people whose features they represent. Voltaire showed his , warmth and picturesque beauty, is very far from being in want of this kind of knowledge when he said that Aristophanes elegant, and his exactness, a quality he had in common was neither a poet nor a humourist. Shakspeare and Mo- with so many old travellers of his nation, is everywhere lière necessarily require commentators (at least, to be tho- admirable. For the fidelity of his descriptions of most of roughly understood); and if two thousand years hence the places he visited in the Levant, we can vouch from our foreigners shall undertake to criticise them, they must first own personal observation. He was not credulous himself, study the reigns of Elizabeth and of Louis, in order to avoid and he several times censures the credulity of explorers rash decisions and ill-founded judgments. If we compare who had preceded him. for a moment only the political and social position of the BRYA'CEÆ, a name sometimes given to the natural Athenians with the reign of Louis XIV., before whose des order Musci. potism and ostentation men of all ranks in France obse BRYANT, JACOB, was born at Plymouth in 1715; quiously bowed ; if we identify and familiarize ourselves his father, who held a post in the custom-house of that town, with the respective circumstances under whose influence was transferred in the seventh year of his son's age to Kent, the two authors wrote,-we shall no longer entertain the in which county Jacob Bryant received the first part of his idea of comparing Theophratus with La Bruyère: the sole education at Luddesdown, near Rochester, whence he was resemblance between them consists in the minuteness and afterwards removed to Eton. Having been elected to King's accuracy of their observation, and in the justness and spirit College, Cambridge, of which society he became fellow, he of the strokes by which each has delineated his characters. graduated A.B. in 1740, and A.M. in 1744. Being early

La Bruyère's work, stamped as it is with the impress of a distinguished for his attainments and love of letters, he was sound judgment and a good-natured satire, is one of those appointed tutor to Sir Thomas Stapylton, and afterwards friends whom we always consult with pleasure and advan- to the Marquis of Blandford and his brother Lord Charles tage. It anticipates our knowledge of the world and per. Spencer, at that time at Eton. A complaint in the eyes fects it; and although the manners and characters therein obliged him for a short time to relinquish this occupation, delineated may undergo changes and modifications, its in- but having returned to it, he was rewarded in 1756 by the terest will be always the same, because, like all great works appointment of secretary to the Duke of Marlborough, who, which take nature as their basis, it will always be true. continuing his patronage when nominated Master General

BRUYN, BRUIN, BRUN, or LE BRÚN, CORNE- of the Ordnance, took him as a secretary and travelling LIUS, for his name is printed in different books in all companion during his command in Germany, and gave him these ways, was a painter and traveller of some eminence. a lucrative situation in his own public office. His circumHe was born at the Hague in 1652. In 1674 he quitted stances thus being rendered easy, he devoted his whole life his native country to explore by rather a novel route Russia, to literature, and i wice refused an office which has frequently Persia, the Levant, and the East Indies, and he did not been much coveted by others--the Mastership of the Charreturn home for many years. His first work, · Voyage to terhouse. the Levant,' was published in folio at Paris in 1714. It The history of his life is embraced in that of his publicarelates chiefly to Egypt, Syria, the Holy Land, Rhodes, tions, all of which are distinguished by learning; research, Cyprus, Scio, and Asia Minor, and is embellished with and acuteness, but are more or less disfigured by fanciful more than two hundred engravings, representing eastern conjectures and wild speculations. His first work was cities, ruins, natural productions, costumes, &c. All these Observations and Inquiries relating to various Parts of plates were executed from drawings made by himself on Antient History,' Cambridge, 4to., 1767. In contradiction the spot, and, though somewhat hard, there is a great deal to Bochart, Grotius, and Bentley, he here, among other of truth and nature in them. His second work, Travels things, contends that the wind Euroclydon, mentioned in through Muscovy, in Persia, and the East Indies,' was Acts xxvii. 14, ought properly to be termed Euroaquilo; published at Amsterdam by the brothers Wetstein in 1718; and in opposition to the same writers, together with Cluit contains upwards of 300 engravings, and is also in folio. verius and Beza, he affirins that the island Melite, menMany of these plates, representing eastern ceremonies, tioned in the last chapter of the same book, is not Malta. antient edifices, animals, birds, fish, plants, and fruit, are The remaining subjects treated of in this volume are very admirably executed. Several of the engravings are devoted obscure and very remote from common inquiry. He proto the ruins of Persepolis. On the whole these are two fessed to throw light upon the earliest state of Egypt; splendid books. Another edition of the second work was upon the Shepherd Kings; and upon the history of the brought out at Rouen in 4to. in 1725, and is said to be Assyrians, Chaldæans, Babylonians, and Edomites. Purvaluable on account of corrections and notes made to the suing a similar course, he published in 1774 the first two text by the Abbé Banier, but with this French edition we volumes of the work upon which his fame chiefly depends are unacquainted. In this second work the reader may - A New System or Analysis of Antient Mythology, find much information concerning the coasts of Arabia, the wherein an attempt is made to divest Tradition of Fable, island of Ceylon, Batavia, Bantam, and parts of Russia. and to restore Truth to its original purity.' It appeared At Batavia, where there were many Chinese colonists, he in 4to., and was followed by a third volume in 1776. Becarefully investigated some of the manners and customs of sides the nations whose history he had formerly investigated, that extraordinary people. He was residing on that island he now turned to the Canaanites, Helladians, lonians, when the English buccaneer William Dampier, or, as he Leleges, Dorians, Pelasgi, Scythæ, Indoscythæ, Ethiopians, calls him, 'the famous Captain Damper,' arrived there from and Phænicians: pressing into his service every scattered Ternate, after a most extraordinary voyage and series of fragment which his extensive reading enabled him to coladventures. [DAMPIER.) The value of Bruyn's second work lect, and supporting his arguments by numerous forced and is further increased by an account of the route taken by M. oftentimes false etymologies. One of his hypotheses was, Isbrants, the ambassador of Muscovy, through Russia and that as all mankind sprang from the same stock, all existing Tartary to China.

languages might be traced to one original. The pursuit of In 1714, the year in which he published his first great radical terms was therefore, as he contended, the only sure work, Bruyn put forth in Holland a very small disputative means of discovering truth. He believed also that the treatise, entitled · Remarks on the engravings of old Per- heathen mythology was framed entirely upon perversions sepolis, formerly given by Messieurs Chardin and Kæmp- of the patriarchal history as recorded in the Old Testament; fer, and the mistakes and errors in them clearly pointed and, as has been well said, he saw the Ark in every thing. out.' In this pamphlet he defends himself for the differ- This publication involved him in much controversy, which ences between the plates of his own work and those of he undertook in part anonymously, and in part, particularly Chardin, and shows in what portions of the engravings his in defence of the A pamean medals, in the Gentleman's own are the more correct. His Remarks' are in Dutch, Magazine. The Apamean medals were struck in honour his travels in French; but the Remarks' were afterwards of Septimius Severus, at Apameia, a town in Phrygia. The translated into French, and published in an appendix to devices on them are a rainbow, a dove, a raven, and an his second great work in 1718.

olive-branch, and the legend NQE. This treatise was The compilers of cyclopædias and biographical dictionaries published separately in 1775, in 4to.; and Eckhel, the have gone on repeating one after the other, and evidently most learned numismatologist of his time, declared in its without looking into the old traveller's books, that, though favour. In 1780 Bryant published with his name a tract curious and instructive, Bruyn is inelegant in his style

, and which he had before printed and recalled, entitled Vindiciæ not always exact in his facts. Now in reality his style, Flavianæ, advocating the disputed testimony of Josephus though exceedingly simple, and somewhat deficient in to our Saviour. Priestley expressed himself as convinced by

the arguments in favour of the passages; but he afterwards curbitaceæ. The leaves are palmate, and rough on both engaged in controversy with Bryant on the difficult subject sides with callous points. The flowers are small and whitish, of Necessity. Bryant was a firm believer in the authenticity with pale green veins, and are succeeded by little red bere of the poems attributed to Rowley, and in 1781 he published ries, containing a very few seeds. Its principal use was on two vols. duodecimo, containing Observations' upon them. account of the powerful drastic properties of its root, which In 1783 the Duke of Marlborough printed for private dis- the French call, from that circumstance, Navet du Diuble, tribution an account of the gems in his own coll ction, the or Devil's Turnip. It is excessively bitter, and when Ist vol. of which work was written in Latin by Bryant. In dried purges in doses of 30 or 40 grains. Over doses are 1792 appeared a treatise. On the Authenticity of the extremely dangerous, and even sometimes fatal. Its proScriptures and the Truth of the Christian Religion, 8vo., perties are apparently owing to the presence of a principle executed at the request of the dowager Lady Pembroke ; called bryonine, analogous to cathartine, which exists in and two years afterwards, in 8vo., some 'Observations on about the proportion of 2 per cent of the root. the Plagues inflicted on the Egyptians. But the work Bryony-root should be gathered in the autumn, after the which engaged him in most dispute, and was more distin- stem has turned yellow : it is cut into slices, which are strung guished by his love of paradox than any other which he pro- upon a thread, and hung in the air to dry. duced, was suggested by M. Le Chevalier's description of BRYOPHY'LLUM, a succulent exogenous genus, bethe plain of Troy. It appeared in 1796, 4to., and was entitled longing to the natural order Crassulaceæ, and remarkable * A Dissertation concerning the War of Troy and the ex- for the singular property possessed by its leaves of budding pedition described by Homer, with the view of showing that from their margin. These leaves are of a succulent texture, no such expedition was ever undertaken, and that no such and sometimes pinnated; they or their leaflets are of an obcity in Phrygia ever existed. It was scurrilously answered long figure, with a deeply-crenelled border ; when placed in a by Wakefield, and it provoked far more honourable replies damp and shady warm place they sprout from the crenels from Mr. Morritt and Dr. Vincent. In the following year and 'form young plants, a property unknown in the same appeared a tract in 8vo., entitled . The Sentiments of Philo- degree in any other vegetable production. Physiologists, Judæus concerning the Greek Aorog. Besides these, Bryant however, consider that traces of a similar power, exercised also wrote Observations on famous controverted Passages in another way, exist in all plants in their carpellary leaves, in Justin Martyr and Josephus,' and a pamphlet addressed from whose edges, forming placentæ, ovules, which are theoreto Mr. Melmoth. He closed his literary life by preparing tically young buds, are constantly produced. for the press some remarks on very curious Scriptural sub The only species is Bryophyllum calycinum, a shrub found jects, written more than thirty years before. This 4to. vol. in the Moluccas, with panicles of large pendulous greenishcontained dissertations on the Prophecies of Balaam, the yellow flowers. In this country it is a green-house plant ; Standing still of the Sun in the time of Joshua, the Jaw- but is apt to be eaten by mice. bone of the Ass with which Samson slew the Philistines, BRZESE LITEWSKY. [GRODNO.) and the History of Jonah and the Whale. In the 7th vol. BU'BALUS. (ANTELOPE, species 61. Ox.] of the Archæologia' he furnished some ‘Collections on the BUBO (zoology), a subgenus of owls (Strigida), sepaZingara or Gipsy language ;' and numerous juvenile or rated by Cuvier, and characterized by a small concha or ear fugitive pieces were found among his papers in MS. The aperture, and a facial disk, less perfect than in the subgenus titles of some of them will sufficiently show that his pen Syrnium (chats-huans of the French). Two tufts or feawas not always devoted to subjects of a grave nature. We thered horns of considerable size adorn the head, and the need only mention a 'Dissertation on Pork,' and an Apo- legs are feathered down to the toes. theosis of a Cat.'

EUROPEAN SPECIES. His exemplary and protracted life was closed at his own residence at Cypenham, near Windsor, on the 14th of No Bubo maximus*. Strix Bubo of Linnæus; Le grand vember, 1804, in consequence of a hurt which he received Duc of the French; Gufo, Gufo grande, and Gufo reale of in the leg by a chair slipping from under him while taking the Italians ; Schuffut, Uhu, Grosse ohreule Huhu of the down a book from an upper shelf. Such a death, as has Germans; Uff of the Fauna Suecica; Buhu of the Lower been well remarked by a French biographer, was for a Austrians; Great Owl, or Eagle Owl, of Willughby, Ray, literary man to expire on the field of honour. His merits and Pennant. are very justly eulogized in a note on the second • Dialogue This, the largest of the Nocturnal Birds, is, there can be of the Pursuits of Literature.' He left his very valuable little doubt, the Bias (Byas) of Aristotle (Hist. Anim. viii, library to King's College, Cambridge, 20001, to the Society c. 3), and the Bubo funebris mentioned by Pliny in his for the Propagation of the Gospel, and half that sum to the chapter de Inauspicatis Avibus (lib. x. c. 12 and 13), on superannuated collegers of Eton, at the discretion of the account of whose advent Rome twice underwent lustration. provost and fellows.

Upon one of these occasions the bird of ill omen penetrated BRYA'XIS, a genus of coleopterous insects belonging to into the very cella of the Capitol. the family Pselaphidæ, which by some authors is arranged

Geographical distribution.-Temminck places its habitawith the Brachelytra, but according to Latreille forms the tion in great forests, and says that it is very common in third family of the section Trimera. Technical charac- Hungary, Russia, Germany, and Switzerland, less common ters :-antennæ long, from the third to the terminal joint in France and England, and never seen in Holland. He gradualiy increasing in size; the three terminal joints form- adds, that it is found at the Cape of Good Hope. Willughby ing a large knob; the last joint much larger than the rest, observes that about Bologna, and elsewhere in Italy, it is and somewhat conical in shape; the two basal joints large: frequent. Bonaparte * notes it as rare in the neighbourmaxillary palpi distinct, the apical joints robust: head hood of Rome, and says that it is only seen in mountainous rather large : thorax rounded at the sides : elytra very situations. It is said to extend eastward as far as Kamtbroad, and covering only the basal half of the abdomen. chatka.

The species of this and allied genera, though minute, are Pennant states that it has been shot in Scotland, and in perhaps among the most remarkable of the Coleoptera; in Yorkshire, from which county it was sent to Willughby. the short wing-cases they appear to evince an affinity to Latham adds Kent and Sussex as localities where it has the Brachelytra, but in the number of joints in the tarsi, a been found. It is said to have been seen in Orkney; and character generally considered of importance, they differ; four are stated to have occurred on the northern coast of they likewise differ from that tribe in having the terminal Donegal in Ireland. The eagle owl then can be only conjoints of the antennæ immensely large, and in many other sidered as a rare visitant to our islands. characters. They are generally found during the winter The following is Temminck's description :-Upper part of and early part of the spring in moss. Nine or ten species the body variegated and undulated with black and ochreous; have been recorded as British. (Pselaphida.)

lower parts ochreous, with longitudinal black dashes. Throat BRYONIA, the wild bryony of our hedges, Bryonia white. Feet covered to the nails with plumes of a reddish dioica, is a plant formerly much employed in rural phar- yellow. Iris bright orange. Length two feet. The female macy, but now disused. It is a perennial with large fusi- is larger than the male; but the tints of her plumage are form succulent roots, which have a repulsive nauseous odour. less bright, and she is without the white on the throat. From these there annually springs a slender pale green It sometimes varies, in having the colours less lively, and hairy branching stem, which climbs among bushes by means in being of inferior dimensions. of its tendrils, in the manner of a cucumber, to which it is

* Bonnparte, Prince of Musignano, places it under his gubgenu Vlula. botanically allied, both belonging to the natural order Cu

Specchio Comparativo,'

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Food. Young roes and fawns, hares, moles, rats, mice, are co-extensive with this segment to maintain its peculiar winged game, frogs, lizards, and beetles.

shape, and to afford a firm basis for the support of a very Nest. In the hollows of rocks, in old castles and other large and prominent cornea. No. 1798 shows the eye-ball, ruins; where the female lays two or three, but rarely four, nictitating membrane and their muscles, with the external round white eggs. Latham says two, the size of those of eye-lids and Harderian gland. a hen.' M. Cronstedt, who resided on a farm in Sudermania, near

AMERICAN SPECIES. a mountain, had an opportunity of witnessing the devotion Bubo Virginianus. The Virginian Horned Owl. Strix of these birds to their young, and their care in supplying Virginiana of Vieillot; Duc de Virginie of Buffon; Nethem with food, even under extraordinary circumstances. towky-omeesew of the Cree Indians, according to Mr. HutTwo eagle owls had built their nest on the mountain; and chins; Otowuck-oho of the Crees of the plains of the Sasa young one, which had wandered away, was taken by the katchewan, according to Dr. Richardson. servants and confined in a hen-coop. The next morning Pennant (Arctic Zoology) says that this seems to be a there was a dead partridge lying close to the door of the variety of the eagle owl, although he notices the inferiority coop. Food was brought to the same place for fourteen in size: but it is a very distinct species. successive nights: this generally consisted of young part It is not improbable, as Dr. Richardson observes, that ridges newly killed, but sometimes a little tainted. Once a this night-bird, peculiar to America, inhabits that continent moorfowl was brought still warm under the wings, and at from end to end. Cuvier gives his opinion that the Stric another time a piece of lamb in a putrid state. M. Cron- Magellanica of the Planches Enluminées differs merely in stedt sat up with his servant many nights in order to observe having browner tints of colour; and Dr. Richardson menthe deposit of the supply, if possible, but in vain. It was tions the result of Mr. Swainson's comparison of the northevident however to M. Cronstedt that the parents were the erņ specimens with those of the Table Land of Mexico, as caterers, and on the look-out; for, on the very night when confirmatory of the identity of the species; the only differM. Cronstedt and his servant ceased to watch, the usual ence being a more general rufous and vivid tint of plumage food was left near the .coop. The supply continued from in the Mexican specimens. Almost every part of the United the time when the young owl was taken-in July - to the States possesses this bird, and it is found, according to Dr. usual time in the month of August when these birds leave Richardson, in all the fur countries where the timber is of their young to their own exertions.

large size.
Belon gives an account of the use which falconers made We have seen how the civilized Romans regarded the
of this bird to entrap the kite. They tied the tail of a fox to European bird; and it is curious to observe how, in a com-
the eagle owl, and let him fly. This spectacle soon excited paratively savage state, the same superstitious feelings were
the attention of the kite, if he were near, and he continued connected with the American species. "The savages,' says
to tly near the owl, not endeavouring to hurt him, but appa- Pennant, quoting “Colden's Six Indian Nations," have
rently intent on observing his odd figure. While so em- their birds of ill omen as well as the Romans. They have
ployed the falconer surprised and took the kite.

a most superstitious terror of the owl, which they carry so
far as to be highly displeased at any one who mimics its
hootings.' Lawson, evidently speaking of these birds, says
*They make a fearful hallooing in the night-time, like a
man, whereby they often make strangers lose their way in
the woods.' 'Wilson thus describes the haunts and habits
of the Virginian horned owl :- His favourite residenre is
in the dark solitudes of deep swamps, covered with a growth
of gigantic timber; and here, as soon as the evening draws
on, and mankind retire to rest, he sends forth such sounds
as seem scarcely to belong to this world...... Along the
mountain shores of the Ohio, and amidst the deep forests of
Indiana, alone, and reposing in the woods, this ghostly
watchman has frequently warned me of the approach of
morning, and amused me with his singular exclamations.
Sometimes sweeping down and around my fire, uttering a
loud and sudden Waugh O! Waugh O! sufficient to have
alarmed a whole garrison. He has other nocturnal solos,
one of which very strikingly resembles the half-suppressed
screams of a person suffocating or throttled.' Wilson treats
this visitation like a philosopher, but, after reading his de-
scription and that of Nuttall (Ornithology of the United
States), we shall cease to wonder at the well-told tale in
* Fauna Boreali-Americana' of the winter night of agony
endured by a party of Scottish Highlanders who, according
to Dr. Richardson, had made their bivouac in the recesses
of a North American forest, and inadvertently fed their fire
with a part of an Indian tomb which had been placed in the
secluded spot. The startling notes of the Virginian horned
owl broke upon their ear, and they at once concluded that
so unearthly a voice must be the moaning of the spirit of
the departed, whose repose they supposed they had dis-

The following is Dr. Richardson's description of the plumage of a specimen, twenty-six inches in length from the tip of the bill to the end of the tail, killed at Fort Chepewyan

Bill and claws pale bluish black. Irides bright yellow.

Facial circle of a deep black immediately round the orbit, [Bubo maximus.)

composed of white mixed with black bristly feathers at the There are specimens in the gardens of the Zoological So- base of the bill, and posteriorly of yellowish brown wiry ciety in the Regent's Park. In the museum of the Royal feathers, tipped with black, and having black shafts. The College of Surgeons there is a preparation (No. 1749) of black tips form a conspicuous border to the facial circle the vitreous and crystalline humours of the eye of this spe- posteriorly; but the small feathers behind the auditory opencies, showing that the vitreous humour has a distinct cap- ing differ little in colour and appearance from the adjoining sule, part of which is reflected from its outer surface; and plumage of the neck. Egrets composed of ten or twelve another (No. 1755) showing the remarkable prolongation dark brown feathers, spotted at the base of their outer of the anterior segment of the eye, which assumes in con- webs, and along their whole inner ones, with yellowish sequence a tubular form. The horny plates of the sclerotica brown. Forehead and crown dark blackish-brown, finely


mottled with greyish white, and partially exhibiting the of the base of the plumage was also less bright, and the yellowish-brown base of the plumage. The whole dorsal facial circle was of a more sombre hue. Its bill, also, was plumage is yellowish-brown for more than half the length more compressed. of each feather from its base, and dark liver-brown upwards, The bird preys, according to Dr. Richardson, on the finely barred and indented with undulated white lines

. American hare, Hudson's Bay squirrel, mice, wood-grouse, More of the yellowish-brown is visible on the neck and be- &c., and builds its nest of sticks on the top of a lofty tree, tween the shoulders than elsewhere. The primaries present hatching in March. The young, two or three in number, six or seven bars of dark umber or liver- brown, alternating are generally fully fledged in June. The eggs are white. with six bars, which on the outer webs are brownish-white, Wilson observes that it has been known to prowl about finely speckled with dark-brown, and, on the inner webs, the farm-house and carry off chickens from roost. A very are of a bright buff-colour, sparingly speckled with the large one,' says that author, 'wing-broken, while on a dark-brown near the shafts. The tips of the feathers have foraging excursion of this kind, was kept about the house the same mottled appearance with the paler bars of the for sereral days, and at length disappeared no one knew outer webs. The secondaries and tail feathers are similarly how. Almost every day after this, hens and chickens also marked to the primaries, but show more white on their disappeared, one by one, in an unaccountable nanner, till outer webs. There are six liver-brown bars on the tail, in eight or ten days very few were left remaining. The the last of which is nearly an inch from its end.

fox, the minx, and weasel, were alternately the reputed Under surface. Chin white, succeeded by a belt, ex authors of this mischief, until one morning the old lady tending from ear to ear, of liver-brown feathers, having pale herself rising before day to bake, in passing towards the yellowish-brown margins. Behind the belt there is a gorget. oven surprised her late prisoner regaling himself on the shaped mark of pure white. The rest of the lower surface body of a newly-killed hen! The thief instantly made for of the body is crossed by very regular transverse bars of his hole under the house, from which the enraged matron white, alternating with bars of equal breadth (three lines) soon dislodged him with the brush handle, and witbout of liver-brown, shaded with chocolate-brown. The yellow-mercy dispatched him. In this snug retreat were found ish-brown base of the plumage is likewise partially visible: the greater part of the feathers, and many large fragments there is a white mesial line on the breast, and when the of her whole family of chickens.' long feathers covering the abdomen are turned aside, a There are specimens in the gardens of the Zoological good deal of white appears about the vent. The outside Society in the Regent's Park. thigh feathers are yellowish-brown, with distant cross bars We cannot close this article without referring to the beauof liver-brown; and the legs and feet are brownish-white tiful figure and interesting description of Bubo Arcticus in with brown spots. The linings of the wings are white, with Fauna Boreali-Americana. It is not at all improbable that hars of liver-brown, margined by yellowish-brown. The this may be the Strix Scandiaca of Linnæus. Of this insides of the primaries are bright buff

, crossed by broad Pennant

, in his · Arctic Zoology,

' says that Linnæus seems bars of clove-brown. On the under surface of the second to take his description from a painting of Rudbeck's, addaries the clove-brown bars are much narrower. The under ing, 'its existence is confirmed by Mr. Tonning of Drontail coverts' are whitish, with distant bars of liver-brown. theim:' but Temminck considered this Scandinavian eared The under surface of the tail has a slight tinge of buff- owl to be merely a snowy owl, on which two fictitious colour, and is crossed by mottled bars of clove-brown. egrets had been placed.

The specimen of Buto Arcticus described by Dr. Richardson was observed flying at mid-day in the immediate vicinity of Carlton House, and was brought down with an arrow by an Indian boy.


BUCCANEERS, a most numerous and well-known association of sea-robbers or pirates, wlio were also called • The Brethren of the Coast,' and still more commonly

Flibustiers.' The term Buccaneer is of curious derivation. The Caribbee Indians taught the colonists in the West Indies a singular mode of curing and preserving the flesh of cattle : when cured, this flesh was called Boucan by the Caribbees : from boucan the French made the verb boucaner, which the Dictionnaire de Trevoux' explains to be 'to dry red, without salt.' Hence comes the noun Boucanier, and our Buccaneer.

The term Flibustier is supposed to be nothing but the French sailors' corruption of our word 'freebooter; and it is a curious fact, that as we always used a word corrupted from them, so the French designated the robbers by a word derived from us, invariably calling them flibustiers, or freebooters.

The Buccaneers were natives of different parts of Europe, but chiefly of Great Britain and France. They were most of them seafaring people, and the origin of the associations about the year 1524 was entirely owing to the jealousy of the Spaniards, who would not allow any other nation to trade or settle in the West Indies, and who pursued the English or French like wild beasts, murdering them wherever they found them. At that time and long afterwards, Spain, in right of her priority of discovery, and of the well-known bull of Pope Alexander VI., considered the whole of the New World as tresure-trove of which she was lawfully and exclusively the mistress. Every foreigner found among the islands or on the coasts of the vast Ame. rican continent was treated as a smuggler and robber, and this being the case it is no wonder that seafaring adventurers

soon became so, and returned cruelty by cruelty. As early (Bubo virginianus.)

as 1517, when an English ship appeared at St. Domingo to

request liberty to trade, the Spaniards fired their cannon at Dr. Richardson adds, that another specimen killed by her and drove her away. When this unexpected visit was Mr. Drummond on the Rocky Mountains measured two reported to the Spanish government at home, the minister inches less in length, and differed generally from the present out a sharp reprimand to the governor of St. Domingo ceding, in being of a darker hue above, with finer and less because he had not artfully seized the ship instead of driving conspicuous white mottling. The yellowish-brown colour I her away, and so disposed of the English that no one of



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them should have returned to teach others of their nation calling, and confounded the notions of right and wrong in the route to the Spanish Indies. But the enterprising their ignorant minds. The-governors of the first English nations of Europe were not to be checked by the tyranny of colonies in the West Indies, or at least the inajority of them, Spain, nor could a papal bull shut the eyes of navigators were great rogues, and on condition of sharing spoils with and make them blind to the improving science of naviga- the buccaneers they let them do pretty much as they chose, tion, or to their way across the ocean. The mariners of even when there was no war with Spain. Europe, moreover, still considered the New World as an In 1638 the Spaniards in force surprised Tortuga, while Eldorado where gold and treasures were to be had for the most of the adventurers were absent in Hispaniola hunting fetching, and this made them brave the monstrous cruelties cattle, and they massacred all the English and French of the Spaniards. In 1526 one Thomas Tyson was sent to buccaneers that fell into their bands. The buccaneers the West Indies as factor to some English merchants, and however soon retook the island, and made it the centre of many adventurers soon followed him. The French began their hunting and cruizing as before. These singular assoto make voyages to Brazil, and the Portuguese and the ciations were held togei her by a very simple code of laws. Dutch successively began to show themselves in numbers It is said that every member of it had his chosen and de‘in the West Indies. Knowing what they had to expect clared chum or comrade, between whom and himself prothey were always prepared to fight desperately. From an perty was held in common while they lived together, and ingenious phrase, se dédommager d'avance,' 'used by one when either of the two-died the survivor succeeded to whatof the French flibustiers, it appears they did not always ever he possessed ; but as buccaneers were known at times wait to be attacked, but in case of a favourable oppor- to bequeath property by will to their friends in Europe, this tunity became themselves the assailants. To repress these cannot have been a compulsatory regulation. What, how. iuterlopers the Spaniards employed guarda-costas, the ever, was insisted upon by their corporate laws was, that commanders of which were instructed to massacre all their there should be a general participation in certain essentials, prisoners. This tended to produce a close alliance, offen- among which were enumerated meat for present consumpsive and defensive, among the mariners of all other nations, tion and other necessaries of life. It has been said that who in their turn made descents on the coasts, and ravaged bolts, locks, and all kinds of fastenings were prohibited the weaker Spanish towns and settlements. A permanent among them, as implying a doubt of the honour of their state of hostilities was thus established in the West vocation.' Indies entirely independent of peace or war at home. In addition to the names already mentioned, Peter of • The Brethren of the coast cared not if their respective Dieppe, called • Peter the Great,' Bartolomeo Portuguez, native countries in the Old World were at peace with Spain; François L'Olonnais, and Mansrelt were distinguished in the New they must of necessity fight the Spaniards or captains of buccaneers, who made themselves terrible in die, or relinquish the benefits which that immense region those seas. But the fame of all these men was eclipsed by offered. When not engaged in traffic with the Indians Henry Morgan, a Welshman, who succeeded Mansvelt in or in predatory excursions against the Spaniards, the prin- a sort of general command. He took and plundered the cipal occupation of these men was hunting wild cattle, of town of Puerto del Principe in Cuba, attacked Puerto Bello, which they made their boucan, but they did not begin the one of the best fortified places in that part of the world, and latter occupation until several years after their first appear-took and sacked Maracaibo and Gibraltar. Morgan disance in the Caribbean seas. At a still later date many played not only infinite bravery, but the highest qualities of them became logwood cutters in the bay of Campeachy, of a great commander ; unhappily however, like most of and as both these occupations soon became very profitable, his predecessors, he was treacherous, cruel, and bloodaud trading ships from Europe began to resort to them in thirsty. He was in the habit of torturing his prisoners in numbers for their hides, suet, dried meat, wood, &c., there is order to make them confess where they had concealed their good reason for supposing that if the Spaniards had left ireasures. The boldest and most astonishing of all Henry them in peace they would gradually have settled down into Morgan's exploits was his forcing his way across the isthmus quiet industrious communities. But instead of this, the of Darien from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean. His Spaniards continued to murder them whencver they could object was merely to plunder the rich city of Panama, but surprise them, to burn their log-huts, to hunt them from place his expedition opened the way to the great southern seas, to place, and even to kill the shipwrecked mariners who where the buccaneers soon achieved strange exploits, and were thrown by misfortune upon their coasts. The effect laid the foundation of much of our geographical knowledge of all this was, that the buccaneers became as sanguinary of that ocean. In December, 1670, thirty-seven vessels, as their enemies, increased their numbers, condensed their having on board about 2000 men, rendezvoused at Cape operations, and soon considered everything Spanish as fair Tiburon under the enterprising Welshman, whom French prize, and every Spaniard's life a forfeit to them. Some and English obeyed with equal alacrity. On the 16th of home-returning flibustiers brought accounts of the bar. Dec. he took the island of Santa Catalina, where he left a barities of the Spaniards into Europe, where they soon got strong garrison. He next took the strong castle of San into print, were circulated as popular stories, and produced Lorenzo, at the mouth of the river Chagre, on the east side an immense sensation. A Frenchman of the name of of the isthmus of Darien, where out of 314 Spaniards he Montbars on reading one of these stories conceived such a put 200 to death. He left 500 men in the castle, 150 to deadly hatred of the Spaniards that he became a buccaneer, take care of his ships, and with the rest, who, after deductand killed so many of that nation in the West Indies that ing the killed and wounded, amounted to about 1200 men, he obtained the title of The Exterminator.' Other men he began his land march through one of the wildest and joined the brethren of the coast from less ferocious motives. most difficult countries, which was then only known to the Raveneau de Lussan took up the trade of buccaneering and wild Indians. The fatigues and difficulties they suffered robbing because he was in debt, and wished, as every honest on this march were dreadful. On the tenth day after his man should do, to have wherewithal to pay his creditors. departure from San Lorenzo, Morgan, after a desperate By degrees many men of respectable birth joined the asso- combat with the Spaniards, who had 2000 foot and 400 ciations, on which it was customary for them to drop horse, took and plundered the rich city of Panama, which their family name and assume a new one. Some of the then counted about 7000 houses. Here again his cruelties buccaneers were of a religious temperament. A French were abominable. He returned in safety, and loaded with captain, named Daniel, shot one of his crew in church for wealth, to San Lorenzo, where he found all his ships unbehaving irreverently during the celebration of mass. disturbed. Having tricked most of the teet out of their Captain Richard Sawkins, an Englishman, threw the dice share of the spoils, he sailed for Jamaica, which was already overboard on finding them in use on the Sunday; and the an English colony. This dexterous ruffian was afterwards first thing Captain John Watling did was to order his knighted by Charles II., and became successively commisrobbers to keep holy the Sabbath.

sioner of the admiralty court in Jamaica, and deputy goIn 1625 the English and French conjointly took pos- rernor of that island. session of the island of St. Christopher, and five years later In 1673 the Spaniards murdered 300 French flibustiers, of Tortuga, which islands became the head quarters of the who had been shipwrecked at Puerto Rico-a barbarous act buccaneers, who, whenever the countries of which they were which provoked atrocious reprisals. natives were at war with Spain, obtained commissions or The short way to the South Seas had been shown hy letters of mark from Europe, and acted as regular privateers Morgan, and, in 1680, about 330 English buccaneers started in the West Indies and on the Spanish Main. This latter from the shores of the Atlantic to cross the Isthmus. The custom gave a colour of legitimacy and honour to their route they pursued varied slightly from that followed by

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