attempts; but terror soon quelled these partial efforts, after reigned triumphant; and one of Monteverde's officers, cothose concerned were destroyed by the cruellest kinds of lonel Suasola, cut off the ears of a great number of patriots, death. The first decisive movement of the revolutionists and had them stuck in his soldiers' caps for cockades. It was made on a solemn Catholic festival, Maunday Thursday, was now, on reflecting upon these atrocities, that Bolivar the day preceding Good Friday, April 19, 1810, when the became a more enthusiastic convert to the patriot cause, captain-general of Caracas was arrested and deposed, and and, with his cousin Ribas, proceeded from the island of a supreme junta or congress assembled to organize a new Curaçoa to Carthagena, in order to raise a liberating army. government for the state of Venezuela. (See in Outline There, by the influence of Manuel Torrices, the republican of the Revolution the Declaration of Independence.) On president of New Granada, about 300 men were fitted out, the 20th of the following July or August, the same was done and Castillo, the president's cousin, having joined with 500 at Bogota, the capital of New Granada, which formed for more, in January, 1813, Bolivar, as commander-in-chief, itself a separate republican government; but it does not and Ribas as major-general, undertook to drive the Spanish appear at ‘all certain that Bolivar had any share in these royalists from Tenerife, on the river Magdalena. Having first insurrections, though it is positively asserted in several succeeded at Tenerife, he advanced in December to Momaccounts that he was one of the principal actors. On the pox, in January, 1813, to Ocana, and in February to Cucontrary it seems to be evident that he at first regarded the cutá, whence he expelled the Spanish commander Correa, project as impracticable ; or, as some assert, he disapproved and attracted great notice by surmounting every difficulty, of the plans then adopted by the revolutionists, who still dispersing the enemy, and gaining several hundred volunpartially retained a veneration for the adorable Ferdinand,' teers, provisions, and money. With this encouragement he for even after the establishment of the independent legis planned an expedition for the relief of Venezuela, after first lature at Caracas, he does not appear to have held any ap- proceeding to Bogota, where the congress of New Granada pointment, though importuned to do so by some of its mem- received him well, and added largely to his means. By conbers, especially by his cousin, Don Felix Ribas.

tinual recruits from the towns through which he passed, his He accepted however soon afterwards the proposition to army increased to more than 2000, whom he marched along proceed to England, for the purpose of soliciting the the Andes by Tunja and Pamplona, entered Venezuela, British Cabinet to aid the cause of the independent party, defeated the royalists at Grita, Merida, and various other and, with Don Luis Mendez, arrived in London in June, places, and took possession of the whole province of Varinas. 1810. Finding that the English government professed to Castillo, who in slow and cautious formality was totally maintain a strict neutrality, Bolivar, who himself paid the different from Bolivar, denounced as rashness and madness expenses of the mission, after a short stay in England, left his precipitous decision, bis rapid forced marches and his companion, and returned in disgust to Caracas. Upon daring expedients. He therefore separated and led away the appearance of Miranda as commander-in-chief of the his troops to Tunja near Bogota : but the whole country patriot army in 1811, the declaration of independeuce was rising and joining the ranks of Bolivar he was enabled boldly maintained by military force: the tri-coloured flag to divide his army; Ribas led one division, himself the was hoisted, and the Spanish standard cut down and de- other, and both, by forced marches along different roads stroyed. Bolivar was appointed colonel in the independent advanced rapidly 'on Caracas. The revolutionary spirit army, and governor of Puerto Cabello, the strongest for- was, previous to this time, confined to very few : but the tress in Venezuela. The patriots were successful until the almost incredible cruelties of the officers of Monteverde following year, 1812, when an earthquake destroyed, in the had driven thousands to desperation and revenge; and cities of Caracas, La Guayra, and Merida, about 20,000 hence arose, on the part of the patriots, the manifesto of persons; and as it happened on the very day and hour in guerra á muerte, war to death. In justice to Bolivar, it is which the revolution had broken out two years before, requisite to relate the circumstances which occasioned this the clergy seized upon the accident to benefit, by a powerful dreadful expedient. A detachment under Colonel Bricena effort, the cause of the royalists--representing the awful having been taken prisoners, Don Tiscar, the governor calamity as a just visitation upon the revolutionists. Priests, of Varinas, caused the Colonel, with sixteen of his commonks, and friars were stationed in the streets, vociferating panions and several patriot citizens, to be deliberately in the midst of credulous multitudes trembling with fear, shot. This, in addition to numerous similar instances, and while the royalist troops under Monteverde were getting the report that the patriots showed mercy to prisoners possession of the whole province. About 1200 royalist pri- and the royalists vengeance, by which the wavering and soners of war, who were confined in the fortress of Puerto timid were induced to prefer enlisting against Bolivar, Cabello

, having shortly after broken loose, murdered some determined him to proclaim that the executioners who enof the garrison, and by the treachery of the officer on guard, title themselves our enemies, have beheaded thousands of taken possession of the citadel, Bolivar, being unable to re our brethren : our fathers, children, friends they have buried gain it by storm without destroying the town, embarked in alive in the subterranean dungeons and vaults of our the night, and on the 1st of July, 1812, returned by sea to country: they have immolated the president and comhis estate near Caracas. General Miranda, on learning at mandant of Popayan, with all their captive companions Vittoria that this very important place, with all its stores of they have perpetrated in Varinas a horrid butchery of our ammunition and provisions, was deserted, capitulated in fellow-soldiers made prisoners of war, and of many peaceful despair to Monteverde the royalist general, and prepared to citizens : these victims shall be avenged-the executioners leave the country, when he was unexpectedly arrested by a shall be exterminated-our oppressors com pel us to a mortal party of patriot leaders, of whom one was Bolivar himself; struggle - they shall disappear from America - the war by him Miranda was accused of being a traitor and secretly shall be unto death!' The date of this manifesto is Me. allied with the British Cabinet, and being delivered with rida, June 8th, 1813. It is said by General Holstein, that nine or ten hundred of his soldiers to Monteverde, was sent Bolivar himself never signed it. At Lostaguanes Montein irons to Spain, where he died in a dungeon. For this verde was routed, and obliged to take refuge in Puerto Caconduct Bolivar and his compatriots have been severely re- bello; and on August 4th, 1813, the liberating army entered proached with treachery and ingratitude. There were how the city of Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. The joy of ever many circumstances which appear to justify a suspicion the people exceeded all bounds: it was certainly the most of Miranda's collusion with the English Cabinet. He had gratifying event in Bolivar's military career. Greeted by been long resident in London, was patronized and paid by shouting thousands, artillery, bells, and music, the liberator the English, was in constant intercourse with the English was drawn into the city in a triumphal car by twelve beauofficers stationed at the neighbouring islands, and was tiful young ladies of the first families of Caracas, dressed in about to depart in the vessel of an English captain. He white, and adorned with the patriot colours; while others had also made himself disliked by his contempt of the crowned him with laurel, and strewed his way with flowers. natives and preference of foreigners. Bolivar received from all the prisons were thrown open, and hundreds came out Monteverde, as an especial favour, a passport to Curaçoa, pale and emaciated to thank him for their liberation. The where, with his cousin Ribas, he remained during the royalists throughout the province capitulated, and the triumph autumn of 1812. Venezuela was now again entirely in the was complete. Even General Holstein, the bitter enemy of hands of the royalists, and deeds of revolting ferocity and Bolivar, says, in speaking of this event, 'he deserves great plunder reduced the whole country to a frightful state of praise for his perseverance, and for the conception of such an misery: on pretexts the most trivial, old men, women, and undertaking, in which he sacrificed a considerable part of his children were arrested, maimed, and massacred as rebels. fortune to furnish the troops with the means of following him. According to General Holstein, friars and military butchers Marino, who had recently raised an army in Cumana, and

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from whom the royalist general escaped only by being caught governor, had fallen into the hands of the royalists. But in the arms and carried off upon the horse of a brawny the governor of Carthagena, Colonel Castillo, who had Capuchin who was fighting at his side, had assumed the formerly withdrawn from Bolivar's command, having rename of Dictator and Liberator of the Eastern provinces of fused to furnish some supplies, and after issuing defamatory Venezuela. The same title was adopted by Bolivar for those manifestos, having poisoned the neighbouring wells, the of the West. At this time he was in possession of un- troops of Bolivar, in resentment of this conduct, were enlimited power; but he did not prevent the prevalence of gaged in reducing Carthagena; when, in April, 1815, in the popular dissatisfaction, which the conduct of his officers had midst of this unfortunate civil strife, which occasioned the excited; and though on his entry into Caracas he proclaimed greatest injury to the patriot cause, the arrival was sudthat no royalist should in any way be injured, still, an denly announced of General Morillo from Spain, with an arbitrary and burdensome military government, necessary army of 12,000 Spaniards. The peace of 1814 with France perhaps to correct the effects of previous anarchy, induced had enabled the Spanish government to make a vigorous many to emigrate to the neighbouring islands for the sake effort to regain the revolted colonies. Bolivar, disgusted of greater security. The legislative, executive, and judicial with the calumnies and perverseness of Castillo, retired in powers being united in the person of the dictator, occa- May, 1815, to Jamaica, leaving Morillo to overrun the whole sioned great offence to the democratical party, and sus-country. It appears that, being in despair of his country's picions arose that the primary object of the liberator was his ability at that moment to make any successful resistance, own aggrandisement. A consciousness of this opinion in- he determined to wait for a time more favourable. During duced him, in the congress assembled at Caracas, Jan. 1, his absence Morillo coutinued to ravage the two republics 1814, to declare, ' I have consented to accept and keep the with fire and sword : at Bogota 500 inhabitants, and at supreme power to save you from anarchy: citizens, I am not Zimiti, a town sixty miles south of that city, 1500 were the sovereign; your representatives will give you laws; the shot and hanged. While at Kingston in Jamaica, Bolivar revenues of the government are not the property of those employed himself in writing a defence of his conduct in who govern. Judge now yourselves if I have sought to the civil war of New Granada, and issued several spirited elevate myself; if I have not sacrificed my life to constitute exhortations to the patriots, for which his assassination you a nation: I desire that you will permit me to resign was attempted by the royalist party; and the Spaniard the office I hold: my only request is that you will leave me who undertook it for the reward of 50,000 dollars and the honour of combating your enemies.' His retention of perfect absolution, employed a negro who stabbed to the the dictatorial power was however agreed upon, for a great heart his secretary, who accidentally occupied the hamenthusiasm still prevailed in his favour, in consequence of mock in which he usually slept. The island of Hayti bethe royalists beginning again to rally their forces and arm came his next asylum. By the president Petion he was the negro slaves :

: a desperate expedient by which they were supplied with four negro battalions, in addition to a body of much assisted in raising a numerous army.

several hundred patriot emigrants; and in May, 1816, was At Flores and other places the patriots were surprised, enabled, in conjunction with Brion, the commander of the and all put to the sword. The royalist generals Boves, republican naval forces, to land in the island of Margarita, Rosette, and Morales, in committing the greatest cruelties, where General Arismendi had again assembled the indeand destroying even women and children, appeared to pendent forces. With these various recruits, in July he emulate the ferocity of the first invaders. The first two, appeared in Cumana, where he was suddenly surrounded by throughout a march of 400 miles, from the Orinoco to the royalists, and defeated with great slaughter at Ocumare ; Ocumare, with an army of slaves and vagabonds, murdered after he had proclaimed the cessation of the war to death, every individual who refused to join them; and General and that no one should be injured for baving deserted to Puy, a negro assassin and robber, having on two occasions the royalist ranks. He now took ship to the Dutch island arrested and murdered many hundreds of the patriot inha- Buen Ayre, and thence proceeded to Hayti. In the followbitants of Varinas, Bolivar, in revenge, and for the sake, it is ing December he re-appeared in Margarita, whence, having said, of deterring the enemy from the repetition of such issued a proclamation convoking the patriots of Venezuela atrocities, ordered about 800 Spaniards in La Guayra and to a general congress, he sailed to Barcelona and collected Caracas, to be arrested and shot, which accordingly, on the a force sufficient to repel Morillo, then advancing upon him 14th February, 1814, was done, and immediately was reta- with a powerful army. A battle of three days ended in liated by the royalists, who shot several hundreds of patriot the defeat and disorderly flight of Morillo, who was surprisoners in Puerto Cabello. This appears to be the only prised in retreating, and again defeated by the ferocious recorded instance of the patriot army's resorting to the Llaneros of General Paez. Bolivar, being now again recogsavage expedient so continually practised by the royalist nized as supreme chief and captain-general, fixed his headcommanders; and afterwards, at Ocumare, in July, 1816, it quarters, in 1817, at Angostura, on the Orinoco. With an was formally proclaimed by Bolivar that 'no Spaniard army of-5000, half infantry, he marched thence to the westshall be put to death except in battle: the war of death ward, a distance of 600 miles in a month, to attack the fortress shall cease. After several sanguinary contlicts, in which of Calabozo, where Morillo was collecting his forces. After the patriots were victorious, Bolivar was beaten on the 14th numerous and obstinate battles, which are individually too of June, 1814, at La Puerta, between Eura and S. Juan unimportant to be named in the present outline, the repubLos Morros, where he lost 1500 men, in consequence of lican party obtained a decided superiority ; being greatly over-confidence, and the dividing of his army : again, on assisted by some foreign mercenary volunteers, of whom the 17th of August, at his estate of San Mateo, where the there were at this time in Venezuela about 3000 from Holinfernal division' of Boves, a legion of negro cavalry with land, Ireland, and England. On the 15th February, 1819, black crape on their lances, rushing with hideous shouts a solemn installation of the congress of the Venezuelan from an ambush, scattered his remaining forces, and, but Republic was made at Angostura, which has also the name for the fleetness of his horse, would have taken him prisoner. of San Tome. The oration of Bolivar before the assembly His cousin Ribas was seized and shot, and his head was was translated and published at the time in London, and stuck on the walls of Caracas. Bolivar's beautiful family- may be found reprinted in the appendix to the memoirs of mansion was burnt to the ground, and he was ultimately Gen. Miller; it is an excellent specimen of that impassioned compelled, in September, to leave the Spanish generals and lofty eloquence in which his ardent temperament and again in complete possession of all the provinces of Vene- enthusiastic imagination led him to indulge, and to which zuela; when thousands of the patriot army deserted to their the stately phraseology of the Spanish language is so well ranks. The two dictators, Bolivar and Marino, repaired as adapted : indeed, much of the turgid extravagance of Bolifugitives to Carthagena. They were received with great var's style, for which he is censured, is attributable to the respect by the republican congress of New Granada, then idiom of his mother tongue, which abounds in hyperbole. assembled, in consequence of civil dissension, at Tunja, a However, his bad taste as a rhetorician is more than comsmall town about sixty miles north of Bogota. Bolivar pensated by the philanthropy and good sense of most of his was commissioned to compel the revolted province of Cun- moral and political opinions ; for instance, ' popular educadinamarca to join that republic. With 2000 men hetion ought to be the first concern of the congress ; morals marched, in December, 1814, upon the city of Bogota, and knowledge are the cardinal points of republican pros: which, after the outworks were stormed for two days, capi- perity, and morals and knowledge are what we most want tulated, and became the seat of congress. He was then The devoted carnestness in which, at all times, Bolivar urged employed to attack the fortified town of Santa Martha, the importance of moral and mental reform, can be apprewhich, in consequence of the imbecility of Labuta, the ciated only by reflecting upon the profligacy and barbarous

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ignorance of his countrymen. The strange combination of province of Quito, which was liberated by the great victory democratic and monarchical principles must astonish every of General Sucre on the 24th of May, 1822, at Pichincha, one who examines this exposition of Bolivar's theory, of one of the mountains of the Chimborazo overlooking the city government, which on the one hand asserts the social of Quito. It was still deemed expedient, for the sake of seequality and universal brotherhood of man, and on the curity to the southern frontier of New Granada, lo deprive other as solemnly and fervently advises the adoption of a the Spaniards of their possessions in Peru, and General San government system, in which the sovereign power is cen- Martin, the founder of Peruvian independence, having soli. tred in one presiding individual. This advice of course cited Bolivar to assist in the final struggle, he left the ad. created much distrust of Bolivar's republican professions; ministration of government to the vice-president, General but the moral condition of his countrymen, and the state of Santander, and putting himself at the head of the Colomexasperated factions, may well be allowed to account for the bian army at Popayan, marched to Pasto, thence to Guayrecommendation of a strong government,' without resorting aquil, where, on the 26th of July, 1822, he had an interview to the uucharitable imputation of tyrannical designs: for he with San Martin, and thence embarked his troops for Callao. asserts that 'inexorable necessity alone could have imposed On the 1st of Sept. he entered Lima. The royalists on his upon me the terrible and dangerous charge of supreme approach evacuated the city: and the inhabitants, with every chief: I feel to breathe again in returning to you this au- demonstration of delight, received him, and gave him the thority, which I have endeavoured to maintain in the midst command of all the country's resources for the completion of the most horrible troubles that can afflict a social body.' of its liberation. A republican constitution was adopted on His authority as supreme chief, though resigned into the the 13th of Novetuber, 1823, by a congress from the prohands of the congress, was continued to him under the title of vinces of Northern, or Lower Peru, of which Lima is the President, until the more violent commotions of society should capital. Bolivar, in the following December, mar«lied from subside, and the enemy be utterly expelled. In the same Lima with 5000 Colombians, to Pativilca and Huaras. year he marched to the assistance of General Santander, in The congress, unable to govern, in February, 1824, disNew Granada, and in July arrived at Tunja, which, after solved itself, and appointed him dictator; 'an act, says Gen. a daring and well-planned engagement on the neighbouring Miller, 'of unquestionable wisdom, when the country could heights of the Andes, he took from the royalists; and, on the be saved from party insurrection and the national enemy 7th of August, a decisive victory at Bojaca, in addition to only by the energy and promptitude of military dictation.' An several others, at once gave him

possession of the whole of active dissentient faction ai Lima declared that Colombia, New Granada. Sanano, the viceroy reinstated by Morillo, in sending her army into Peru, had designs of territorial precipitately fled ; and Bolivar entered Bogota in triumph, aggrandisement, and that Bolivar was actuated solely by amid the most joyful acclamations of the inhabitants, who sinister views of ambition. San Martin had been similarly hailed him as their liberator: the congress appointed him taunted, and having said in his address of September 2011, president and captain-general of that republic, and sup- 1822, I am disgusted with hearing that I wish to make plied him with men, money, and munitions, sufficient to myself a sovereign, retired to Europe. The reply of Bolivar ensure the complete expulsion of the Spanish troops. At was, ' Your chiefs, your internal enemies, have calumniated Angostura, during his absence, the popularity of General Colombia, her brave men, and myself. The congress has Arismendi had gained him many adherents, and occasioned, confided to me the odious office of dictator ; but I declare in the Venezuelan congress, the formation of a party who that after the enemy is vanquished, my authority shall encouraged suspicions of Bolivar's ultimate object. Intelli- cease-that you shall be governed by your own laws, and gence of this dissension had no sooner reached Bogota, than your own magistrates, and that, in returning with my fellowBolivar, apprehensive of the ruinous consequence of disunion, soldiers to Colombia, I will leave to you perfect liberty, hurried away with 3000 chosen soldiers, and by his presence and not take away from Peru even a grain of her sand. in Angostura impediately restored tranquillity. Those who His army, consisting now of 6000 Colombians under Gen. desired a central system of government, for the sake of Sucre, and 4000 Peruvians under Gen. Miller, advanced in union and strength while the enemy still contended, made July from Huaras towards Pasco. In a tedious passage of his entry into the city a magnificent triumph, and Arismendi the Andes, the greatest hardships and dangers were endured, was sent into exile. A general congress from the provinces and by no one with greater fortitude than Bolivar: the caof Venezuela and New Granada was summoned, and De- valry having sometimes to stand throughout the night upon cember 17, 1819, the decree was passed by which these two the snow-path of a precipice without any room to lie down republics were united under the name of Colombia : the or to turn, while the thermometer was several degrees below office of president was given of course to Bolivar.

the freezing point. On the 2nd of August, Bolivar reviewed In November, 1820, after numerous advantages gained and harangued his army on the lofty table-land between by the liberating army, an armistice for six months was Rancas and Pasco upon the margin of the Lake of Reyes, agreed upon; in negociating which at Truxillo, it is said and on the 6th came in sight of the Spanish columns in a that Morillo twice passed the night in the same chamber valley below, called the Plains of Junin. His cavalry, with with Bolivar. He appeared in fact to be weary of hopeless their reins fastened on their knees, to enable them to wield slaughter, and in January, 1821, returned worn out to with both hands their lances, fourteen feet in length, rushed Spain, leaving the command to General La Torre. Previous down upon the royalists with such impetuous fury, that to his departure he said to Bolivar's deputies, ‘My name many who were struck were listed two or three feet out of will probably pass to posterity branded with cruelty and their saddles. After this victory the main army was left tyranny; but let it be remembered, that had I completely under Sucre and Miller; and Bolivar with a detachment obeyed the orders of my government, this country would proceeded to Lima; where, on the 22nd of December, he remain an uninhabited desert. For a full description of summoned a congress which re-organised the government, the despotism and ferocity of the Spanish royalists, see the continued to the liberator the authority of dictator, and, in two first chapters of the Memoirs of Gen. Miller. On the acknowledgment of his services, urged the acceptance of a 21st, or, according to others, the 24th or 26th of June, million of dollars, which he refused, with the assurance that 1821, General La Torre was totally defeated by Bolivar at the honour of receiving their confidence was the only reward Carabobo, near the city of Valencia, when the royalists lost he desired. Before the senate, on the opening of this ses. above 6000 men, with all their artillery and baggage. It sion of congress, he declared, • I would that all Europe and appears that Bolivar at first was far from being confident of America knew the horror I feel at irresponsible power, un. the result, and that the victory was secured by the intre- der what name soever it is exercised. In the mean time pidity of a body of English and Irish volunteers. This de- the Generals Sucre and Miller, on the 9th of December, cisive battle concluded the war in Venezuela. The rem won the great victory of Ayacucho, when the royalists were nant of Spanish troops who escaped to the fortress of Puerto defeated with irreparable loss of men and means. Thus Cabello were compelled to surrender to General Paez. Bo- ended the revolutionary war of the Spanish American cololivar the third time entered the city of Caracas in triumph, nies, in which, for the possession of national independence, at but the principal inhabitants having emigrated during ihe least 100,000 lives were sacrificed. On 10th February, 1825, war, the streets presented a scene of desolation and misery, the congress was again convoked by Bolivar, who resigned with groups only of ragged mendicants, who at once cried the dictatorship in the following words: 'I felicitate Peru welcome and implored relief. A republican constitution on being delivered from that which, of all things on earth, was drawn up, and adopted on the 20th of August, 1821, is most dreadful-war, by the victory of Ayacucho- and decreeing that its arrangements should continue until 1834. despotism, by this my resignation.' He set out in company Colombia was now cleared of the royalist troops, except the with Generals Sucre and Miller, on the 10th of the following

April, to visit the provinces of Southern, or Upper Peru; / an insurrection in favour of a federal instead of the existing and proceeded to 'Arequipa, Cuzco, La Paz, and Potosi. central government. Another portion of the republic was The whole expedition was one continued scene of triumph determined to adopt the code of Bolivia, sò that two-thirts and extravagant exultation ; of dinners, balls, bull-fights, of Colombia were in a state of rebellion, that was daily illuminations, triumphal arches, and processions. A sump: increasing, and blood was beginning to flow. The presence tuous banquet was given on the top of the far-famed of the liberator being thus demanded in the north, he deCerro of Potosi, and the liberator, in the enthusiasm ex parted from Lima, still leaving in Peru bis Colombian cited by the excessive adulation he received, exclaimed forces, and proceeded rapidly to Bogota, where he assumed on that occasion, The value of all the riches that are the extraordinary powers which are authorized by the conburied in the Andes beneath my feet is nothing com-stitution in cases of rebellion ; but, at the same time, he pared to the glory of having borne the standard of in- proposed to reduce the army from 40,000 to 6000; to dimidependence from the sultry banks of the Orinoco, to fix nish the number of civil officers; to reduce the annual it on the frozen peak of this mountain, whose wealth expenses from 14,000,000 dollars to 3,000,000, and to sell has excited the envy and astonishment of the world. the ships of war. In a very impassioned address, he exAfter a month of festivity at Potosi (see vol. ii. of Miller), claimed, Colombians ! I am among you—let the scandal of Bolivar, with his military retinue, moved to Chuquisacoa, your violence, and the crime of your disunion cease at once. the capital of these provinces, which had recently become There is but one to blame-I am he-I have too long dedetached from the government of Buenos Ayres. A con- layed my return. All parties, however conflicting, desired vention of representatives here vied with each other in the appearance of Bolivar. There was still a charm in bis rhetorical resolutions of gratitude to Bolívar and Sucre, name, and he was thought to be the only man who could whom they designated 'Grand Prince and Valiant Duke;' save the republic from ruin. Paez himself issued a proclaand having assumed for their country the name of Bolivia, mation from Valencia, calling upon the people to receive they appointed Bolivar perpetual protector, and requested him as the thirsty earth receives the fertilizing dew of him to prepare for them a plan of government. A million of heaven.' In the end of December, the liberator arrived at dollars were offered to hini, which he accepted, on the con- Puerto Cabello, where he met General Paez; but instead dition that they should be appropriated to the purchase and of imposing any punishment for his rebellion, he conŘrmed liberation of 1000 negro slaves in Bolivia. "In January, him in his command in Venezuela, and issued a proclama1826, he returned to Lima, and on the 25th of the following tion of amnesty to all the insurgents; a course of conduct May, the famous Bolivian code was presented to the con- that was readily taken to be a proof of his having himself gress of Bolivia. A transcript of the whole is given in the instigated the insurrection, in order to furnish à pretext for appendix of the Memoirs of General Miller, and various assuming the power of dictator. An elaborate discussion strictures upon it may be found in the American and Eng- of the particulars of this affair may be found in the 16th lish periodicals named at the head of this article. On the and 21st volumes of the North American Review.' It is 22nd of June, the great congress of deputies from Colombia, said that Paez, in exciting insurrectionary tumults, was in Peru, Bolivia, Mexico, and Guatimala was convened at deep collusion with Bolivar; that the introduction of a moPanama. The idea of this 'Grand Amphictyonic Council narchy was anxiously intended, and that the lenity and arose first in the mind of Bolivar, which often conceived even rewards of Bolivar constitute proof of the plot; but it projects too vast for his means of performance. The object is equally probable that the conduct of Bolivar was dictated in view was the annual assemblage of state representatives by a prudent desire to conciliate the good will rather than to to discuss diplomatic affairs, and decide international dis- irritate the ferocity of a man whose great authority over putes; promote liberal principles, and ensure an union of hordes of savage Llaneros enabled him, as an enemy, to strength in repelling any foreign attack. In the first and produce the greatest mischief. However this may be, on the only session a great profusion of eloquence was displayed to presence of Bolivar all disposition to rebel immediately dislittle purpose, in the philanthropic commendation of poli appeared ; and in February, 1827, he addressed to the senate tical liberality, religious toleration, and the abolition of a letter, in which he states that suspicions of tyrannous slavery. The code of Bolivar was adopted in Bolivia, usurpation rest upon my name, and disturb the hearts of though not without partial dissatisfaction, on the 9th of Colombians. Republicans, jealous of their liberties, regard December, 1826, the anniversary of the battle of Ayacucho, me with a secret dread. I desire to free my fellow-countryand General Sucre was appointed president. It was soon men from all inquietude, and therefore I renounce, again afterwards adopted by the congress of Lima, where Bolivar and again, the presidency of the republic, and entréat the himself was made the president. The prominent principle congress to make me only a private citizen. The discussion of this constitution is the appointment of a president for of this matter was prolonged by the collision of party life, with the privilege of oaming his successor, and the opinions: in June it was finally decided by a majority of assigning to him an irresponsible executive power; and inembers not to accept the resignation, and Bolivar was yet this apparent institution of absolute monarchy is consequently induced to retain his office. Still a very great accompanied with a declaration of the necessity for a mistrust of his assurances continued to prevail; and twentygeneral and enlightened exercise of the elective privi- four members of the congress had voted for the acceptance lege ; asserting that ‘no object is of more importance to of his resignation. In the meantime the Colombian troops a citizen than the election of his legislators, magistrates, in Peru being informed that Bolivar was making arrangejurges, and pastors: none are excluded from being electors ments for the adoption of his code in Colombia, promoted a but those who are vicious, idle, and grossly ignorant; violent insurrection : for though it appears they were satisknowledge and honesty, not money, are what is required fied that Peru should adopt it, they would not permit its for the exercise of popular rights.' It should, in justice to establishment in their own republic. The people of Peru Bolivar, he considered that the society uver which he was being equally dissatisfied with their new institutions, on the called to preside, was breaking loose from a despotism of 26th of January, 1827, a complete revolution ensued in the 300 years; and that the excessive ignorance of the great governments of Lima and Bolivia; so that the code of mass of the people required at first, in order to be restrained Bolivar was rejected only six weeks after its adoption. from anarchy and civil war, a government in which almost Another congress elected another president: the troops unlimited power should be centred in the president. It returned to Bolivar in Colombia, and after assurance of should also not be overlooked, that a clause of the code pro- contrition their conduct was forgiven. Before a general vided for its future alteration, when the progress of events assembly of Colombian representatives at Ocana, on the should require it. But the suspicion of a people just libe- 2nd of March, 1828, an address was delivered by Bolivar, rated from arbitrary power imputed to its author the most in which he insisted upon principles similar to those deunworthy designs of usurpation. Universal alarm was veloped in his code ; and attributed the unprosperous state excited, especially as the large bodies of Colombian troops, of the republic to the deficiency of the executive power. though unemployed, were still retained in Peru, of which His adherents, including the military, asserted with much Bolivar now was absolute governor for life, in virtue of his appearance of truth, that the people were not prepared to own act, and in consequence, as it was said, of intrigue and appreciate the excellence of institutions purely republican; intimidation.

and that, for the sake of greater vigour and promptitude in In Colombia, his long absence had occasioned the pre- i the goveroinent, it was requisite to intrust to the president valence of much disaffection and party strife. General an absolute discretionary power. A majority disapproved Paez, who, with his numerous cavalry of wild L'aneros, had of this opinion, especially the vice-president Santander, who done much for the patriot cause, had excited in Venezuela declared the proposition of creating Bolivar dictator to be

perfectly detestable. The friends of Bolivar finding them- 'This extraordinary man, it would now appear, was a disinselves in a minority vacated their seats, by which the terested patriot, and had consequently been basely requited meeting was left without a quorum, and thus became by the country he had liberated. Since the event of his extinct.

death, which occurred under circumstances very affecting, In consequence of this event, a convention of the civil and his merits as usual have been discovered by the rabble whom military inhabitants of Bogota resolved to confer upon the he served ; and honours are paid to his memory, which, to liberator the title of Supreme Chief of Colombia, with abso- his living person, were ungratefully denied.' lute power to regulate the whole affairs of government. On In reviewing the career of Bolivar, his never-ceasing apthe 20th of June, 1828, he accordingly entered that city in prehension of the dangers of anarchy will serve to account magnificent state, and assumed an authority which the for much of his inclination to recommend the exercise of contenders for the inviolability of the constitution most absolute power as a means to an end, which even his enedaringly denounced. Shortly afterwards several assassins mies allow to have been good. The question is, what was broke into his chamber, and two colonels were shot dead in the object for which he desired the possession of power ? It the struggle, while Bolivar escaped only by leaping head- appears to have been the reduction of conflicting parties to long in the dark from the balcony of the window, and lying a unity of purpose in establishing republican government. concealed under a bridge. Santander, with several military His denunciation of slavery, the liberation of all his patriofficers who were convicted of having participated in the monial slaves, nearly a thousand in number, the sacrifice of conspiracy, was condemned to death, but eventually suffered the whole of his large fortune in the cause of independence, only banishment from Colombia. In 1829 the republic was and the generous rewards he bestowed upon its defenders, disturbed by violent factions : many military leaders were as well as his liberal views on popular education, cannot aspiring to supreme command, and the efforts of Bolivar to leave a doubt of his ultimate object having been the political prevent disunion excited insurrections. At the head of one freedom and moral reformation of his country. It is comwas General Cordova, who declared that 'In despair at mon to make comparison between Bolivar and Washington ; the conduct and aims of General Bolivar, who oppresses but, in justice to Bolivar, the great difference of circumthe whole republic, I place myself at the head of all true stances ought to be regarded in forming an estimate of their patriots and freemen to prostrate his ambitious views, and comparative merits. The liberator of Colombia and Peru restore the lost liberties of the nation.' Another was had almost every possible disadvantage : he received neiheaded by General Paez, protesting that, 'As I drove out ther the powerful aid of French allies, nor the intellectual the Spanish tyrants, so, with the same zeal and constancy, assistance of Jeffersons and Franklins : every thing deI will free Venezuela from the tyranny of Bolivar, the do- pended upon his own vigour in the suggestion of means. mestic despot, who has dared to attempt her slavery. Vene. Further, it is impossible to imagine two nations more comzuela became afterwards separated from the rest of the pletely dissimilar in physical and moral character than the republic; Paez was made her president; and a declaration, Spanish and English colonies at the time of their respective signed by 486 leading men of Caracas, the scene of so many revolutions. The Anglo-Americans, for the most part, were of Bolivar's splendid triumphs, denounced his ambition, frugal and industrious, with a general equality of property and rejected his authority. Under these circumstances a and education ; but the countrymen of Bolivar, one-half general convention, in January, 1830, was held at Bogota, Spanish Creoles more or less mixed with the aboriginal race, in order to frame new constitution for Colombia. The the other half Indians, Africans, and intermediate colours, proceedings were opened by Bolivar in a solemn address : formed separate and contlicting castes, equal only in their I am taunted,' he said, ' with aspiring to tyranny ; set me, ignoranee and indolent habits - a few in possession of I beseech you, beyond the reach of that censure : if you per- | immense wealth, even 100,000l. a year, and thousands in a sist in electing me the state is ruined: give to another the state of mendicity and hunger. The army of Washington, presidency, which I now respectfully abdicate.' His resig- independent of his foreign allies, was composed of local nation, as on former occasions, was not accepted; he was militia, each individual having a home and property more even entreated to retain his authority, and assured that, if or less to return to: that of Bolivar often consisted chietly you now abandon us, anarchy will succeed. But he had of destitute adventurers, eager only for pay and plunder; finally determined to resign his station : he therefore at ragged creoles, Indians, naked negroes, and cavalry of once took leave of public life, and retired to Carthagena, half-savage Llaneros and Guerrillas mounted on wild horses. broken down and exhausted in mind and body. Joachim The desertion of whole regiments first to one side, then to Mosquera had been some time before solicited by Bolivar the other, according to the momentary chance of success, to become the president; he now accepted the office; but sufficiently shows their degraded moral condition. The after a few months he resigned, in despair of controlling the generals, too, with whom his command was divided, were fierce contentions of the numerous aspirants to power. principally of the most uncivilized description : Arismendi Bolivar, who had determined to take leave of his country could neither write nor read ; Paez was a brutal mulatto and retire to Europe, was again importuned to come for-bull-hunter, out of the deserts; and General Bermudez ward; but his health now rapidly declined.

always took the field in a dirty blanket, with a hole in the In December, 1831, he sent to the people of Colombia a centre for his head : while envy and fierce ambition were farewell address, in which he vindieates his conduct, and common to them all. The character and habits of such a bitterly complains of calumny and ingratitude. •Colom- people and of such an army greatly enhance the merit of bians,' he says, 'I have unceasingly and disinterestedly the individual who conducts them from an abject state of exerted my energies for your welfare; I have abandoned my oppression to independence and social improvement. The fortune and my personal tranquillity in your cause: I am task undertaken and completed by Bolivar was the expulthe victim of my persecutors, who have now conducted me sion of Spanish authority, and the secure establishment of to my grave--but I pardon them. Colombians! I leave republican institutions ; but it is doubtless in his character you—my last prayers are offered up for the tranquillity of as a military commander rather than as a statesman my country; and my death will contribute to this de- that his excellence consists. In enterprising promptitude sirable end, by a discontinuance of party feeling, I shall and enthusiasm he differed greatly from Washington, and, descend with feelings of contentment into the tomb that is on that account, was better qualified to succeed under soon to receive me. A week after the writing of this address circumstances essentially different from those in which he expired at San Pedro, near Carthagena, on Friday the the North American general was placed. His invincible 17th of December, 1831, at the age of forty-eight. It is perseverance in spite of every discouragement and disaster, said that, in his last moments, he conformed to all the rites his ingenuity in cevising expedients and raising resources of the Catholic religion, that he manifested great calm- for war, his skill in impressing upon wavering minds a conness and resignation, and constantly showed the utmost fidence in the final result; the firmness with which he conanxiety for the prosperity of his country.

trolled the spirit of faction, and kept together conflicting The reflection that the man who had devoted all his time, interests until the termination of the struggle, entitle him his fortune, and his life to the liberation and improvement to the reputation of a great man. of bis country, had at last sunk beneath the weight of unde- remarkably great: in the endurance of fatigue, in marches

His passive virtues were served reproaches, and died broken-hearted, touched the often of more than a thousand miles, both in the torrid callous hearts of his countrymen with a passionate grief and heat and desert wilds of the Llanos, and over the frozen veneration, which, in every town of Colombia, was exhibited summits of the Andes, in hardships and dangers of every in orations and funeral processions. The · United Service description, his fortitude for nearly twenty years is worthy Journal,' in noticing this occurrence (vo!. for 1831), says, of the highest admiration. Of the sincerity of his pa

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