bembo, at La Mira; that of Foscari, near Moranzano; the The insects constituting this family are among the most palace Foscarini, adorned with paintings by Titian and Paul remarkable of the beetle tribe, and are almost entirely conVeronese, &c. The country, however, being flat and low, is fined to tropical climates: only one species has yet been unfavourable to landscape effect. A recent traveller (Valéry, discovered in Europe. But little is known of the habits Voyages en Italie) thinks the banks of the Brenta have of these insects, except that they are generally found been overpraised; he considers the arrangement of the plea- crawling on trees, or under the bark, and sometimes on sure grounds too symmetrical, being in the old style of orna- flowers. The most common colouring of the species is mental gardening, the trees cut into artificial shapes, &c. black, or brown, with red spots and markings. Several of the handsomest palaces have been pulled down The four principal genera of the brentides are as folsince the fall of the Venetian republic, and there is an air of lows:

Brentus, Arrhenodes, Ulocerus, and Cyclas. The decay about most of those that remain. The whole course of genus Brentus is chiefly distinguished by having the anthe Brenta, with its numerous windings, is nearly 100 miles. tennæ eleven-jointed, either filiform or sometimes slightly

BRENTFORD, a m. t. of Middlesex, on the N. bank enlarged towards the apex, and the body linear. of the Thames, about 8 m. from the general post-office. It Brentus Temminckii (Klüg), one of the most remarkable is divided into Old and New Brentford by the riv. Brent, species of the tribe, will give an idea of their general form: which rises near Chipping Barnet, on the borders of Mid- it is found in Java, and is of a blackish colour, varied with dlesex and Hertfordshire, and, after traversing, a large red markings, and has deeply-striated elytra. portion of Middlesex, falls into the Thames in Isleworth parish. Old Brentford is in the par. of Ealing, Ossulston hund.; New Brentford in the par. of Hanwell, Elthorne hund. In 1831, the pop. of New Brentford was 2,085 ; of Old Brentford, including Ealing, 7,783.

Brentford is situated on the great western road leading from the metropolis. It is a long, straggling, ill-built town. In the par. of Ealing, the market gardens afford employment to many labourers as well as women and children. The trade of the town is derived from the traffic of the thoroughfare, and from flour-mills, malting, and brickmaking. There are two annual fairs, held in May and September, which last three days each, for horses, cattle, hogs, &c. The market-day is Tuesday.

Brentford has derived some notoriety as having been the place of county election for members to serve in parliament. It is considered as the county town, though it possesses no town-hall nor separate jurisdiction; it is still the place of

Brentus Temminckii (Klūg). nomination, and one of the polling places for the county. In the genus Arrhenodes the rostrum is short and ter.

There was a bridge at Brentford over the riv. Brent from minated by two distinct mandibles, which are straight and a very early date. In 1280 Edward I. granted a toll in aid project considerably in the males. The species inhabit of this bridge, by which all Jews and Jewesses passing over ) North America, and one is found in Europe, A. italica.

Ulocerus has the antennæ nine-jointed, the last of which worked at Rezzato, Virle, and Botticino, near Brescia : the forms a club.

white marble of Botticino is much valued. Cyclas has the antennæ ten-jointed: the terminal joint The proy, of Brescia is divided into 17 districts, which conforms an oval club; the thorax is indented in the middle, tain 235 communes. (Serristori, Saggio Statistico, Vienna, and the abdomen is of an oval form.

1833.) The towns, besides Brescia are : Chiari, 8000 inh.; BRESCIA, THE PROVINCE OF, in the Lombardo Montechiaro, 5000; Lonato, 6000; Desenzano, 3600; Sald, Venetian kingdom, and in that part of it which is called 4300; Pontevico, 5000; Castenedolo, 4400; besides many the government of Milan, or Lombardy Proper, extends smaller towns of between 2000 and 3000 each, such as from 45° 14' to 46° 1' N. lat., and from 9° 50' to 10° 37' E. Manerbio, Ghedi, Leno, Carpenedolo, Calvisano, Verolalong. It is bounded N. by the Tyrol and by the Val nuova, Orzinovi, Quinzano, Rovate, Palazzolo, Isen, GarCamonica in the prov. of Bergamo, from which it is divided done, Gavardo, Toscolano, &c., and about 200 villages. On by an offset of the Rhætian Alps which runs S. between the W. coast of the lake of Idro the fortress of Rocca d' the Oglio and the Chiese, E. by the lake of Garda, which Anfo built on a rock, is one of the stations of the Austrian divides it from the Veronese, S.E. by the prov. of Mantua, artillery. S. and $.W, by the prov. of Cremona, and W. by the prov. The prov. is administered by a delegate, each district by of Bergamo. The river Oglio and the lake of Iseo, 19 n. in a commissary, and each commune by a municipal officer length, through which the Oglio passes, mark the boundary called Podestà. For the military there is a commandant at between Brescia and Bergamo, and also between Brescia Brescia. For judicial purposes there are civil, criminal, and Cremona. The length of the prov, is 54 m. from N. to and mercantile courts, from which there is an appeal to the S., and its greatest breadth from the lake of Garda to the upper courts at Milan. The ecclesiastical jurisdiction is river Oglio is about 33 m. The area is about 1300 sq. m., and vested in the bishop of Brescia. The secondary instruction the pop. 322,000. (Bollettino Statistico di Milano, 1833.) is afforded by the I.yceum and the gymnasium at Brescia, The territory with regard to its surface and the nature of the gymnasia of Desenzano and Sald, the diocesan gymnathe soil may be divided into three tracts : 1. the valleys and sium and seminary for clerical students, besides a college mountains N. of the town of Brescia, which are rugged and for boarders and several private establishments authorised cold in winter, and little productive. 2. the W.coast of the by the government. Female education is given by the lake of Garda called Riviera di Sald, which has a mild cli- Ursuline nuns at Brescia, and by the nuns of St. Francis de mate, and produces wine, oil, and fruit in abundance; 3. Sales at Sald. For the elementary education there are 346 the S. part of the prov., which forms part of the great schools for boys and 249 for girls, being more than one of plain of Lombardy, and produces corn, rice, Indian corn, each for every commune. The number of pupils was in tlax, grass, and a great quantity of mulberry-trees. Be-1833 17,381 boys, and 11,797 girls, being the highest numsides the Oglio, which skirts the province of Brescia to ber in proportion to the pop. among all the Lombard provs., the W. and S., two rivers, the Mella and the Chiese, cross it that of Bergamo excepted. from N. to S., and drain the two principal valleys of its N. The charitable institutions in the prov.

v. are: 1. 14 hospidivision. The Mella, which has its source in the moun-tals for the sick, the insane, foundlings, &c., with a revenue tains 22 m. N. of Brescia, tlows through the Val Trompia, altogether of about 15,3001. 2. Orphan asylums, refuge then passes close to the town of Brescia and W. of it, and for the destitute, for invalids, and old people; revenue after a course of about 55 m. enters the Oglio near Ostia no. 10,0001. 3. Eleemosynary foundations, of which there is The Chiese has its source at the N. extremity of the prov. one in almost every commune; revenue 41,850l. They on the borders of the Tyrol; it then enters the lake of Idro, relieve the indigent of their respective communes, there •which is about 8 m. long and from one to two in breadth; being no poor rates or parochial relief for the poor in Lomissuing from its S, extremity, it flows through the valley bardy, or indeed in any part of Italy. 4. A house of incalled Val Sabbio, N.E. of Brescia ; then enters the plains, dustry, or workhouse, in the town of Brescia, with an income passes near Montechiaro, marks the boundary between the of 7001., and with generally about 240 inmates, one half provinces of Brescia and Mantua for about 10 m., and after- of whom are unable to work, and are kept separate from wards leaving the territory of Brescia divides the provinces the others. Houses of industry have been established in of Mantua and Cremona until it enters the Oglio below each of the principal towns of Lombardy, in consequence Canneto. A canal, or naviglio, as all canals for navigation of mendicity having been forbidden by law, but as yet they are called in Lombardy, issues out of the Chiese at Gavardo, seem to be very indifferently administered. The governpasses close to the town of Brescia, then runs S. nearly ment however has turned its attention to this subject as parallel to the course of the Chiese and W. of it, and enters well as to that of the administration of charities in general, the Oglio above Canneto, whence the boats proceed by the and a new plan of reform is expected. (Bollettino StalisOglio into the Po. There are many other minor canals in tico, 1833.). 5. Several Monti di Pietá, which lend money the prov. of Brescia, mostly for the purpose of irrigation, on pledges at a small interest, and many others which lend which is carried on to a great extent, and also for turning a certain quantity of corn to poor villagers and labourers, to mills and other machinery. The prov. of Brescia is crossed be returned with interest in kind. The interest is about from W. to E. by the high road from Milan to Peschiera one-16th of the capital yearly. 6. Foundations for poor and Verona, from which other roads branch S. to Crema, students; income 8651. Cremona, and Mantua. To the N. a road leads by Sald The people of the prov. of Brescia are a fine healthy race, and the W. coast of the lake of Garda to Riva and Roveredo especially in the N. districts; they furnished the finest men in the Tyrol, and another mountain-road leads into Valte to the army of the late kingdom of Italy under Napoleon. lina by Edolo in the Val Camonica. A steam boat plies They are spirited and quick, and had once the character of between Riva and Desenzano, at the two opposite extre- being very quarrelsome ; under the Venetian government, mities of the lake of Garda.

Brescia was one of the provinces of N. Italy in which most The chief productions of the prov. of Brescia are, silk, murders were committed. It must be observed however flax, cheese, and iron. Corn is produced enough for the that the provinces called d'Oltra Mincio, i.e. Bergamo, consumption, the peasantry living upon Indian corn. In Brescia, and Crema, being later acquisitions of Venice, were ile N. valleys numerous Hocks of sheep are reared, the the worst administered, especially with regard to the judiwool of which is used for the home manufactory, especially of ciary system. The feudal jurisdictions then in force interblankets which are made in the district of Iseo. 'The iron fered with the administration of justice. In the prov. of mines of Collio Bovegno and Pezzaze in the Val Trompia, Brescia alone there were 20 feudal towns or villages. The with the foundries and forges in which the iron is wrought, old provinces of the Republic, such as Padua, Vicenza, are an important source of profit and employment. The Verona, &c. were under a more equitable system. Things manufactories of fire-arms as well as of sabres, &c. for which have changed in Brescia for the better in this respect, Brescia has been long celebrated, employ also several hun- owing to more equal laws, a good police, and a better edudred workmen. In the Riviera of Sald they spin a great cation. Instead of the former deadly feuds between rival quantity of tlax, and have also many paper-mills. In the families,' says a contemporary, 'the only rivalship now explains S. of Brescia silk is the great branch of industry isting between country proprietors is about who can inake There are numerous silk mills and also several manufacto- the best wine. The nobles and rich landlords spend much ries of silk-stuffs, but the greater quantity of the silk is spun of their time on their estates, sporting, fishing, and hospibefore it is exported, and is valued at nine millions of Aus- tably entertaining their friends.' (Pecchio, Vita di Ugo trian livres yearly, about 300,0001. sterling. There are also Foscolo.) Upon the whole the prov, of Brescia is one of manufactories of cottons and leather. Marble quarries are the finest in Lombardy.

BRE'SCIA, (the Roman Brixia) the capital of the prov. I it was ravaged by the Goths, the Huns, and lastly was taken of Brescia, is situated in a plain between the river Mella by the Longobards, and became one of the principal towns and the naviglio or canal which comes out of the river of their kingdom. Desiderius, their last king, was a native Chiese, and joins the Oglio in 45° 32' N. lat, and 10° 13' of Brescia, where he founded the monastery of St. SalvaE. long. The hills from the N. come close to the town. tore, called afterwards Sta. Giulia, of which his daughter Brescia is nearly square, surrounded by walls, about four Ansperga was the first Abbess. A cross, richly ornamented m. in eircuit, and has a castle on a hill which is inclosed with cameos, representing mythological subjects, which was within the walls in the N.E. quarter of the town. The given by Desiderius to his daughter, is preserved in the pop., in 1833, was 34,000 (Serristori Saggio Statistico). library. After the fall of the Longobards, Brescia passed It is a bustling, lively, well-built t., a bishop's see, and the under the Carlovingians: it afterwards submitted to Otho of residence of the delegate or governor of the province. Saxony, who gave it municipal privileges and franchises, by Brescia has many fine churches with numerous paintings by which it governed itself for nearly three hundred years under the great masters, principally of the Venetian school. The its own consuls. It joined the Lombard League against rotunda of the old duomo or cathedral is a structure of the Frederic Barbarossa, and afterwards resisted the attacks of Longobards of the 7th century. The new cathedral is a Frederic II. Being distracted by the factions of the Guelphs splendid building, as well as the churches of Sta. Maria dei and Guibelins, it was taken successively by Eccelino

the Tiracoli, Sta. Maria delle Grazie, del Carmine, La Pace, Sta. tyrant of Padua, by the Pallavicini of Piacenza, the Tor. Afra, S. Pietro, &c. They abound in paintings by native riani of Milan, the Scaligeri of Verona, and other feudal artists, among others by Moretto, a delightful painter, whose lords, until it submitted to the Visconti, of whose yoke the works alone, Lanzi says, are worth a journey to Brescia to citizens growing tired gave themselves up to the Venetians see them. Among the palaces, the town-house called la in 1426. The league of Cambrai took it from Venice in Loggia, the episcopal palace, and the palaces Martinengo, 1509, when it passed under the French, from whom having Avogadri, Lecchi, Gambara, Fenaroli, &c., deserve visiting: revolted in 1512, it was retaken by storm by Gaston de Foix, Of the galleries of paintings those of Count Lecchi and who gare it up to all the horrors of pillage and massacre. It Count Tosi are the principal. The public library, founded was on this occasion that Bayard was severely wounded. by the learned Cardinal Querini, Bishop of Brescia, in the Soon after, by the retreat of the French, Venice recovered 18th century, has 28,000 volumes. Querini's voluminous all its possessions, and Brescia among the rest. From that correspondence with D'Aguesseau, Fleury, Montfaucon, time Brescia remained under the republic till 1797, when a Dom Calmet, Voltaire, &c. is preserved in the library. The party of nobles and citizens, dissatisfied with the Senate

, rich cabinet of medals of the learned Count Mazzuchelli has and encouraged and assisted by the French and the Mibeen described in the Museum Mazzuchellianum, 2 vols. fol. lanese, revolted against Venice. Bonaparte annexed Brescia

Brescia, next to Rome, has most fountains of any town with Bergamo to the Cisalpine republic. By the peace of in Italy. There are 72 public fountains in the streets and 1814 Brescia, with the rest of Lombardy, passed under the squares, besides some hundreds of private ones. The water dominion of Austria. (In addition to the authorities cited, comes from the hills in the neighbourhood. Many antient see Nuova Guida per la Città di Brescia, by P. Brognoli, inscriptions have been found at Brescia, and of late years Brescia, 1826.) the remains of a handsome temple have been excavated. BRESLAU, one of the 25 government circles (reThe temple appears to have been raised by Vespasian to gierungs-bezirke) of the kingdom of Prussia, includes the commemorate his victory over the troops of Vitellius near central districts of the prov.of Silesia, among which was the Cremona. (Tacit. Hist. iii. 27.) Fine marble pillars, sta- former principality of Breslau, has an area of about 5208 tues, and among the rest a very beautiful bronze statue of sq. m., with a pop. of about 970,000, of which nearly oneVictory have been found. (Antichi monumenti nuovamente third resides in the 55 towns in the circle : about fivescoperti in Brescia illustrati e delineati con tavole in rame, eighths are Protestants; and the remainder, with the exBrescia, 1829.)

ception of about 8000 Jews, are Roman Catholics. In 1805, The climate of Brescia is healthy, but subject to sudden the inh. of the districts composing this circle amounted to storms. Provisions of every kind are abundant, and fish is 478,560. It is the principal seat of the Silesian manufacbrought from the lakes of Garda and Iseo. Science and tures. Owing to the lofty ranges which separate it from literature have been cultivated at Brescia for ages past. Bohemia and Moravia, it is very mountainous in the S., but Among the men of learning it has produced, we may men the rest of the circle is an almost uninterrupted level. Those tion Arnaldo da Brescia, the mathematician Tartaglia, two parts which lie on the left bank of the Oder are naturally learned ladies, Veronica Gambara and Laura Fereta, in the productive; but the country on the right bank, being either 16th century; the naturalist Father Terzi Lana, Mazzu- sandy or wooded, is much less adapted to cultivation. The chelli, Gagliardi, Corniani, in the 18th, and in the present spinning both of flax and cotton yarn, and Weaving and century the poet Arici, the archæologist Dr. Labus, and the bleaching of linen, are carried on to a considerable extent. philologist and historian Ugoni. The painters Gambara, Breslau also manufactures glass, paper, wax, porcelain, tar, Moretto, Vincenzo called il Bresciano, and others were na- potashes, saltpetre, copper, iron, &c., and produces silver, tives of Brescia. The priest Giuseppe Beccarelli, who bad iron, tin, copper, and coals. The agricultural part of the pop. been for more than twenty years at the head of a large esta are engaged in breeding horses and cattle, and growing tilas, blishment of education at Brescia, being accused of immo- tobacco, hops, grain, fruit, and vegetables. Mining, felling rality and heresy, was condemned, in 1710, by the Inquisi- timber, and working stone and wood, give employment liketion to the galleys, which penalty the Senate of Venice com wise to thousands. Besides the 55 towns, of which the largest muted into perpetual imprisonment, in which he died. This are Breslau, the capital, and next to this, Brieg (about 10,500 was the last act of the Inquisition of Brescia. A copy of inh.), Schwiednitz (9000), Glatz (6700), Oels (5400), and Beccarelli's interrogatory and other inedited documents con Frankenstein (5600); the circle contains 8 m. t. and 2245 cerning the same, are in the possession of Dr. Labus. A vils., including isolated farms. In 1818, it contained 82,040 large painting in the town palace represents Beccarelli's hearths; but in 1831, 118,946. The circle of Breslau has 22 condemnation. For a full account of the learned men of minor circles, one of which, also called Breslau, has an area Brescia, see Cozzando Libreria Bresciana.

of about 302 sq. m., and contains about 130,000 inh. The Ateneo, or Academy of Sciences and Belles Lettres of BRESLAU, a large city and university at the confluence Brescia, publishes yearly its Commentarii,' or Memoirs. of the Ohlau and Oder, in a spacious plain, at an elevation A weekly journal is published at Brescia, Giornale della of 452 ft. above the level of the sea, is not only the capital provincia Bresciana. There is a handsome theatre, a casino of the circle of this name, but of the prov. of Silesia, and or assembly-rooms, a large building outside of the town for ranks as the third of the royal residence towns. The plain the annual fair, and a new camposanto or cemetery, begun in in which it is situated is skirted at a distance of about 9 m. 1815, in which the tombs are placed in rows one above the to the N. by the Trebnitz mountains, and about 23 m. to other against the walls, after the manner of the antient the S. by the Zobten mountains, behind which the Glatz

, columbaria.

Schweidnitz, and Giant mountains may be seen from Brixia was the chief town of the Cenomani, a Gallic tribe Breslau in clear weather. Its present form, an oblong qua. said to have emigrated into Italy with Bellovesus, and to have drangle, was given to it by the Emperor Charles IV., after the settled between the Oglio, the Adige, and the Po. They great fire in 1342. In the centre of the town stands the great were conquered by the Romans under Cornelius Cethegus, market, from which the four main streets branch off to the about 200 years B.C., and Brixia became a Roman colony four principal gates: the suburbs, separated by the Ohlau. and afterwards a municipium. After the fall of the empire but connected with the city by six large and several smaller

bridges, are a continuation of the same plan, completing the divinity and philosophy. Two more, for law and medicine, whole, though denominated the 'Outer Town,' in contra- were added in 1811, when the university of Frankfort on distinction to the first-mentioned, which is called the New the Oder was incorporated with it. The library contains Town.' The regularity of their construction, combined with upwards of 100,000 volumes. Besides a picture gallery of the width of the streets and the broad fronts and handsome 700 paintings, the university has a botanical garden, an obelevation of the houses, gives the town a cheerful appear- servatory, museums of anatomy, natural history, and antiquiance; which is in contrast with the massive and more ties, a clinical hospital, &c. Between the year 1826 and the sombre aspect of the churches and public buildings. The present time, the number of students has increased from suburbs have gained in an architectural point of view by 993 to upwards of 1200. The Protestants have three gymhaving been recently rebuilt: they were burnt in order to nasia here, besides a superior kind of civic school and a clear the defences of the town when it was besieged in 1806. seminary for teachers; the Catholics, a royal gymnasium, a There are three of the suburbs on the same side of the school for teachers, the · Alumnat,' which is an establishOder as the New Town, namely, the • Nicolai' to the W., ment for maintaining and educating candidates for the the Schweidnitz' to the S., and the Ohlau' to the E.; but church, and ten other schools, &c. The Jews have a good the fortifications which divided them from the New Town school, founded here in 1790, and another of an inferior were razed in 1813, and a broad ditch is now interposed kind. Breslau likewise possesses a provincial school of arts, between them. On the N. side of Breslau lie four other where mechanics are taught drawing and modelling; a suburbs, separated from it by the Oder, namely, the San- school of architecture; an obstetric institution; an asylum dinsel' and 'Dom,' or cathedral suburb, outside of the for the support and education of officers' daughters ; a school Sand Gate, and the Oder' and Bürgerwerder ;' the whole for the working class (Gewerbschule); a refuge and school of them are built on two islands formed by arms of the Oder, for the deaf and dumb, and another for the blind; a Sunday and connected with the New Town by one large bridge school ; 30 elementary schools ; a Bible society, with three across that riv., and eight smaller ones across its arms. auxiliary establishments in the circle; a Silesian society for The ditch or canal which divides the New Town from the promoting objects of public usefulness (vaterländischer Nicolai suburb, is tratersed by the King's Bridge,' which Cultur), founded in 1803, and divided into sections for an is made of cast iron, in weight about 143 tons, and was tiquities and art, history, medicine, natural history and phiopened on the 18th of October, 1822: at each end of it is a losophy, rural and public economy, and pedagogic; a society square, that on the Nicolai side opening upon a handsome for Silesian history and antiquities; 14 public libraries; street, called • Frederic-William's Street. The bridges five museums of coins, &c.; five public collections of works leading to the Sand and Schweidnitz suburbs have also of art; several hospitals and infirmaries; an hospital for handsome squares attached to them. The greater part of faithful servants, opened in 1820; and a number of other the town is encircled by an agreeable promenade, orna- charitable institutions. The value of the property held for mented with trees and shrubs, and bounded by the banks benevolent purposes is little less than 300,0001., and the of the Oder and the canal, as well as relieved by artificial income derived from this source as well as voluntary donaslopes raised upon three of the old bastions. Among the tions is upwards of 16,0001. a year. The house for the numerous improvements made in Breslau of late years, is reception of the indigent infirm, and the general managethe erection of the Exchange buildings on the Salzring,' ment of the poor throughout the circle, are under the direcwhich is now become one of the most agreeable resorts in tion of a board consisting of members chosen out of the the town, and has changed its name into that of Blücher magistracy, clergy, and citizens at large. Each of the 49 Square. A noble monument of bronze was erected here on minor circles is under the control of five or six elders, the 26th of August, 1827, in commemoration of Blücher's besides a director and adjunct, in respect of all matters convictory on the Katzbach and of the Prussian army which sup- nected with the poor. The town is the seat of a royal mint ported him. The statue of Blücher is raised upon a pedestal and bank, and has a royal office for mining productions, a of granite, bearing on its front accent the words • With head department of miñes, and other establishments inciGod's aid, for our King and Country. On one of the sides dental to its character as the centre of provincial governof the substructure on which the pedestal rests is also in- ment. There is a theatre and opera-house, and there are scribed • The people of Silesia to Field-Marshal Blücher several musical societies, public and private. and the Army. The statue and its substructure are 26} ft. The increase in the pop. of Breslau may be seen from the in height, and the statue without the plinth 10 ft. 3 inches. subsequent data: in 1816, the pop. was 68,738; in 1822, Breslau contains 32 churches and 1 synagogue. The cathe- | 74,922; in 1828, 84,904; and in 1834, 91,615, being an dral church, said to have been built between the years 1148 increase of 4012 as compared with the year 1832. Of these and 1170, is highly decorated in the interior, and contains 1791,615, the number of Protestants was 61,330; Catholics, side chapels. The 'Church of the Holy Cross,' erected by 25,192; Jews, 5088; and Greeks, 5. In the same year Henry IV., duke of Silesia, in 1288, is in the shape of a (1834) the births amounted to 2944; the deaths, which were cross, and stands upon a subterranean church of precisely the more numerous than usual, to 3238 ; and the marriages to same shape and dimensions, which the same prince, whose 901. At that date also Breslau had 37 places for public remains were deposited in the upper church, constructed in worship; 278 public buildings; 3902 private houses; 270 honour of St. Bartholomew. Among the finest churches mills, warehouses, and manufactories; and 1771 stables, are also the church of St. Mary, on the Sand Island, begun barns, and distinct shops. in 1330; St. Dorothea's, the loftiest church in Breslau, There are manufactures of all kinds at Breslau, particufounded by the Emperor Charles IV. in 1350; and the larly of gloves, plate and jewellery, silks, woollens, cottons, chief Protestant church, called St. Elizabeth's, in which the linens, and stockings; and a very extensive trade is carried first sermon preached by a Protestant minister in this town on in Silesian products and fabrics, as well as foreign was delivered on the 23rd of April, 1525. The present articles, with the interior no less than with other parts of steeple of this last church was erected in 1534, and is about Prussia, and with Russia, &c., to which linens and woollens 350 ft. in height.

are exported. The annual value of this trade is estimated The royal or public buildings of the town are about 240 in at between 4,000,0001. and 5,000,000l. sterling. The fairs, number. The guildhall' was probably erected in the early of which there are six in the course of the year, are the part of the fourteenth century, and is noted for its apart- largest, with respect to the sale of wools, in the Prussian ment called the princes' hall,' where the princes or national dominions; the fairs for wool however are distinct from the diets formerly held their sittings. It is situated on the Pa- others, and kept in the early part of June and October. In rade, the finest square in Breslau, nearly in the centre of the first-mentioned month of the year 1827, the quantity which is the city weighing-house, a building in shape like a weighed was 63,371 cwt. There is a regular communicatower, erected in 1571. Among the other public build- tion by water between Breslau and Hamburg, conducted by ings are the 'royal government house,' or palace, built by an association of 100 owners and captains of vessels: the Frederic the Great, at the close of the Seven-years' war; passage is never more than 32 days. the courts of justice; the public library in the Sand suburb; By the treaty of Breslau, concluded on the 11th of June, the Roman Catholic gymnasium; the episcopal palace near 1742, the town, together with the whole of Silesia, was ceded the cathedral; the arsenal; the burg, once an imperial by Austria to Prussia. Its fortifications, which drew down palace, afterwards a college of the Jesuits, and now the upon it the sieges of 1741, 1757, 1760, and 1806, were deproperty of the university; and the handsome range of molished in 1813 and 1814. It was the birth-place of buildings called the university building.' The university €. von Wolf, the mathematician, who died in 1754, and was founded by Leopold I., in 1702, for the two faculties of Garve, who died in 1798.' 51° 7' N. lat., 17° 4' E. long.

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BRESSE, a considerable district included in the former its Celtic signification, great harbour or roadsted,' is suffigovernment of Bourgogne in France, from the main part of ciently appropriate to Brest. However this may be, there which it was separated by the river Saône. It was bounded is no reason to believe it was a place of any great importon the N. by the duchy of Bourgogne and by the Franche ance in the Roman time; and subsequently it appears to Comté, on the E. by the district of Bugey, on the S. by the have sunk into complete obscurity. government of Dauphiné, and on the W. by the Beaujolois In the war for the possession of the Duchy of Bretagne, and Lyonnois, and by the principality of Dombes, which between Charles de Blois and Jean de Montfort, in the was inclosed on three sides by Bresse. Bresse presents vast 14th century, the castle of Brest is mentioned, and the naked plains, very productive in grain of all kinds: there contests for its possession indicate that it was a place of are also pools abounding in fish, and much poultry is reared. strength and importance in a military point of view. BeBourg, the chief town, was sometimes distinguished from tween 1341 and 1346 it was taken by the partisans of de other places of the same name by the designation of Bourg Montfort from those of de Blois : and in 1373 it was defended en Bresse. Pop. in 1832, 7826 for the town, 8996 for the by an Englishman, Robert Knolles, against the attacks of

[BOURG EN BRESSE.) Bresse is now compre- the French under Duguesclin; the English and French hended in the dep. of Ain. The chief rivers are the Ain, having engaged in the war as the auxiliaries of de Montfort Saône, and Rhône.

and de Blois respectively. In 1386, de Montfort having Under the Romans Bresse was inhabited by the Am- defeated his competitor and become Duke of Bretagne, barri, who were kinsmen of the Aedui, the predominant besieged Brest, held by his former allies the English (with people of this part of Gaul. In the division of the province whom he had now broken), as security for a debt; but the of Gaul under the later Roman emperors, Bresse was in attack failed, and the town was not restored till 1395, when cluded in Viennensis. It formed part of the kingdom of the it was given up on payment of the money for which it was Burgundians, and was included in that subsequent kingdom held in pledge. Early in the 15th century the English of Bourgogne, the sovereigns of which ascended the impe- were repulsed in an attempt to force an entrance into Brest rial throne. The feeble authority which these princes exer harbour in order to burn some vessels that were lying there. cised in this extreme point of their dominion enabled the In the war of the League, in the latter part of the 16th nobles of the district to acquire considerable power : the chief century, Brest was again the object of contest: it was sucof these nobles were the lords of Baugé, Coligny, Thoire, cessfully defended by De Sourdeac, in the interest of Henry Villars, &c. Bresse had subsequently its states or local IV., against an attack of the troops of the League ; and in legislature subordinate to those of Bourgogne. Bresse had 1597 it was preserved by an opportune tempest from an atcome partly into the hands of the dukes of Savoy, who tack by an overwhelming armament of Spanish ships of war, ceded it to France by the treaty of 1601, together with It was not however till 1631 that the real greatness of Bugey, in exchange for the marquisate of Saluzzo, &c. Brest commenced : hitherto it had been a nere fortress.

The chief towns of Bresse, with their pop., in 1832, Cardinal Richelieu, perceiving its capability for an important were as follows:-Bourg en Bresse, Montluel, 2588 for the naval station, caused magazines to be built, and fortificatown, 2927 for the whole comm. ; Pont de Vaux, 2539 for tions to be erected. The favour of Louis XIV. further the town, 3189 for the whole comm.; Châtillon (according augmented the growth of the place: that monarch estato the Dict. Univ. de la France, Paris, 1804), 2179; Pont blished the magnificent arsenal. In 1694 Brest was attacked de Vesle, or Pont de Veyle (according to the same authority), by a combined tleet of English and Dutch vessels, from 1364; and Baugé, or Bagé (according to the same author which a body of troops was landed in the hope of carrying rity), 810.

the place by a coup-de-main. But the tleet was driven off The designation Bresse was given also to a “lieutenance- the coast by a storm, and the troops, deprived of the protecgénérale' of the government of Bourgogne, which seems to tion of the fleet, were for the most part cut in pieces. Gehave included not only Bresse proper, but also Bugey, Val- neral Tollemache, who commanded the English land forces, romey, and, according to the Map published by the Society was mortally wounded in the thigh. for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, the principality of The town of Brest is of triangular form : the sides of the Dombes, which other maps assign to the Lyonnois. The triangle facing the W., N.E. and S.E., respectively. The country was in the arch-diocese of Lyon.

S.E. side of the triangle lies along the roadsted or bay. The The name Bresse comes from the name of a forest (Saltus port is formed by the river Penfeld, which, entering the Brexius, or Brexia), which, about A.D. 1000, overspread the town near the northern angle of the walls, passes through it greater part of this country. (Encyc. Méthod.)

into the roadsted with a winding course, dividing it into two BRESSUIRE, a small town in the dep. of Deux Sevres parts, that on the left bank of the stream being Brest, in France, deserving notice only from its rank of chief place strictly so called, while that on the right bank is known as of an arrond. or sub-prefecture. It is on a small stream the suburb or quarter of Recouvrance. In Brest, just at which runs into the Argenton, a feeder of the Thoué, which the point where the river falls into the roadsted, placed so falls into the Loire; and is in 46° 50' N. lat., and 0° 29' W. as to command the entrance to the port, is the castle, the long. In the war of La Vendée, which ensued upon the importance of which in the middle ages is evident from the French revolution, Bressuire was almost entirely destroyed. particulars contained in the above brief historical sketch, Before that war it had contained eighty manufacturers of and the strength of which is very much owing to its situawoven fabrics, besides dyers and fullers; after the war only tion. The whole town is strongly fortified. The site of this one house and the church remained standing. Since that place is very uneven; and hence has arisen the division of period it has revived: serges and cotton goods were made, it into the upper and lower towns. So steep is the declivity, and the population rose to 1947. (Dict. Univ. de la France, that the communication is made in some parts by means of Paris, 1804.) Woollens and linens are made there at present. steps, which in wet or frosty weather are rather dangerous ; The arrond. of Bressuire contained, in 1832, 60,826 inhab. und the gardens of some of the houses are on a level with

BREST, a town in the dep. of Finistère, in France, the the fifth story of others. The streets in the upper town are capital of an arrond., and well known as one of the great winding as well as steep, and improvements there proceed naval stations of that kingdom. It lies on the N. side of a but slowly; in the lower town they are carried on with more deep bay, called the Road of Brest, land-locked, and entered rapidity. In Recouvrance modern houses are rapidly superby a narrow channel called le Goulet. It is about 310 m. seding the Gothic edifices of a former day. Brest had, be. in a straight line W. by S. of Paris, according to Brue's fore the revolution, two par. churches, St. Louis in Brest, map of France, and 362 m. by the road through Dreux, and St. Sauveur in Recouvrance. In the most antient time Alençon, Mayenne, Laval, and Rennes. By passing how. Brest seems to have been included in the neighbouring par. ever from Mayenne to Rennes through Fougères instead of Lambezellec, which is just to the N. of the town, but of through Laval, 14 or 15 m. may be saved. Brest is in its ecclesiastical state and division have undergone many 48° 24' N. lat. and 4° 28' W. long.

changes. The Jesuits had at one time a house here with a D'Anville would identify Brest with the Brivates Portus fine garden. They conducted a seminary for training chap(Bplovárns reunv) of the geographer Ptolemy, who has lains for the king's ships; but before the revolution they however, if D'Anville's hypothesis be correct, very much had been expelled ; and in a map now before us (Paris, misplaced it; for he states that it was between the mouth 1779) their house is said to be used as an hospital. There of the Liger. Aiyeup (Loire), and the Herius, 'Hpios (Vilaine). were also a considerable establishment of the reformed or D'Anville also considers that this place is mentioned in the barefooted Carmelite monks, a Capuchin monastery, and Theodosian Table under the name of Gesocribate, or, as he several other religious establishments. would correct it, Gesobricate or brivate; a name which in Besides the arsenal, established as already noticed by

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