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A second attack upon Hennebon marked the year 1342. in a treaty in which he stipulated to give aid to the French Before the end of the year the countess of Montfort crossed in the war against the English. Against the conditions of the sea into England to beg further succours, and was re- this treaty he made however a private yet formal protest turning with a fleet of 46 vessels, when near Guernsey she (A.D. 1381). The next trouble in which Jean involved himfell in with a French fleet of 22 great ships manned with self was a dispute with the priesthood. He then renewed Genoese seamen, and having on board 1000 men at arms his quarrel with Clisson, now constable of France, whom he under the orders of Charles de Blois himself. The battle trepanned basely under the pretence of friendship, and was terminated by a tempest which separated the fleets, but would have put to death (A. D. 1387). He is also strongly four English ships were taken. The countess landed with suspected of having instigated Pierre de Craon to attempt her reinforcements, and the kings of England and France the assassination of the constable in the streets of Paris arrived in Bretagne with hostile forces; but early in the (A.D. 1392). The influence of Clisson, who was wounded, year 1343 a suspension of arms between the two potentates though not mortally in the attempt, would probably have was agreed on, and the Bretons alone, with some merce- led the young King Charles VI. to make war on the duke, naries, were left to carry on the war. In 1344 the Montfort had not the insanity of the king interrupted the design. party was strengthened by the severity of the king of France, Clisson himself waged war against the duke: the contest who, without form of trial, put to death a Breton lord, Olivier was furious, and lasted till A.D. 1395, when peace was conde Clisson, on a charge of traitorously forming an alliance cluded. Jean de Montfort died A.D. 1399. with England. The widow of Clisson, on hearing of this, Jean V., son of the late duke, came to the duchy a minor. gathered some troops, surprised a castle held by the friends he had been married while yet a child to a daughter of of Charles de Blois, and distinguished herself by her ex- the French King Charles VI., and upon attaining his maploits in a war in which, more than in any other, women jority was involved in that perplexed scene of disturbance emulated the warlike fame and courage of men.
which marked the reign of the unhappy maniac. It would In 1345 Jean de Montfort managed to escape from the be needless to follow him through the various changes of Louvre, after a confinement of three years. He landed in party, from Armagnac to Bourguignon, from French to England, did homage to Edward as his suzerain, obtained English, to which unsteadiness or perfidy led him, hy which aid and returned to Bretagne. He died however shortly however he preserved Bretagne from war until the year after, and the rights of his son, a mere child, were bravely 1425-26, when it was partly ravaged by the duke of Bedsustained by the Countess Jeanne.
ford, regent of France for the English party, who was In 1347 Charles de Blois, who had besieged Roche enraged at Jean for having deserted the English interest Derrien near Treguier, was surprised and taken prisoner by for that of the Dauphin. Bretagne derived some advanan inferior body of English troops. His wife, Jeanne de tage from this war, by the settlement of many families who Penthièvre, sustained his cause with a valour equal to that left other parts of France to take refuge in this more secure of the countess of Montfort, and the hatred of the Bretons country, and the acquisition of the cloth manufacture which for the English induced many of them to embrace her was brought by some Norman emigrants. Two other inparty. In 1356 Charles recovered his liberty by ransom, cidents mark the reign of this duke. In 1420 he was and renewed the war, which was carried on for seven years ensnared and taken prisoner by the count of Penthièvre longer, during which no decisive action took place. In and his brothers, princes of the house of Blois, grandsons 1363 the young count de Montfort attained his majority, of that Clisson who had himself been entrapped in a similar and did homage for the duchy of Bretagne to his powerful manner by the late duke. Jean obtained however his reprotector the king of England. In 1363 Charles de Blois lease, and the event led in its consequences to the ruin of and Jean de Montfort signed a treaty by which Bretagne the house of Blois. In 1440 Gilles de Laval, Maréchal de was to be divided into two parts, having Rennes and Nantes Retz, a principal Breton lord, was condemned for sorcery for their respective capitals; but the reproaches of his wife, and selling himself to the devil. Reduced by prodigality Jeanne of Penthièvre, who told him that she had married to ruin he had sought to recover wealth by alchemy and him to defend her inheritance, not to yield up half of it, de sorcery. He was reproached with the murder of many termined Charles to break it. The following year witnessed wives whom he had successively married, and of more than the decisive battle of Aurai, in which Montfort, Chandos, a hundred children. He was burned alive in the presence and Olivier de Clisson overthrew the army of Charles de of the duke near Nantes. In the year 1442 Jean V. died. Blois, though he was aided by the bravery and skill of the Jean V. was succeeded by his son, François I. Gilles, celebrated Bertrand Duguesclin. Charles de Blois himself younger brother of this prince, having quarrelled with him fell in the action, and the treaty of Guerande in 1365 se on the ground of the insufficiency of his inheritance, atcured the duchy of Bretagne to the house of Montfort. tempted to call in the English. The duke procured the aid
Although Jean de Montfort (Jean IV.) had no compe- of some French troops, by whom his brother was seized. titor for the duchy, his possession of it was neither quiet He wished to bring him to trial before the states of Brenor uninterrupted. His own violent disposition precluded tagne, but not succeeding, he at last had him smothered in repose. _The course pointed out to him by the gratitude prison after a captivity of nearly four years, A.D. 1450. due to England for past services and his present duty of When the death of Gilles became known, a cordelier, who fidelity to France was neutrality; but the duke went beyond had been his confessor, presented himself before the duke, this: he formed an alliance with the English,
which neces- and in an awful voice suinmoned him, on behalf of the dead sarily drew down upon him the hostility of France, while prince, to appear forty days afterwards before the tribunal his liberality to the English individually disgusted the of God. The impression made by this prophecy led to its barons, and the admission of English garrisons alienated the fulfilment; the duke died on the very day foretold, July, towns of his duchy. He quarrelled with Clisson, who soon 1450. The history of his successors, Pierre II. and Artur after left his service for that of the French king. A French 111., presents no points of interest, save that Pierre, who army under Duguesclin, now constable of France, himself a was brother of François I. and of Gilles, caused the murBreton, entered Bretagne (A.n. 1370), and the duke, aban- derers of the latter to be put to death, except Artur de doned by his subjects, was obliged to take refuge in Eng- Montauban, contriver of the murder, who became a monk, land. In 1373 he returned, but not finding any support, and died archbishop of Bordeaux ; and that Artur 111., who, again retired to England. The ambition of Charles V. of as count of Richemont (Richmond), had served with distincFrance brought about his restoration : that prince procured tion in the French army, and had become constable of France, the confiscation of the duchy (A.D. 1378) by a sentence of distinguished himself by his zeal against sorcerers. “Never the court of peers, and violated all the forms of such pro- man,' says his historian, 'hated more bitterly all heresies, ceedings in his manner of conducting the process. He and sorcerers and sorceresses than he did; and clearly this further seized upon the duchy himself instead of transfer- appeared, for he caused more of them to be burned in ring it to the next heirs, and attempted to establish the France, in Poitou, and in Bretagne than any one else of Gabelle or salt tax. This violation of their independence his day.'. Pierre II. held the duchy from 1450 to 1457; aroused the Bretons: the duke, lately the object of general | Arthur III. from 1457 to 1458. dislike, was recalled and received with the warmest affection The first part of the long ducal reign of François II. (A.D. 1380). He might however soon have incurred another (1458--1488) coincided with the reign of the astute Louis expulsion through his unwise partiality for the English, XI, whose desire of repressing the enormous power of the but Charles V., who might have taken advantage of the great feudal nobles led him into frequent disputes and conrising discontent of the Bretons, was dead; and Jean made tests. In 1465 François entered into the confederacy of his peace with the government of his successor, yet a minor, I the nobles against the king, known by the title of The
league of the public good' (Ligue du bien public). The and the new king were designed to separate the crown of Bretons were too slow in their movements to take part in France from the ducal coronet of Bretagne, by providing the battle of Montlhéry, but they assisted in the blockade that the latter should descend to the second son, or in de of Paris, and took Pontoise and Evreux. The duke re- fault of a second son, to a daughter, so as to give to the proceived several concessions from the king in the treaty of St. vince a sovereign of its own. They had only two children, Maur which Louis was obliged to sign. The troubles of daughters; the elder was promised in marriage to a young France did not cease with this treaty ; hostilities and in- prince of the house of Austria, afterwards celebrated as trigues continued, and François distinguished himself by the emperor Charles V., and was to have, as her dower, the facility with which he changed sides. This duke was Bretagne, Bourgogne, the county of Blois, and several posof a very feeble character, being ruled by his mistress An- sessions in Italy. Considerations of a public nature howtoinette de Magnelais, lady of Villequier; by his favourite ever set aside the marriage; and Louis, to prevent the disthe lord of Lescun; and by his minister Landois, the son of a memberment of the kingdom, broke the treaties in which tailor at Vitré. This last, a man of considerable talent and it had been arranged. The duchess Anne died A.D. 1514, boldness, provoked, as might be expected, the hatred of aged 37 years. Her daughter Claude was married a few the nobility of Bretagne, who at last rose in revolt; and the months after to the duke d'Angoulême, heir presumptive duke was obliged, by the defection of his forces, to give up to the French throne, which he ascended upon the death of the object of their hatred to his enemies, A.D. 1484 or 85. Louis XII. in 1515, under the title of François I.; and Landois was forthwith tried on many charges, condemned, shortly afterwards Claude ceded to her husband her rights and hung.
In 1486 François allied himself with Maxi- over Bretagne during her lifetime. It was not however milian, king of the Romans, who had married the heiress till several years after her death, which was in 1524, that (since dead) of the late duke of Bourgogne; with the king Bretagne was formally united to France: this union took and queen of Navarre; the dukes of Lorraine, Orléans place in 1532. It was however little more than prospec(heir presumptive to the throne of France, and afterwards tive; for Claude had bequeathed the duchy to her son the Louis XII.), Foix, and others, for mutual protection and dauphin, who was recognized as sovereign of the country; support against the court of France, which was now directed but the act of union provided that it should be irrevocably by Anne, Lady of Beaujeu, daughter of Louis XI., and united to the French crown. guardian of her young brother the King Charles VIII. We might here terminate our sketch of the history of This led in 1487 to the invasion of Bretagne by the French. Bretagne; but the events which occurred during the reHenry VII. of England, who had in his adversity resided ligious wars of the sixteenth century claim some notice. for some time in Bretagne, did not interfere in time: the Notwithstanding the act of union, subsequent claimants to occasion seemed favourable for annexing Bretagne to the duchy appeared in the husbands of two of the grandFrance, the king of which country laid claim to the duchy, daughters of François I., king of France; and in the duke by virtue of the rights of the house of Blois, which Louis XI. of Mercæur, a branch of the powerful and ambitious house had long since purchased. Nantes was attacked; but the of Lorraine, who claimed to represent the antient though invaders were repulsed. In 1488 a battle was fought at now almost obsolete claims of the houses of Blois and PenSt. Aubin de Cormier between the French army under La thièvre. The duke had been imprudently nominated by Tremouille and the Bretons and their allies, English, Ger- Henry III. governor of the province, and he took advantage mans, Gascons, and Spaniards: the latter were defeated of his position to raise forces at once to support 'the league,' with loss, and the duke of Orléans was taken prisoner on and to sustain his own pretensions. Upon the assassination the field. A treaty was however agreed upon, and Francois of the duke of Guise, Mercœur broke out into open revolt died just after its conclusion, the 7th or 9th Sept. 1488. (about 1588); Nantes declared in his favour; Rennes was
Anne, daughter of the late duke, succeeded to the duchy. seized by his partisans, but recovered by the inhabitants; Her situation was embarrassing and painful. The maréchal | the gr ater part of the province was in his power; and the de Rieux, her guardian, and other powerful persons at the count of Soissons, who was sent to supersede him in the court, wished her to marry the Sire d'Albret, a Gascon government, was taken prisoner by him on his road. He noble, to whom she was exceedingly averse. Some Eng- openly asserted his claims, and war was carried on with lish and Spanish auxiliaries arrived to defend her against activity between him and the prince of Dombes, who comthe hostile designs of France, but she feared that the Eng- manded the royalists. A body of Spaniards landed to suplish would make themselves masters of her person, and port the duke; a body of English came to the aid of the compel her to marry the Sire d'Albret. To put an end to royalists. Lower Bretagne was devastated by partisan these intrigues and annoyances, she gave her hand to the corps ; and the war was only concluded by the approach of Archduke Maximilian, to whom she was married by proxy Henry IV., with whom Merceur, through the intercession in 1489. The French wished to dissolve the marriage, of Gabrielle d'Estrées, the king's mistress, made an advanwhich indeed was never consummated; and in the year tageous treaty, receiving considerable sums of money and 1490 hostilities recommenced between France and Bretagne. other benefits, and resigning both his government and his The Sire d’Albret, piqued at his rejection by the young claims to the duchy. It was in this expedition to Bretagne duchess, put into their hands the important town of that Henry issued the celebrated edict of Nantes, 13th Nantes, which he had surprised; and the duchess herself April, 1598. was besieged in Rennes, and reduced to the necessity of From this time the history of Bretagne ceases to possess negotiating. During the negotiations a proposal was made any importance. It became completely a province of France, on the part of the French, listened to by the Breton leaders, and the traces of its separate existence (except always the and finally carried into effect, that the duchess and the prevalence of the Breton anguage), which diminished young king of France, Charles VIII., should reconcile during the monarchy, have been quite obliterated in the their discordant claims by marrying. The difficulties of new arrangements induced by the French Revolution. (Daru, the project seemed great : Anne was already married by Histoire de Bretagne.) proxy to Maximilian, and Charles was engaged to marry
BRETON, CAPE. [CAPE BRETON.] the same prince's daughter, who had been sent to France, BREUGHEL, PETER, the son of a peasant, was born being yet under the marriageable age. These difficulties at Breughel, a village in the neighbourhood of Breda. He were broken through; the young archduchess was sent was placed under Peter Koek of Aalst (Alost), whose home, Charles and Anne were married, and a dispensation daughter he subsequently married. Having learned paintfrom the pope then solicited and obtained. This marriage ing under that master, he travelled into France and Italy. took place A.D. 1491; and by the terms of it the rights of He took many views by the way, particularly among the whichever party died first were to go to the survivor, in de- Alps. fault of lawful'issue. The duchess was bound also, if she Returning from Italy, he fixed his residence at Antwerp, survived, to marry only the future king of France or the and was admitted into the academy of that city in 1551. heir presumptive, so that the final union of the duchy with Here he lived for a long time with a mistress, whom he the crown was apparently secured.
would have married, but for a habit she had of lying; In 1498, Charles VIII. died without children; and in which so displeased him, that he transferred his affections 1499, nine months after his decease, Anne married his suc to the daughter of his old master, now dead, and obtained cessor, Louis XII., who had cleared the way for this marriage her hand upon condition of residing at Brussels, where she by unjustly and perfidiously divorcing his former wife Jeanne, lived. While painting a view on the canal which commudaughter of Louis XI., though she had never abandoned him nicates with the Scheldt, by order of the magistrates of in his troubles. The articles of marriage between Anne Brussels, he was seized with his last illness. As he lay on
his death-bed, he ordered many of his paintings, which any former commission ; but while serving on courts-martial, were either satirical or licentious, to be brought before him, or with a detachment composed only of his own regiment, he and made his wife burn them in his presence. The dates of does duty and takes rank according to the date of his comhis birth and death are unknown.
mission in that regiment. Brevet rank, therefore, is to be He painted chiefly comic subjects, after the manner of considered effectual for every military purpose in the army Jerome Bosche, whom he excelled ; and he has been con- generally, but of no avail in the regiment to which the sidered by many inferior to Teniers alone in that branch officer holding it belongs, unless it be wholly or in part of art. His composition has been objected to; but his united for a temporary purpose with some other corps. (See drawing is correct and spirited, though not very highly Samuel's Historical Account of the British Army, p. 615.) finished. It was his frequent custom to disguise him Something similar to the brevet rank above described self and mix with the peasantry, at their festivals and must have existed in the French service under the old games; and the happiness with which he transferred the monarchy, for, according to Père Daniel (tom. ii: p. 217 and lising actions he thus witnessed to the canvass has been 227), the colonel-general of the Swiss troops had the power aptly compared to Moliere's, though in a different kind of of nominating subaltern officers to the rank of captains by satire. Besides comic subjects, he painted landscapes, and a certificate, which enabled them to hold that rank without a few historical pictures. Two sons survived him, John the regular commission. The same author states also that and Peter.
if any captain transferred himself from one regiment to BREUGHEL, JOHN, was born at Brussels, about 1589. another, whatever might be the date of his commission, he According to some accounts he lost his father very young, was placed at the bottom of the ļist in the regiment which and was brought up by his grandmother, the widow of he entered, without, however, losing his right of seniority Peter Koek, from whom he learned to paint in distem- when employed in a detachment composed of troops drawn per, and afterwards studied oil-painting under an artist from several different regiments. named Goekindt. The most probable account is, that he The introduction of brevet rank into the British army, as received the first principles of his art from his father, and well as that of the half-pay allowance to officers on retiring The internal evidence of his works tends to confirm the latter from regimental duty, probably took place soon after the opinion. For some time he confined himself to flower revolution in 1688. But the practice of granting, when painting; but travelling into Italy, he enlarged his style, officers from different regiments are united for particular and painted landscapes, which he adorned with small purposes, a nominal rank higher than that which is actually figures, executed with exquisite correctness and beauty, held, appears to have been of older date; for in the Soldier's Many painters availed themselves of his liberality, and Grammar, which was written in the time of James the First, induced him to enrich their pictures with his beautiful little it is stated that the lieutenants of colonels are captains by figures or landscapes ; among them are Steenwiek, Van courtesy, and may sit in a court of war (court-martial) as Baelen, Rotenhamer, Momper, &c. Even Rubens made junior captains of the regiments in which they command. use of his skill in more than one picture, in which Rubens (Grose, Military Antiquities, vol. i.) It was originally suppainted the figures, and Breughel the landscapes, tlowers, posed that both officers holding commissions by brevet and animals, and even insects,
those on half-pay were subject to military law; but, ip 1748, John Breughel was extremely industrious, as the great .when the inclusion of half-pay officers within the sphere of number of his pictures, and the care with which they are its control was objected to as an unnecessary extension of finished, sufficiently attests. Growing rich by his industry, that law, the clause referring to them in the Mutiny Act he cultivated a magnificence in his apparel, and was nick- was omitted, and it has never since been inserted. In nanied Velvet Breughel, from the material of his dress, 1786 it was decided in Parliament that brevet officers were which was a costly stuff
. His touch is light and spirited, subject to the Mutiny Act or Articles of War, but that halfhis drawing correct, and his finish elaborate. His pictures pay officers were not. (Lord Woodhouselee, Essay on Miliare much admired, although his landscapes are injured by tary Law, p. 112.) Brevet command was frequently conan exaggerated blueness in the distances. The time of his ferred on officers during the late war; but the cause no death is unknown to the Flemish authors; M. Felibien con- longer existing, the practice has declined, and at present jectures it to have been about 1642.
there are very few officers in the service who hold that PETER, the other son of Peter Breughel, the elder, was the species of rank. pupil of Giles Coningsloo. From the diabolical nature of BREVIARIUM was used among the Roman writers to his favourite subjects he has been surnamed Hellish. He denote a book introduced by Augustus, containing the did not attain the eminence either of his father or brother. accounts of the empire, the enumeration of the military, &e.
BREVE, in music, a note double the length of a semi- (Sueton. Aug. c. 28.) The design of this breviarium was breve, and thus formed, loll, or al. The breve (from to explain to the Roman people the manner in which the brevis, short), which in duration takes twice the time of the monies levied upon them were applied; not to the emperors' longest note now in ordinary use, was a short, brief note, private use, but for public purposes. Tiberius laid aside three centuries ago, as the term clearly proves. Musicians the breviarium, but it was resumed by Caligula. (Sueton. have proceeded by degrees till the quarter-demisemiquaver Calig. c. 16.) is become our minimum, being ade of the breve. Indeed BREVIARY, or canonical hours, the name of the daily some have gone so far as so introduce the half-quarter- service-book of the church of Rome, consisting of the offices demisemiquaver ; and among those who have been guilty of matins, prime, third, sixth, nones, vespers, and the comof so monstrous an absurdity, we regret to mention the plines; that is, of seven hours, according with the saying of name of Beethoven.
David, Ps. cxix. 164, 'Seven times a day do I praise BREVET, in France, denotes any warrant granted by thee.' the sovereign to an individual in order to entitle him to The origin of the name is variously accounted for: some perform the duty to which it refers. In the British service, deriving it from the little books of psalms and lessons read the term is applied to a commission conferring on an officer in the choir, collected out of large volumes, which the old a degree of rank immediately above that which he holds in monks carried with them in their journeys; others from the his particular regiment; without, however, conveying a shortened service which was used in the papal palace of the power to receive the corresponding pay; Brevet rank does Lateran, afterwards brought into general use. Grancolas, not exist in the royal navy, and in the army it neither in his ‘Commentarius Historicus in Romanum Breviarium, descends lower than that of captain, nor ascends above that 4to. Ven. 1734, says, ' Breviarium dictum est quasi Breve of lieutenant-colonel. It is given as the reward of some Orarium, sive Precum Epitome;' an explanation counteparticular service which may not be of so important a nature nanced by the circumstance that the name of breviary is as to deserve an immediate appointment to the full rank : it not older than the year 1080, adopted after the offices which however qualifies the officer to succeed to that rank on a it contains had been revised and contracted. vacancy occurring, in preference to one not holding such In earlier times the designations of this service-book had brevet, and whose regimental rank is the same as his own. been • Horæ Canonicæ,' 'Opus Dei,' 'Divinum Officium,'
In the fifteenth section of the Articles of War it is stated Collecta,' • Agenda,' 'Cursus,' &c. (Grancolas, ut supr., that an officer having a brevet commission, while serving in pp. 4, 5.) courts-martial formed of officers drawn from different regi The Breviary originally contained only the Lord's Prayer ments, or when in garrison, or when joined to a detachment and Psalms, to which were subsequently added lessons from composed of different corps, takes precedence according to the Scriptures. Various additions were afterwards made by the rank given him in his brevet, or according to the date of the popes Damasus, Leo, Gelasius, Gregory the Great,
Adrian I., Gregory III., and Gregory VII. ; and in the others from honey, as metheglin; but in Germany, in partiprogress of time, in compliance with the superstition of the cular, they were early famed for their beer and ale. The day, the legendary lives of the saints were inserted, full of towns of Lubeck and Rostock stand foremost in the list ill-attested and improbable facts. This gave occasion to for their double heer or Brunswick mum, as it was called, at many revisions and reformations of the Roman Breviary, which places it was manufactured to an enormous extent, particularly in the councils of Trent and Cologne, by popes the latter town exporting, about the end of the sixteenth Gregory IX., Nicholas III., Clement VII., Paul II1., and century, as much as 800,000 barrels
. Heavy duties were, Paul IV.; as likewise by some cardinals, and especially by however, levied in this country on these imports, amounting Cardinal Quignon, who carried the reformation of it the at last, in the beginning of the reign of Queen Anne, to farthest.
the enormous sum of 158. per barrel. This heavy imAn additional reason for reforming the Breviary was post, together with the improvement in the breweries of found in the circumstance that different churches and this country, soon put a stop to the introduction of this orders of religious had their several offices, varying from article. Within late years the manufacture of beer has ineach other, but still under the same name. Grancolas has creased to an amazing extent, and the following statement separate chapters, de Ecclesiarum Orientalium Breviario- of the quantity of materials employed in London only, for Distributio Officii apud Græcos-de veterum Occidentis one year, will enable the reader to judge of the scale on Ecclesiarum, præcipue vero Mediolanensis_Breviario - de which these operations are now carried on. The excise Breviario Ecclesiarum Hispaniæ - Vetus Ecclesiæ Angli- returns of mali consumed by the metropolitan brewers, for canæ et Germanicæ Breviarium-de veteri Galliæ Eccle- the year ending October, 1835, was 5,620,264 bushels, or siarum Breviario, præcipue vero Parisiensis—de Breviario 702,533 quarters, which we may fairly calculate would Monastico, &c.
require on the average at least 62,728 cwt. of hops, and In England we have Breviaries more particularly appro- yield about 2,800,000 barrels of beer. priated to the cathedrals of York and Salisbury: an edition The process usually followed by the brewer of the present of the former, printed at York in 1526, is mentioned in day may be divided into eight distinct parts, independent of Gough's 'British Topography; editions of the latter, printed the malting: namely, first, the grinding of the malt; secondly, at Paris, occur in 1510 and 1536. The Breviary' in usum the operation of mashing; thirdly, the boiling; fourthly, the Sarum, was the service-book principally followed formerly cooling; fifchly, the fermentation ; sixthly, the cleansing ; in the English churches. But the variety of form, as al. seventhly, the racking or vatting; and eighthly, the fining ready shown, was not confined to England ; there was or clearing. In considering these various subjects, it will be scarcely a church in the communion of Rome, in France, better first to go over the processes in their order, and then Flanders, Spain, Germany, &c., which had not something return to the particulars of the principal processes, as respects particular, however inconsiderable, in the form and manner the heat and precautionary details, &c. In brewing the of its Breviary:
various beers, as ale, porter, and table-beer, three distinct Pope Pius V., who adopted the Breviary as decreed by kinds of malt are employed; the pale and amber malts, the the council of Trent, ordered all former Breviaries to be laid brown or blown malt, and the roasted or black malt. The aside, by his rescript dated at Rome 7 id. July, 1568, first of these alone is used for ales; and for the finer qualities whether made by bishops, orders of monks, or monasteries. or higher priced, the malt is dried very pale indeed. This Clement VIII., in another rescript dated 10th May, 1602, first quality of grain gives the saccharine extract; the recognised Pius Vth's abolition of the Breviaries as used in second, or blown malt, gives the flavour to porters and different churches according to their particular forms of stouts; and the last variety is used only as a colouring in service, and confirmed the Breviary as fixed in 1568. Urban place of the essentia bina or burnt sugar, which used to be. VIII. again confirmed it under a new revision 25th January, employed for the same purpose, but which is not permitted 1631. This last revision, by which the work was brought by the excise laws. The roasted malt is also sometimes nearer to the simplicity of the primitive offices, is at present called patent malt. As the manufacture of these varieties the Breviary of the Romish church in general use. It was of malted grain is more properly considered under the article published in 1697, under the direction of Ferdinand de Malt, it will suffice for our present purpose to state that Bergem, bishop of Antwerp, intitled “Breviarium Roma their peculiarities depend entirely upon the different heats num, ex decreto Sacro-sancti Concilii Tridentini restitutum, to which they are exposed in drying: Pii V. Pont. Max. jussu editum et Clementis VIII. pri The grain being selected, we arrive at the first stage of mùm, nunc denuo Urbani PP. VIII. autoritate recognitum,' the operation, the grinding, which is conducted either by fol. Antw. 1697.
the common arrangement of millstones, or by allowing the The obligation of reading the Breviary every day, which malt to pass between two cylindrical iron rollers, placed at first was universal, was by degrees limited to the bene horizontally at a certain distance from each other, with the ficed clergy alone, who are bound to do it on pain of being space between them regulated by adjusting screws accordguilty of mortal sin, and of refunding their revenues in pro ing to the size of the grist (crushed or cut malt) required. portion to their delinquencies in discharging this duty. Many brewers prefer a fine grist, while others, on the con
In addition to Grancolas's work already quoted, and the trary, consider that a greater extract can be obtained from a rescripts prefixed to the Breviarium of 1697, the reader may
Some parties use the millstones in preference consult Koecherid's ‘Bibliotheca Theologiæ Symbolicæ et to the rollers; others like the rollers best ; others again Catecheticæ, itemque Liturgica,' 8vo. Guelpherb., 1751, employ both, using a circular sieve called a separator, p. 747-768, where he will find a critical account of the edi- through which the grist passes from the millstones, and tions of the Breviarium since 1549.
only the grains that may have escaped this operation are BREWING consists in the process of extracting a sac
carried to the rollers to be crushed. charine solution from grain, and in converting that solution The grist being thus prepared is now ready for the prointo a fermented and sound spirituous beverage called beer cess of mashing. The mash tun or vessel in which this or ale. This art, although a perfectly chemical one in operation is carried on is usually of wood, varying in size nearly all its stages, has not until very lately been in according to the quantity of malt to be wetted,
and having debted to chemistry for any of the improvements which two or more holes called taps in the bottom. From one to have been made in its details. This we may attribute to the two inches above this bottom is a false bottom or diaplıragm rare occurrence of a practical chemist being engaged in the pierced full of small holes, on which the ground malt is operation of brewing. However, we find that within the last placed; the hot water is then admitted either above or befew years, and even the last few months, very great acces tween the true and false bottom of the mash tun, and the sions have been made, more particularly by the continental grist is now to be intimately mixed with the water. For chemists, to our knowledge of that primary and important this purpose it is either worked by machinery consisting of operation in the process of brewing, the conversion of starch an horizontal axle supplied with vertical arms around its into sugar in the mash tun by the action of the newly-dis-circumference, and these again having comb-like projeccovered principle called diastase.
tions, the whole of which is made to traverse round the tun; This art is of great antiquity, for we find that the or the goods (as the malt is now technically called) is worked Germans, in the time of Tacitus, manufactured an intoxi up by means of instruments termed mashing oars, so as to cating beverage from wheat and barley; and Herodotus cause the whole to assume a perfect homogeneous consist(ii. 77), five centuries earlier, says that the Egyptians ence: This being completed, the whole is allowed to stand made a drink of barley. The Saxons also had various at rest for a certair time, and the taps are then opened or drinks of the same class; some made from grain, as mum; set, as it is termed, at the bottom of the mash tun, and the
infusion or sweet wort is allowed to run off into a vessel | the top, and this is repeated at intervals until the beer is called the underback, from whence it is pumped or other clean. This operation of skimming is generally confined to wise conveyed to the copper for boiling. When the taps the cleansing of ales. The rounds or casks are simply are spent, or when the goods have drained sufficiently so filled with the fermenting beer, and so arranged as to be that very little wort runs from them, the taps are closed, always kept quite full, with a trough or stillion to catch the and a fresh quantity of hot water is run on for a second yest as it works out at the orifice of these vessels. Great mash. Brewing coppers for small breweries are generally care must be taken that these casks are carefully cleaned open; but in the large establishments dome coppers are each time of using, particularly in the summer, when the employed, and on the dome of the copper a vessel is con- yest is so liable to become stale and putrid, and to taint structed called a pan, by which both time and fuel are ma the next brewing that may go into them. The beer, being terially economised. Cold wort or water is placed in this thus cleansed from all the yest, is now to be either racked vessel at the same time that the boiling is going on in the directly into casks as for ale, or run into vats prepared for closed copper below, the steam from which is also driven it. On the large scale a large vessel termed a tank is first into the pan, so that in the course of the time required for used, into which the beer intended to be vatted is allowed the wort to boil, the fluid in the pan is raised to the boiling to run so as to be perfectly well mixed, and also to deposit a temperature also. When the whole of the worts are further portion of yest by standing. The beer is by this pumped into the copper the hops are thrown in, and the means also rendered flat, which is necessary for stock or boiling then commences. Large coppers are supplied with store beer that is to be kept some time before coming into use. an apparatus called a rouser, consisting of a vertical rod of The last operation the beer will have to undergo is the iron extending to the bottom of the copper, with chains fining or clearing, which is sometimes done by the brewer, pending from the horizontal arms which branch off from it, sometimes by the publican. The fining material consists of and which are dragged round the bottom by machinery so isinglass of various qualities, digested and dissolved in acid as to prevent the hops from settling down and burning. beer or sours, and their operation is supposed to be this:-When the boiling is complete, the whole contents of the the gelatine or the soluble matter of isinglass is more soluble copper are turned into the hop back or jack back, which is in cold acid beer than in sound beer, water, or any fluid a large square or oblong vessel of wood or iron, having containing spirit, and therefore when the finings are added a false bottom for large brewings, and a sieve partition at to a well-fermented beer, the gelatine is separated from the the corners for small ones.
medium which held it in solution, and by its separation it As the boiled worts drain from the hops, they are allowed agglutinates or collects together all the lighter floating to run into or are pumped into the coolers. These hops, matters which render the beer thick, and ultimately falls to when sufficiently drained, may be again boiled with a second the bottom of the vessel with them, leaving the beer clear copper of wort, or with the return wort or table-beer. The and transparent. coolers are large shallow vessels, placed in as open a part of The main thing to be observed in all the operations the brewery as possible, so as to command a free current of described is cleanliness, without which it is impossible that air over the whole of their surface : they may be constructed sound beer can be brewed, let the skill of the brewer be of either wood or iron. The latter possesses many advan- ever so great. Whenever a vessel of any kind is emptied, tages from its cleanliness, and the exposure of a large it should be washed directly with sweet liquor, either cold radiating surface to assist the cooling. There are however or hot. If the latter should be found necessary, this will many foolish prejudices against the use of iron coolers. Fans insure the operator against failure from this score, and will and blowers are sometimes used to assist the rapidity of this also save a great deal of extra labour, if the dirt or yest is part of the process. The fans are placed in the middle of not allowed to harden or become dry. The grist should be the cooler and whirl round, producing a considerable move coarse cut, or, if crushed by rollers, should have the cuticle ment and current ; but where the cooler is large, this whirl- broken without destroying or breaking in pieces the grain; ing current only affects the surrounding steam, without when this is done the taps will spend more freely, and a fine causing any fresh admission of atmospheric air : whereas the bright wort will be obtained; and if sparging or sprinkling blower, which is situated on the outside of the cooler, and the water over the goods should be adopted in the after has a wooden pipe with lateral openings extending directly operations instead of mashing, great advantage will arise across the wort, is continually forcing fresh and cold air over from the facility with which the worts come down. These the surface. The blower consists of a light iron paddle- observations apply only to pale grists ; for blown malt very wheel working within a box closed at all parts, except round fine grinding is desirable; and the roasted malt may be the axle of the wheel, at which the cold air enters, and at ground as fine as possible, so that it will pass the stones the opening of the wooden pipe through which it is ex or rollers without caking. The temperatures of the mashpelled. When sufficiently cool, the worts are allowed to run ing liquors for ale or pale grists may range from 170° of into the fermenting tun. As great injury may arise from Fahrenheit to 185° according to the quantity of malt wetted, the worts remaining too long in the coolers, more particu- the heat increasing as the bulk of material is dimilarly in summer, it becomes necessary to employ artificial nished, so that the tap heat, after the first ten minutes means of cooling by refrigerators, the principle of which is running, may average about 146°. For porter, where mixed this : a current of cold water flows through a main in one grists are employed, the mashing heat should not range direction, while the hot wort is made to traverse in the oppo- higher than 165°, nor lower than 156°, so that the tap may site, either in an inclosed pipe within the liquor main, or average 140°; if a second mash is made, the heat may be around the exterior of the cooling surface. Various appa- increased from 15 to 20 degrees: the proportion of liquor for ratus of this kind have been constructed, but those of the first mash may be from one and a half barrels to two Wheeler and Gregory, particularly the latter, are to be pre- barrels per quarter. The goods after mashing should be ferred from the facilities of cleaning them.
allowed to stand from one to two hours before setting The next operation, that of fermentation, is carried on in the taps; but the after mashes not more than half an a vessel called a gyle, or fermenting tun, which is either of hour. The length of time for the worts to boil should be a square or round shape : the latter is preferable on account about an hour and a half, or until the worts break bright of the superior cleanliness, the whole support being on the from the hops, when a sample is taken from the copper. outside of the vessel in the hoops, while the square is braced | The proportion of hops to be used must depend so entirely together in the interior by means of knees and stays at the on the beer in process of brewing, and the number of the corners and bottom, and if of a larger size by two or three boiled worts, that no certain rate can be laid down ; but tiers of iron rods, or tiers which pass through the sides of 4 lbs. of new hops per quarter of malt should be ample the vessel, all of which are liable to become rusted, and accu- for present-use beers; for keeping-beers for exportation mulate bad yest and dirt. As soon as the worts begin to as much as 28|bs. per quarter have been used, but this is the run from the coolers, and when a sufficient quantity is in the extreme limit. The next point on which it is necessary to tun, the yeast should be added, being first rendered thin by enlarge is the fermentation, which is the most variable opesome of the wort, so as to be easily miscible when thrown ration in the whole process of brewing. Hardly any two into the remainder. When the fermentation has arrived at counties follow exactly the same routine, some using very a certain point of attenuation, that is, when a certain quan- low heats, others very high, some cleansing early, others lity of the saccharine matter of the wort has been converted late, some skimming off the head, others continually beating into alcohol or spirit, it is to be cleansed from the yest; and it in: these, with a variety of other operations adopted at for this purpose it is either run into smaller vessels, such various stages of the process, give rise to the great variety as casks or rounds, or the yesty head is skimmed off from of different-flavoured beers which we have in this country