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The true Boleti are generally found growing on the
Tachyporidæ, Staphylinus of older authors. Generic cha the Polypori are commonly met with on trees, especially raeters: head long, and pointed anteriorly; antennæ with pollards. Of the former several species are eatable, as B. the basal joint rather long and slender; the three next edulis, subtomentosus, and granulatus ; others are acrid joints slender, and nearly of equal length, the remaining and dangerous. Of the Polypori, subsquamosus, ovinus, and joints gradually increasing in width to the last, inclusive; several others are eatable, especially an Italian sort called palpi rather long and slender; thorax narrower before than tuberaster, which has a great reputation at Naples. B. offibehind, the hinder angles rounded; elytra smooth, or in cinalis, supposed to have been the agurikon of Dioscorides, distinctly striąted; body long, widest at the base, and ta- is an old-fashioned medicine remarkable for the extreme pering to a point at the apex ; legs moderate, tibiæ spinose, acridity of its powder; it acts as a powerful purgative, but the four posterior with long spines at their apices.
is never employed at the present day. B. igniarius when The species of this genus reside in boleti and fungi : in dried and sliced furnishes the German tinder, or amadou, a the latter they occur in the greatest abundance, particularly leathery substance sold in the tobacconists' shops. B. dewhen in a state of decay. They are all exceedingly active, structor is one of the many species of fungi the ravages of and their smooth slender bodies and pointed heads render which are too well known under the name of dry rot; their it an easy task for them to thread their way with rapidity destructive qualities are not however caused by the fructhrough the putrescent fungi.
tification, or the part which we commonly consider the B. lunatus (Linnæus) is one of the most beautiful and fungus itself, but by the ramifications, through the substance largest species of the genus, and is not uncommon; it is of the wood, of what botanists call the thallus and gardeners about a quarter of an inch long. The head is black; the the spawn of such plants, which is in effect their stem and antennæ have the three basal joints yeļlow, the remaining root in a mixed state. The most dangerous of the dry rots black, with the exception of the terminal joint, which is is Merulius LACHRYMANS. yellow; the thorax and legs are yellow; the wing-cases BOLETUS, MEDICAL USES OF. Several different are of a blue-black colour, with an oblique yellow spot on species, all confounded under the name B. igniarius, fur. the shoulders; the body is yellow, with the apex black. nished the means of stanching the flow of blood from
About eighteen species of this genus have been found in wounds. They were supposed to do this by an astringent prothis country, almost all of which are varied with yellow and perty, and, being erroneously referred to the genus Agaricus, black. Many have the wing-cases yellow, with two black were termed agaric, which word is often used as synospots, one on each side at the apex ; some have also the nymous with styptic. Boletus possesses however no peculiar region of the scutellum black. (Stephens's Illustrations power of arresting the flow of blood, but acts mechanically of British Entomology.)
like a sponge, and favours the formation of a clot. It is BOLE'TUS, an extensive genus of fungi, consisting, ac now almost entirely disused by British surgeons, but in cording to the old botanists, of leathery masses, which are some cases it merits a preference over other means of clossometimes of considerable thickness, and having the spores ing a bleeding vessel. When it is to be used, it must be lod ged in tubes which occupy the same situation as the rubbed firmly between the hands, doubled, and applied over pla tes in the gills (or hymenium) of the common mushroom. the orifice whence the blood proceeds, and bound down by a Fries, the great modern describer of fungi, defines the compress. It should not be removed till after iwenty-four genus thus : hymenium formed of a peculiar substance, hours, and the clot should be softened with cold, not warm altogether distinct from the cap, entirely composed of tubes water. Though the German tinder seems to offer a conunited into a porous layer; these tubes are undivided, se- venient substitute for the prepared agaric in case of an parable from each other, long, cylindrical, ar angular, open emergency, it would be very improper to employ it, as the from end to end, and bear asci (spore-cases) on their inside ; nitrate of potass or saltpetre in which it is steeped would asci cylindrical, with small roundish spores; the stalk is irritate and influence the edges of the wound. (AMADOU,. central, and often netted; the cap is tleshy, soft, spread out vol. i. p. 410.) The German tinder however forms a very into a hemispherical form ; veil present in many
of them. excellent moxa. The different kinds of boleti used as He includes within bis definition but a small number of the styptics were formerly designated Agaricus chirurgorum. old Boleti, referring the principal part to Polyporus, which is It is less on account of their uses than of their peculiar especially characterized by having the tubes of its bymenium habitudes that the boleti merit our notice. In chemical inseparable from the cap, which is more leathery, and usually composition, odour, and habitudes, they resemble animals without a stalk.
more than vegetables. When cut into, some of them exhibit almost a muscular structure (B. hepaticus, or Fistulina hepatica), hence called by the French langue de bæuf. The boletus igniarius, when divided, has been stated by Professor Eaton to heal like a flesh-wound by the first intention, or complete re-union of its divided edges, scarcely exhibiting a cicatrix or trace of the injury. (Silliman's Journal, vol. vi. p. 177.) Nitrogen enters into their composition; and in regard to their relations with the atmosphere, they inhale oxygen, and exhale carbonic acid gas. The boletus luridus has been ascertained to abstract twelve per cent. of oxygen from the atmosphere in twelve hours. (Inquiry into the Changes which ihe Atmosphere undergoes when in Contact with certain Vegetables which are destitute of Green Leaves, by M. F. Marcet; Jameson's Edin. New Phil. Journal, October, 1835, p. 232.)
Boleti consist largely of fungin, with some boletic acid. Unlike most fungi, which grow rapidly and perish quickly, most of the boleti grow very slowly, acquire a firm texture, and last perhaps 100 years if not exposed to much moisture. According to Sir William Jones, the B. igniarius is found in India, and used in nearly the same manner as in Europe. (Ainslie's Materia Medica Indica, vol. i. p. 6.)
BOLEYN, ANNE, or, more properly, BULLEN, or BULLEYNE, was the daughter of Sir Thomas Bullen, afterwards created Viscount Rochford and Earl of Wiltshire. He was the representative of an antient line in Norfolk, which had in three descents been allied to the noblest families in England; and he had himself filled important offices in the state. Anne's mother was Lady Elizabeth Howard, daughter of the Duke of Norfolk.
Anne Boleyn was born in the year 1507, and in her child(Boletus lateus.) hood accompanied Mary, the sister of Henry VIII., to
France, where she remained in the court of that queen and confronted with her, but who was said to have confessed of her successor, the wife of Francis I., for many years. She that he had three times known the queen. Two days after was afterwards attached to the household of the Duchess of she was condemned to death Cranmer pronounced the Alençon. The time of her return from France is doubtful, nullity of her marriage, in consequence of certain lawful but Burnet places it in 1527, when her father was sent in impediments confessed by her. an embassy to France. At that time she became a maid Of her conduct in the Tower an exact account may be of honour to Queen Katharine, the wife of Henry VIII., derived from the letters of Sir William Kingston, the lieuand was receiving the addresses of Lord Percy, the eldest tenant, of which five, together with one from Edward son of the Duke of Northumberland.
Baynton, have been printed by Sir H. Ellis from the oriIf the assertion of Henry VIII. is to be credited, he ginals in the British Museum. From the day of her comhad long entertained scruples concerning the lawfulness mittal she seems to have been certain of her fate; and she of his marriage with his brother's widow; and had attric displayed by fits the anguish of despair and the levity which buted to this violation of God's law the premature death often accompanies it. For won owre,' says Kingston in a of all his children by Katharine, excepting the Princess letter to Secretary Cromwell, she ys determined to dy, and Mary. The most charitable and credulous however the next owre much contrary to that.' To her aunt, the cannot abstain from remarking that the moment of Lady Boleyn, she confessed that she had allowed somewhat his proceeding openly to annul the marriage was identical too familiar approaches by her courtiers, but she never with the commencement of his addresses to Anne Boleyn, varied in her denial of any criminal act. On the 15th of and that a similar coincidence marks the catastrophe of this May she was arraigned, together with her brother, before a unhappy woman. A letter from the king to her in 1528 special commission, of which her uncle, the Duke of Norfolk, alludes to his having been one whole year struck with the was president. The sitting of this commission was secret, dart of love ; and her engagement with Lord Percy was at and the record of its proceedings must have been immethis time broken off by the intervention of Wolsey, in whose diately destroyed; it is certain however that none of the household that nobleman was brought up. Anne retired ladies of her household were examined. The tradition of into the country during the early part of Henry's process all contemporary writers agrees that the queen, unassisted for the divorce, but she kept up a correspondence by letters by legal advisers, defended herself firmly and skilfully, notwith him. Some of the king's letters to her are still extant withstanding the indecent impatience of the president; but, in the Library of the Vatican; they are in bad French, and according to the practice of that and the three subsequent were copied by direction of Bishop Burnet, and afterwards reigns, she was of course convicted. After her conviction printed by his order. Burnet says that although not con her feelings seem to have been absorbed in indignation at sistent with the delicacy of expression usual in these days, the baseness of her persecutors, and anxiety for her own they show unquestionably that Anne Boleyn was the lover posthumous fame. There is in the British Museum the not the mistress of the king. In 1529
she returned to court, copy of a letter, unquestionably authentic, addressed by her and was known to be intended by Henry for his future to the king, which is written in such a strain of conscious queen.
innocence and of unbending and indignant reproof, that it In the meantime the king's divorce from Katharine was sets her immeasurably above her oppressor. She tells him, retarded by various delays; and at the beginning of the Neither did I at any time so forget myself in my exaltayear 1533 Henry married Anne Boleyn secretly, in the tion, or received queenship, but that I always looked for presence of her uncle, the Duke of Norfolk, and of her such an alteration as I now find; for the ground of my father and mother. Dr. Rowland Lee, afterwards bishop of preferment being on no surer foundation than your Grace's Litchfield, performed the ceremony. much about St. Paul's fancy, the least alteration was fit and sufficient I know to day, which is probably the 25th of January, the feast of draw that fancy to some other subject. . . . Try me, the conversion of St. Paul, or perhaps the 4th of January, good king, but let me have a lawful trial; and let not another St. Paul's day. This date is established by a letter my sworn enemies sit as my accusers and judges; yea from Cranmer in the British Museum, quoted by Burnet, me receive an open trial, for my truth shall fear no open and printed in Ellis's Letters, first series, p. 34, and Cran- shames.' mer's assertion is corroborated by that of Stow; although Sir William Kingston, with the aid of his wife, and of Hall, and after him Holinshed and Speed, mention Št. the Lady Boleyn (the queen's aunt and known enemy), Erkenwald's day, the preceding 14th of November. It was acted as a constant spy on her; reporting to Secretary not until the 23rd of May following that the nullity of the Cromwell, for the king's information, all that escaped the king's previous marriage was declared by Cranmer, who prisoner's lips. On the 16th of May, Kingston writes imfive days afterwards confirmed that of Anne Boleyn; and patiently to know the king's pleasure as shortly as may be, on the 1st of June Queen Anne was crowned with great that we here may prepare for the same which is necessary pomp. On the 13th of the following September the Prin- for to do execution.' On the 18th he writes: ‘and in the cess Elizabeth was born.
writing of this she sent for me, and at my coming she said, Of the events of the queen's life during the two subse- “Mr. Kingston, I hear say I shall not die afore noon, and I quent years little is known, except that she favoured the am very sorry therefore, for I thought to be dead by this Reformation, and promoted the translation of the Bible. In time and past my pain.” I told her it should be no pain, it January, 1536, she brought forth a dead child, and it was was so subtle. And then she said, “I heard say the execuat that time and during her previous pregnancy that the tioner was very good, and I have a little neck;" and put her affections of her husband were alienated from her, and hands about it, laughing heartily. On the 19th of May fixed upon Jane Seymour, daughter of Sir John Seymour, she was executed on the green before the Tower, denying and one of the maids of honour to the queen. Whether her guilt, but speaking charitably of the king, no doubt Henry believed the reports which Lady Rochford, her sister with a view to protect her daughter from his vengeance. in-law, spread concerning Anne it is needless to inquire; Her body was thrown into a common chest of elm tree, nor is it very important to know by what device a despotic used to put arrows in.' Lord Rochford, Norris, Weston, monarch, who could count upon corrupt judges and a par- Brereton, and Smeton were also put to death. liament of incredible servility, clothed with the forms of law A living historian sees something mysterious in the the destruction of his victim." Queen Anne was accused of hatred exhibited by Henry to his queen. The mystery is criminal intercourse with her brother, Viscount Rochford ; sufficiently solved when we learn that the day after the the evidence to support the charge proved that he had leant queen's execution Henry married Jane Seymour; and he on her bed. She was accused also of grossly criminal afterwards procured an act of parliament (28 Hen. VIII., intercourse with Henry Norris, groom of the stole; Sir c. 7) declaring his marriage with Anne void, and the issue Francis Weston and William Brereton, gentlemen of the of it and of his former marriage illegitimate. chamber; and Mark Smeton, a groom of the chamber. To If Anne Boleyn were only remarkable as the victim of support these charges something said by Lady Wingfield the lusts, the caprice, and the heartless selfishness of Henry before her death was adduced, which amounted only to this, VIII. her history would be interesting, as an illustration of that the queen had told each of these persons that she loved the state of our jurisprudence in her time, and of the temper him better than any person whatever. This was stretched of a king whose personal character exercised more influence into high treason, under the act of the 26th of Henry VIII., over the affairs of England than that of any of our kings which made those who slandered the issue begotten between since the Conqueror. But the name of Anne Boleyn is the king and Queen Anne guilty of that crime. The other still more remarkable by her connexion with the Reformaevidence against her was Mark Smeton, who was never I tion in England, of which she was the prime cause. Henry
VII. could only obtain her hand by annulling his previous | cipal object of his zealous exertions. There is indeed strong marriage; and the refusal of the pope to do this led to the ground for helieving not only that both he and Harley, alseverance of England from the Romish communion. Thus most from their first entrance upon office, contemplated the it is that the character of Anne Boleyn (a matter utterly restoration of the Stuart family to the throne, if circumbeside the questions agitated between the Catholic and Pro- stances should prove favourable for such an attempt, or if testant churches) has become a subject of fierce controversy their own interests should appear to demand the measure, but which three centuries have not extinguished. Catholic that eventually St. John had actually committed himself to writers strive elaborately to prove that, after a courtship the cause of the Pretender. He had been called to the House of more than five years, her chastity did not repel the of Lords by the title of Viscount Boling broke in July, 1712; advances of Henry up to the very day of her marriage; and soon after this, from various causes, an estrangement while Protestants indignantly deny the charge, and appeal and rivalry arose between him and his old friend Harley in her vindication to the dates of the principal events of her (now Earl of Oxford and lord treasurer), which broke out life.
at last in an open contest for ascendency. Principally, Burnet, who has taken great pains with the subject, is as it is understood, through the aid of Lady Masham, by the writer on whom we have principally relied. Stow, Hall, whose influence with her royal mistress Harley had been and the other historians who wrote in the time of Henry placed in his present situation, but who in the end deVIII. and of Queen Elizabeth, are cautiously meagre in clared herself for Bolingbroke, the latter was enabled to their details.
effect the removal of his competitor on the 27th of July, BOLINGBROKE, HENRY ST.JOHN, VISCOUNT, 1714. was the son of Sir Henry St. John, Bart., afterwards Vis The death of the queen, however, which followed within count St. John, of Battersea, where he was born October 1st, a week, and the prompt and decisive measures taken at the 1678. His mother was Mary, daughter of Robert Rich, instant by the friends of the House of Hanover, made Earl of Warwick. He was sent to school at Eton, from Bolingbroke's triumph only that of a moment. After which he proceeded to Christ Church, Oxford; and on having been treated by the Lords Justices in a manner leaving the university he appears to have gone to travel on which sufficiently showed what he had to expect, he the Continent. He is supposed to have been abroad during was on the 28th of August by the king's order dismissed the years 1698 and 1699, but all that is known of his travels from his post. He remained in the country for some time is that he visited Milan. In 1700, soon after his return, he after this, and even appeared in parliament, and took an married Frances, daughter and one of the co-heiresses of active part in debate, as if he had nothing to fear ; but Sir Henry Winchcomb, by which alliance he came into alarmed at length by the temper shown by the new House the possession of considerable property. His wife and he of Commons, which had commenced its sittings on the however could not agree, and they soon parted.
17th of March, 1715, on the 25th of the same month he He had before this produced a few short poetical pieces suddenly left London in disguise, and succeeded in making of little merit; but he was chiefly known as one of the most his escape to France. On the 9th of August following, by dissipated among the young men of fashion of the day. He order of the Commons, he was impeached by Walpole at now however entered upon a new scene. He was returned the bar of the House of Lords of high treason and other to the parliament which met in February, 1701, for Wotton high crimes and misdemeanours, and having failed to surBasset, a family borough, from which his father retired to render himself to take his trial, he was attainted by act of make room for him. At this time the Tories, with Rochester parliament on the 10th of September. In the meantime and Godolphin at their head, were in power; and to this he had entered into the service of the Pretender, who apparty, which was also dominant in the new House of Com- pointed him his secretary of state, or prime minister, and mons, St John from the first attached himself. He appears by whom he was employed in the first instance to solicit indeed, even in this his first session, to have distinguished the aid of the French government to the expedition then in himself on various occasions as one of the most active and preparation with the object of effecting a rising in favour of efficient members of their body. Their leader Harley, the exiled family in Great Britain. When the prince whom they had placed in the chair, and St. John were al- set out in person for Scotland at the end of the year, ready intimate friends.
Bolingbroke was left in charge of his affairs in France. On He sat also both in the next parliament, which met in his return, however, after an absence of about six weeks, the December of the same year, the last called by King William, prince suddenly dismissed him from his employment, and and in the first held by Queen Anne, which assembled in soon after had him formally impeached before what he October, 1702. On Harley being made secretary of state called his parliament for neglect of the duties of his office. in 1704, his friend St. John was brought into the ministry Bolingbroke now endeavoured to make his peace with the as secretary at war. This office he continued to hold for court of St. James's, and a negociation was opened with nearly four years, till February, 1708, when, upon the for- him by Lord Stair, the English ambassador in Paris, with mation of a Whig administration under Marlborough and the view of making arrangements for his pardon and restoraGodolphin (who had by this time changed their politics) he tion to his country, in consideration of the services he might and Harley went out together.
now be able to render against the party and the cause by He did not seek a place in the next parliament, which which he had just been flung off. It is probable however met in November, 1708 ; but, retiring to the country, with that more was expected of him in this way than he was drew altogether from politics, and gave himself up for two disposed to engage for; at any rate the ministry eventually years to study. By the end of this period another complete declined granting the pardon for the present. revolution in the cabinet had taken place; and the dismissal He remained in exile for the next seven years, during of Godolphin in the beginning of August, 1710, had again which he kept up a correspondence with Swift, Pope, elevated the Tories to power, with Harley at their head." In and other literary friends in England, and also drew this new arrangement St. John was made one of the secre- around him a circle of new acquaintances comprising some taries of state ; and, a new parliament having been called, of the most eminent men of the continent. He resided he was returned both for his old borough of Wotton Basset principally on a small property called La Source, near and for the county of Berks, for which latter he elected Orleans, which he had purchased in 1719, and which he had to sit.
taken great delight in laying out and decorating. His wife The biography of St. John for the next four years forms having died in November, 1718, in May, 1720, he privately a principal part of the history of the memorable administra- married the widow of the Marquis de Villette, a lady with tion of which he was one of the leading members. That whom he had lived for some time previously. She was a administration remained at the head of affairs till it was niece of Madame de Maintenon, and brought him a consisuddenly upset by the death of the queen in the beginning derable fortune. It was to this lady's exertions and maof August, 1714. During its tenure of power it had termi- nagement that he was eventually indebted for liberty to nated by the peace of Utrecht (signed lith April, 1713) the return to his own country, which he obtained in May, 1723, war with France, which had lasted since 1702; and this principally it is understood through the intervention of the forms the great public act by which it has left the mark of king's mistress, the Duchess of Kendal, whom Lady Bolingits existence behind it upon the history both of these king- broke bribed with a sum of eleven thousand pounds. Bodoms and of Europe. In the negociations by which this lingbroke however, although he came over for a short time event was brought about St. John Lore not only an eminent in June of this year, did not take up his residence in but the chief part. There is much reason for doubting England till September, 1724. He now petitioned for the however if the restoration of peace was the ultimate or prin, restoration of his property, and that also was granted tą
him by an act of parliament, which received the royal assent tents of the second volume are • A Dissertation upon Parties' on the 31st of May, 1725. The complete reversal of his (in nineteen letters, originally published in the Craftsman,' attainder however, the operation of which still excluded him and also afterwards printed separately); Eight Letters on from the House of Lords, was steadily refused to all his the Study and Use of History' (dated 1735, and first pubsolicitations. Upon finding the doors of parliament thus lished in 1752, in 2 vols. 8vo., although a portion of the shut against him, he engaged in a course of active opposition work had been privately printed in the lifetime of the auto the ministry through the medium of the press; and his thor); a Plan for a General History of Europe,' and a political papers, published first under the title of the Occa- Letter to Lord Bathurst on the Use of Retirement and sional Writer,'and afterwards continued in the 'Craftsman,' Study.'. Volume third consists of ' A Letter on the Spirit excited for some years much attention. It was in the of Patriotism' (dated 1736); The Idea of a Patriot King • Craftsman' that the series of papers from his pen origi-(dated 1738); A Letter on the State of Parties at the Aenally appeared which were afterwards collected and pub- cession of George I. ;' 'Some Reflections on the Present lished separately under the title of Letters upon the His- State of the Nation' (unfinished, dated 1749, and first pubtory of England, by Humphrey Oldcastle,' and also the lished in 1752 along with the Letter to Windham); the subsequent series of letters forming hiş · Dissertation upon Substance of some Letters (on moral and metaphysical Parties.'
şubjects) written originally in French, about 1720, to M. de While thus employed he resided at the villa of Dawley, Pouilly; and ' A Letter concerning the Nature, Extent, near Uxbridge, which he had purchased on his return. and Reality of Human Knowledge' (first published in 1752 Here he occupied himself not only in carrying on this po- along with the Letter to Windham), being the introduction litical war, but also, as it afterwards appeared, in writing to the series of letters or essays addressed to Alexander various treatises upon moral and metaphysical subjects Pope, Esq. The fourth volume contains the second of these which he did not send to the press. In January, 1735, essays, entitled “On the Folly and Presumption of Philosohowever, he suddenly left England, and returned to France, phers;' the third, 'On the Rise and Progress of Monowith the resolution of spending the remainder of his life in theism; and the fourth, 'Concerning Authority in Matters that country. This step is supposed to have been connected of Religion. The fifth volume is made up of fragments with some political reasons, but what they were has never and minutes of essays, in continuation of the above. In been satisfactorily explained. In this year, as appears 1798 there appeared in 2 vols. 4to. (sometimes designated froin a note in Tindal's 'History of England,' there was the 6th and 7th volumes of Bolingbroke's works) and also published in London an octavo pamphlet containing a cor- in 4 vols. 8vo., ' A Collection of the Letters and Correspondrespondence of some length which had taken place between lence of Bolingbroke, Public and Private, during the time Bolingbroke and the secretary of the Pretender immediately he was Secretary of State to Queen Anne, with Explanaafter his dismissal from the Pretender's service in 1716, tory Notes, &c., by Gilbert Parke, of Wadham College, OxThe pamphlet was immediately suppressed, but Tindal has ford.' These letters and other papers had been secured printed the letters ạt large ; and their contents are such when Bolingbroke took flight for France, by his underas it certainly could not have been agreeable to Bolingbroke secretary, Thomas Hare, Esq. afterwards Sir Thomas Hare, to see laid before the public.
Bart., of Stow Hall, in Norfolk, where they had ever since He remained in France, residing at a seat called Chan- been preserved, their existence having been little noticed or telou, in Touraine with the exception of a short visit known. There also appeared at Paris in 1808, in 3 vols. 8vo., which he paid to England to dispose of Dawley, till the a collection of letters by Bolingbroke, in French, edited by death of his father in 1742. He now returned to take General Grimoard, who has prefixed an historical essay on possession of the family estate at Battersea ; where he the life of the writer. This collection consists for the most resided for the most part till his death on the 15th of part of letters written in French by Bolingbroke to Madame December, 1751. The year before, the death of his wife, de Ferriol, between 1712 and 1736, and to the Abbé Alari, by whom he had no family, had terminated a union which between 1718 and 1726. An octavo volume of letters, adseems to the last to have been one of great happiness and dressed by Bolingbroke to the Right Hon. William Pitt (the strong affection on both sides. Most of his old friends also, first Lord Chatham), is said to have been printed at Dublin both literary and political, among the number Pope, Swist, in 1796, but we have not seen it. Gay, 'and Atterbury, were now gone. In politics he had Lord Bolingbroke's writings are now little read, and indeed, almost ceased to take any active part for some years before in matter at least, they contain very little for which they are his death ; the fall of Walpole, in 1742, the event to which worth reading. He had no accurate or profound knowledge he had looked for so many years for his full restoration to of any kind, and his reasonings and reflections, though they the rights of citizenship, and probably his readmission to have often a certain speciousness, have rarely much solidity. political power, having, when it came, brought no advantage A violent partizan, and, we believe, a thoroughly unprincipled either to himself or his party,
one, he has even in what he has written on the transactions Boling broke bequeathed all his manuscripts, with liberty of his own time, and on those in which he was himself conto print them, to David Mallet, the poet and Scotchman, cerned, only perplexed and obscured history; and this seems who had gained his favour by consenting some years before to have been his object. His most important performances to appear as the editor of his work, entitled . The Idea of a of this kind, though they sometimes profess to have been prePatriot King,' and to put his name to an advertisement pre- pared immediately after the events to which they relate, and fixed to it, in which some very injurious and, in the circum- although in one or two instances a very few copies of them stances, unbecoming reflections were made upon the conduct may have been privately printed and confided to certain of his recently deceased friend Pope, who, shortly before intimate friends, appear to have been carefully concealed by his death, had, without the knowledge of the author, got an their author from ihe public so long as he himself lived to impression of the work thrown off from the mannscript which be called to account for what they contained, or any of the had been lent to him. Mallet published the several treatises persons who could best have either refuted or confirmed which had thus been left to him, along with all Boling- them. As a mere rhetorician, however, Lord Bolingbroke broke's writings which had previously appeared, in 5 vols. has very considerable merit, and in this capacity he may 4to. in 1754. The first volume of this collection contains even be allowed, though he added little if anything of much the ‘Letter to Sir William Windham' (which had been first value to the general intelligence from his own stores, to published in 1752 along with some other pieces); a short have for the first time familiarized some important truths to tract, entitled • Reflections upon Exile' (dated 1716, and the public mind. His style was a happy medium between first published in English in 1752, at the end of the Letters that of the scholar and that of the man of society-or rather on the Study and Use of History,' though part of it had, it was a happy combination of the best qualities of both, it is stated, been shortly before printed in French in a heightening the ease, freedom, fluency, and liveliness of • Monthly Mercury'); several short political papers, some elegant conversation with many of the deeper and richer originally published under the title of the Occasional tones of the eloquence of formal orations and of books. The Writer, and others which had appeared in the ‘Craftsman ;' example he thus set has probably produced a very considerand the · Remarks on the History of England,' in twenty- able effect in moulding the style of popular writing since bis four letters (originally published in the Craftsman,' and time. The opposition of Bolingbroke's philosophical senafterwards published separately under the name of Hum timents, as disclosed in those writings which appeared phrey Oldcastle,' with a dedication to Sir Robert Walpole, after his death, to revealed religion, is generally known, as and a preface, which are here omitted, as having been well as the severe remark which the manner of their publiwritten by another and a very inferior hand.') The con- cation drew from Johnson Having loaded a blunderbuss
and pointed it against Christianity, he had not the courage Italy, Switzerland, Germany, England, and France; and to discharge it himself
, but left half-a-crown to a hungry after a long residence at Paris, devoting his time, as some Scotchman to pull the trigger after his death. It is now, assert, to the society of the learned, and a diligent attendWe believe, admitted on all hands that Christianity has not ance at all the scientific and literary lectures-according to found a very formidable opponent in Bolingbroke, and that others, revelling in all the licentiousness of the Palais bis objections for the most part only betray his own half- Royal--he returned in 1802 to Madrid, and there married learning. His objections, and the system which he would the daughter of Don Toro, uncle of the Marquis Toro of substitute in place of religion, are principally detailed in Caracas, or, as others say, the daughter of the Marquis de the third of his · Letters on the Study of History,' and in Ustoriz de Cro, his age being then only nineteen, and his · Essays ' addressed to Pope.
sixteen that of his wife, who is described as being remarkBOLITO'PHAGUS, Fabricius (Entomology) Eledona ably beautiful and accomplished. In 1809 he returned to of Latreille, Leach, and Millard, and Opatrum of some his native country, where, in company with the new captainother authors: a genus of coleopterous insects of the sec- general of the colony, Don Emparan, he arrived March tion Heteromeia and family Tenebrionide. The principal 24th at the port of La Guayra, and retired with his wife tó generic characters are as follows: head short, partially domestic seclusion on one of his large patrimonial estates hidden by the thorax, in the males sometimes armed with in the beautiful vale of Aragua near Caracas. The yellow a horn or tubercle; antennæ very short and thick, the fever, so prevalent in that climate, soon terminated bis three or four apical joints much broader than the rest; domestic happiness; for his wife, shortly after her arrival, maxillary palpi rather large and distinct, the terminal joint fell ill and died. The natural intensity of his affections troncated, its length equalling that of the two preceding threw him into a state of frantic grief, which he sought to joints; labial palpi small; thorax coarsely punctured or alleviate by returning to Europe. From Europe he prorugose, the lateral margins more or less toothed ; elytra ceeded to the United States, where he gathered some useful deeply striated; legs short and thick, the anterior tibiæ political knowledge, and about the beginning of 1810 again compressed
landed in Venezuela, in company with General Miranda, There are about six species of this genus known : they and retired to his estate of San Mateo. live in boleti, and are of a small size, a short ovate form, and It may be useful here to say a few words in explanation of their prevailing colours are brown-black. In this country the state of things immediately previous to the entrance but one species has as yet been discovered, B. Agaricola or of Bolivar upon his revolutionary carcer. The Spanish Agaricicola. It is of a brown colour, and about one-twelfth colonies of South America appear to have remained during of an inch long. It is rather local, but where it does occur a period of about 300 years in quiet submission to the it is found in tolerable abundance.
arbitrary government of the mother country; that is, from BOLIVAR, SIMON. In giving a sketch of the life of the time of Columbus to the commencement of the prethis celebrated man, the difficulty of selecting facts that sent century, when the political principles developed first have most probability can be appreciated only by those who by the revolution of the Anglo-American colonies, and have examined and collated the conflicting accounts of afterwards by that of France, began to be earnestly digdifferent partisans, which exbibit, on the one hand, the cussed by the patriots of the southern continent, who, in extravagant praises of friends, and on the other, the violence aggravated circumstances of oppression, far exceeded the of personal and political enemies. The statements of the pre- point of suffering at which the North Americans had comsent article are derived from several works which, as they menced resistance. Never indeed were despotism, avarice, will occasionally be referred to, it will be convenient in the and slavish obsequiousness to power so disgustingly shown first place to name. The most important are, The Annual in any country as in Spanish America, under the governRegister ; The American Annual Register ; The North ment of the viceroys and captains-general, who, with all the American Review, especially vols. 19 and 21; Historia de la principal officers of the vice-royal court, and even the suborRevolucion de la Republica de Colombia, por Jose Manuel dinate official clerks, were sent from Madrid, and without Restrepo, Paris, 1827 : this work is dedicated to Bolivar, being, in reality, under any responsibility, revelled in every as the intimate friend of the author, who was secretary kind of tyranny and venality. Justice was bought and of the Colombian republic. Outline of the Revolution in sold: the most important legal decisions were made in Spanish America, by a South American; Memoirs of Gene- favour of the highest bidder. The mercantile policy of the ral Miller, in the Service of the Republic of Peru, 2 vols., parent country was equally despotic and rapacious ; to preLondon, 1828 ; Travels in Colombia, by Captain Cochrane, serve her monopoly of the wine trade, the culture of the 2 vols., London, 1828 ; A Memoir of Bolivar in El Mensa- vine in America, though very appropriate to the climate, gero, por el Rev. Jos. Blanco White, Londrés, 1823; Me- was strictly prohibited: the establishment of manufactures moirs of Bolivar, by General Ducoudray Holstein, 2 vols., was not permitted, while cargoes of commodities, the refuse London, 1830—a work in which the author's personal of Spanish city shops, were forced, in barter for bullian, rancour is displayed by his misrepresentations. A similar upon a half-civilized people who neither wanted nor could caution is requisite in referring to An Expedition to the possibly use them; foreign commerce was interdicted on Orinoco, by Colonel Hippesley, London, 1819; Mémoires pain of death; all social improvement was suppressed; and de Simon Bolivar were published in Paris in 2 vols., in to prevent them from knowing the greatness of their degra· 1829, a sight of which we have not been able to obtain. dation, all intercourse whatever was strictly forbidden with The discrepancy of the various accounts in these works is any country or people besides Spain and Spaniards, and occasionally very perplexing. Indeed Bolivar himself, as allowed even with them only under many restrictions. In General Miller asserts, declared in 1824 that all the nume- short every species of wrong appears to have been inflicted, rous accounts of him were very inaccurate. It is therefore and above all was the domination of the priesthood, whose necessary to premise, that, in some of the following parti- ranks were reinforced by recruits from the lowest and worst culars, especially the dates, it is not unlikely that inaccuracy description of monks in the monasteries of Spain. By them may be discovered by persons whose information has been superstition and ignorance were upheld as the surest support acquired on better authority than that of the inconsistent of the policy of the Spanish colonial system ; so that before narratives hitherto published. It is much to be regretted 1810, throughout the whole continent between Lima and that no impartial history of the South American war of Monte Video, there was but one crazy old printing-press, independence has yet appeared.
and that in the hands of the monks, who consigned to the Simon Bolivar was born in the city of Caracas, on the dungeons of the Inquisition every possessor of a disallowed 24th, or, according to General Miller, the 25th of July, book. (Quarterly Review, vol. vii., and North American Re1783. His father was Don Juan Vicente Bolivar y Ponte, view, vol. x.). It is stated that for some time previous to a colonel in the militia of the vale of Aragua, his mother the first revolutionary movement in Venezuela a spirit of Doña Maria Concepcion Palacios y Sojo; both of very inquiry was aroused by a secret importation of the works of opulent families in Venezuela, of the rank of nobility called the French writers on religious toleration and democracy, Los Mantuanas. He was sent, when about fourteen, to the Rights of Man,' and similar productions; and that Madrid, for the completion of his education. By some the danger of possessing them, occasioned by the violent of his biographers it is said that in his voyage he visited denunciations of the priesthood, so strongly stimulated the Mexic and Havanna, places lying certainly somewhat out desire to read them, that many individuals retired to secluof the way of a ship's passage from Venezuela to Spain. sion in the country for that purpose. However, before 1810, After remaining several years in Madrid, and paying some the disposition to shake off the tyranny of Spain had already attention to the study of jurisprudence, he made the tour of become sufficiently strong to occasion several desperate