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triotism it is impossible to doubt. His generosity to the western frontier is formed by the republic of Peru. It benefactors of his country was unbounded. An instance borders on the north-east and east on the empire of Brazil, may be given from the letter which he wrote to the cele- except the most south-eastern corner, where it joins Parabrated Joseph Lancaster, who visited Colombia for the pur- guay. To the south of it extends the republic of Buenos pose of introducing his system of elementary instruction. Ayres, and where it approaches the Pacific, that of Chili. It is preserved in the 28th volume of the Revue Encyclo As nearly the whole of this country is situated within pédique, dated Lima, March, 1825, and addressed to the the tropics, it might be expected that its climate and proteacher at Caracas. After giving an order for 20,000 ductions correspond to its geographical situation ; dollars, and promising to procure the appropriation of a but perhaps not more than one-half of its surface has a million more, besides a large contribution of his own for the tropical climate. The other half is occupied by high purpose of establishing, schools, the liberator concludes with mountain-ranges, table-lands of great elevation, high val
Receive the expression of my admiration, respect, and leys, and widely extending slopes. This mountainous gratitude, for coming to my country to bring to my young portion of Bolivia belongs to the great range of the Andes. fellow citizens the benefits of elementary education. The Where the Andes running from south to north enter 46th volume of the same work may be consulted for an ex- Bolivia they send off at about 24° N. lat. a lateral branch position of the progress of social and mental improvement to the east, which extends to a great distance, and separates in Colombia during the first five years of the republican the affluents of the Rio Bermejo from those of the Pilcogovernment. According to General Holstein, the eccle- mayo, both of which fall into the Paraguay on its right siastical power is still predominant, the clergy being at once bank. This lateral mountain-range, which constitutes the members of the senate, officers in the army, and parish southern boundary of Bolivia and separates it from Buenos priests. It is therefore not surprising to find in the new Ayres, is very little known ; it does not seem to rise to a constitution adopted in the year of Bolivar's death, the de- very great height, but is extremely rugged and barren. claration that none but the Catholic religion shall be tole- The principal chain of the Andes here runs nearly south rated.' For those who desire to read the history of Bolivar's and north, and is likewise little known, but contains some campaigns, the map of Colombia in the work of Captain peaks which rise above the snow line. The Nevado de Cochrane may be named as useful for reference, being Chorolque (21° 30' S. lat.) is said to rise to 16,548 feet, but constructed on a comprehensive scale. A fine portrait of is probably higher. Up to this mountain the Andes seem Bolivar was published in Paris, in 1826, by Maurin, price to form a single and undivided range from the southern exfive francs. There is also an excellent one in the · The tremity of Chili; but to the north of it at about 20° there is Gallery of Portraits' of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful an extensive mountain-knot, called the Cordillera de los Knowledge.
Lipez(19° 30' S. lat.); the mountains divide into two great The expression of Bolivar's features was that of anxiety longitudinal ridges, which run parallel to one another and and care ; and the great severity of his labours had given bound an immense interalpine valley or table-land, called him, at the age of forty-five, the appearance of sixty. In the valley of Desaguadero, which includes the great lake of height he was five feet five inches; his complexion dark, and Titicaca. The western ridge, called the Western Cordillera, approaching to olive; his hair black and stiff, like that of continues, as far as it lies within the boundaries of Bolivia, the American Indians, but inclined to curl; and his eye, a due northern course, and contains near the boundary-line when animated in conversation, remarkably vivid and several snow-capped peaks, of which the highest, called bright. He was capable of enduring great fatigue, was a Gualatièri, rises to 22,000 feet. To the north of these peaks, remarkably bold horseman, and excessively fond of dancing but within the limits of Peru, the range declines some dein his boots and spurs. He entertained in the most muni- grees to the west, running parallel to the coast, and here ficent style, but was himself extremely abstemious. • He other snow mountains occur. [Peru.] particularly excelled,' says General Miller, ‘in giving ele The eastern ridge, called the Eastern Cordillera or Corgant and appropriate extempore replies. On one occasion dillera Real, separates from the mountain-knot north of he delivered seventeen unpremeditated answers in suc. Porco (19° 50'), and of Potosi (19° 38'). The metalliferous cession, each of which if printed off as he spoke it would mountains which surround Porco may be considered as conhave been admired for its peculiar adaptation to the occa stituting its southern extremity, and the celebrated mounsion. In proposing a toast, in returning thanks, or in tain or Cerro of Potosi also belongs to it. From this point speaking impromptu upon any given subject, General the cordillera runs north, inclining a little to the west, to Bolivar was probably never surpassed.'
the Nevado de Illimani (16° 40'). Between Potosi and this BOLI'VIA is the name adopted by one of the new re- summit no part of the range attains an elevation of 17,000 publics which have lately been formed in South America. feet, none being enveloped in snow during the entire year, It was originally called Upper Peru, and formed a portion for this elevation constitutes, according to the opinion of of the viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres or de la Plata ; but Pentland, the inferior limit of perpetual snow in this porbeing separated from the more populous parts of Buenos tion of the Andes. The Illimani forms a serrated ridge Ayres by the desert of Chaco, and a very rugged and dreary with four peaks rising to the height of 24,000 feet, or 7000 mountain-region, it was not likely that it could remain above the snow line. At this point the range somewhat united to that State after the subversion of the Spanish changes its direction, continuing nearly due north-west, and authority. The republic of Bolivia dates from the battle of forming an almost continuous line of snowy mountains till Ayacucho, Dec. 9, 1824, in which the republicans under it joins the ridge called the Andes of San Juna del Oro Sucre completely defeated the royalists. The patriots and of Vilcañota, which between 14° and 15o extend nearly adopted for their new republic the name of Bolivia, in east and west, and again connect the two ranges of the honour of General Bolivar.
Andes. In this portion of the Eastern Cordillera in lat. 16° The most northern angle of Bolivia is the peninsula 10' is the Nevado de Sorata, the highest peak of the Andes, formed by the confluence of the rivers Beni and Mamore, rising to 25,250 feet, consequently 3814 feet higher than in about go S. lat., from which point the united river is Chimborazo (21,436 feet according to Humboldt) and only called Madera. The most southern point is on the shores inferior to a few peaks of the Himalaya Mountains. of the Pacific at the Bahia de Nuestra Señora, between Both chains of mountains, with the intermediate valley of Punta del Norte and Punto del Sur, about 25° S. lat. It the Desaguadero, occupy a breadth of upwards of 230 miles consequently extends over 16° of lat., or upwards of a to the north of 18°, but to the south of that parallel they are thousand miles, from north to south. The most eastern upwards of 300 miles in width. The length of this mounpart is contiguous to the river Paraguay, where after tain mass is about 420 miles, and it consequently covers a leaving Brazil it forms for some space the boundary between surface of upwards of 100,000 square miles, of which howBolivia and Paraguay, and extends to 57° 30''W. long. ever nearly one-fourth belongs to the republic of Peru. The most western portion of the republic borders on the It is remarkable that the summits of the Western CorPacific at Punta del Norte, about 70° 30' W. long. Under dillera either present the form of a truncated cone, or of a the parallel of 22° the extent of the country from east to dome, and that about them are numerous indications of west may be about 750 miles, but towards the north it is their having once been volcanoes, and some of them still less. The mean width may be about 500 miles, and the eject ashes; the higher parts of the Eastern Cordillera are mean length 700, which gives a surface of 350,000 square either pointed peaks or notched ridges, and no volcanic promiles, or about three times the extent of the British Islands. ducts are found near them.
Bolivia is bounded on the west for about 260 miles by The valley of the Desaguadero, which lies between two the Pacific Ocean; the remainder of its western and north- ranges, with a mean elevation above the sea estimated
at 13,000 feet, runs in its southern portion nearly parallel l. boats and sails with which they navigate the lake; mats to the meridian, but north of lat. 17° it forms an angle made of them are the bed of the poor, and serve in the of almost 350 with that line, running very nearly north- houses of the rich as carpets. west-by-north, and south-east-by-south. Not having any From this valley six mountain-passes traverse the western outlet towards the sea, the rivers which descend into it Cordillera to the Pacific Ocean. Their highest points rise are either lost in the sandy soil, or empty themselves into to nearly 15,000 feet above the sea, and consequently they the lake of Titicaca at its northern extremity. This lake, are not inferior to the mountain-passes of the Himalaya in the largest in the South American continent, occupies an elevation. The ascent to these passes from the valley is area of about 4600 square miles, and its surface is 12,795 only 2000 feet, and the slope is gentle; but the descent feet above that of the Pacific. In some places its depth has to the sea is exceedingly rapid. The highest point of the been ascertained to be 120 fathoms, but many parts are great range being close on the maritime declivity of the probably much deeper. This lake receives numerous Cordillera, and consequently at an inconsiderable distance, streams at its northern extremity, but not all the waters not exceeding sixty miles, from the sea, the descent must which descend from the sides of the mountain-ridges. It is be extremely precipitate and abrupt. A traveller coming remarkable that the watershed on the eastern part of the from the coast finds himself transported in a few hours from valley of the Desaguadero, and as it would seem also on the valleys on the Pacific to the arid regions of the Cordilthe western, is not formed by the high ranges, but by two lera, at an elevation exceeding 15,000 feet. low lateral ridges distant from twenty to thirty miles from That portion of Bolivia which extends between the Andes the Jake, and generally rising from 500 to 1000 feet above and the Pacific, in length upward of 250 miles between the its level. The waters collected between these lateral ridges Bahia de Nuestra Señora and the small river Loa, does not and the high mountain-ranges descend eastward to the plains differ much from the coast which extends northward to traversed by the river Madeira and its upper branches; and Guayaquil in Columbia, and southward to Coquimbo in westward towards the sea. The only outlet of the lake of Chile." All this coast, which is nearly 1800 miles in length, Titicaca is the river Desaguadero, which issues from its with a breadth varying from thirty to sixty miles, may be south-western extremity in lat. 16° 38' 10'', and is a small considered as a line of sandy deserts. It presents great stream when compared with the immense extent of the undulations of surface, and were it not for the stupendous lake. Its depth however is considerable, but its velocity is back-ground, which reduces every other object to a comscarcely two miles an hour. It runs southward, and forms paratively diminutive size, the sand hills might sometimes near 19' a lake, called Lago del Desaguadero, in which it is be called mountains. This long line of deserts is interlost. Its course between both lakes may be 180 miles. sected by rivers and streams, which are seldom less than
The lake of Titicaca contains numerous small islands, twenty, nor more than eighty or ninety miles apart. Along which rise directly from the water's edge to a considerable them are found the only places which are inhabited; and height. That from which it bas taken its name, and which the narrow strips on each bank of every stream are peopled is known in the history of the antient Peruvians as the in proportion io the supply of water. During the rainy place where Manco Capac made his appearance, is situated season in the interior the rivers swell prodigiously, and can at the south-east extremity. Both the southern part of this only be crossed by a balsa, which is a raft of frame-work lake, which bears the name of Laguna de Umamarea, and fastened upon four bull-hides sewed up, made air-tight, and the eastern shores, nearly in their whole extent, belong to filled with wind. A few of the large rivers reach the sea, Bolivia.
but most of those of the second order are consumed in irriThe climate of the valley of the Desaguadero offers many gating the cultivated patches, or are absorbed by the desert, peculiarities. Being in its lowest parts upwards of 13,000 where neither birds, beasts, nor reptiles are ever seen, and feet above the level of the sea, the heat is never great, nor is where a bladle of vegetation never grows. Sometimes the the cold very sensible, except during the night from May to banks of the rivers are too steep and rugged to admit of November. This season, which is the winter, is extremely the water being applied to the purposes of irrigation, and dry, the sky is cloudless, and neither rain nor snow is known consequently the surrounding country cannot be cultivated. to fall. But snow precedes and follows the rainy season, No traveller can go from valley to valley without a guide, which in this valley begins at the end of November, and for there are no marks to guide his steps. The sand is frecontinues through the summer months to the beginning of quently raised into immense clouds by the wind, to the April. During these months it rains nearly every day, more great annoyance of the traveller, who generally rides with or less; but during the night the sky is clear, and no clouds his face muilled up. are observed : snow falls only in November and April. That portion of this coast called Atacama, which be
The vegetation of this valley has also a very peculiar longs to Bolivia, is by far the worst. But the greatest character. There are no trees, but the lower districts, es- part of Bolivia is situated to the east of the Andes, and pecially near the great lake, are covered with the most ihis portion may be divided into the mountainous district beautiful green turf where the land is not cultivated. The and ihe plains. The mountain-district extends along the cultivation is limited to a few things; wheat, rye, and barley eastern side of the Andes, and is not of great extent to the are indeed sown, but they do not ripen, and are cut green north of 17° 40', because the slope of the Eastern Cordillera as fodder for the llamas. The plantations of quinoa (Che- towards the plains is nearly as rapid as that of the Western nypodium quinoa, Linn.) are extensive, and also of pota- towards the sea, and the branches which this chain sends toes, which are found growing wild in some more elevated off extend to no great distance from the principal range. places ; these plantations extend to a considerable distance But at about 17° 10' S. lat., a mountain-range detaches itup the sides of the adjacent hills. There are no peculiar sea- self from the Eastern Cordillera, which runs generally due sons for sowing or harvest, and the natives are continually east for upwards of 200 miles. This branch rises near the occupied either in performing the one or the other operation. city of Cochabamba, above the line of perpetual snow, in The country which extends between the ridges of hills the pointed peak called Nevado de Tinaira ; farther eastand the high ranges contains for the most part undulating ward it gradually declines till it terminates on or near the plains, covered with a coarse grass, on which numerous herds banks of the Rio Guapäi or Grande, at no great distance of llamas are fed. Here also the 'guanacos, alpacas, and west of the town of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. This chain vicuñas feed in a wild state. Besides these no wild animals is commonly called the Sierra of Santa Cruz. Between have been observed in the valley of the Desaguadero, except this ridge and that forming the boundary line towards a peculiar kind of hare, described by Mr. Bennet under the Buenos Ayres, which we have already noticed, extends name of Lagotis Cuvieri in the first volume of the Trans- the mountainous portion of Eastern Bolivia. Its western actions of the Zoological Society ;' and a small animal of boundary may be fixed at about 63° W. long. This country the family Rodentia, which in some places has so burrowed is traversed by many lateral ridges, which are offsets from the soil as to render travelling on horseback unsafe. The the great chain of the Andes, and form extensive valleys. numerous birds which visit the lake of Titicaca, and the fish, Many of these valleys sink slowly, and often maintain themhave not yet been described, nor even enumerated. The selves for a considerable extent at nearly the same elevation. condor is frequently met with on the mountains. Among This circumstance, as well as the width of the valleys, the spontaneous plants the rushes which grow along the renders them particularly fit for agriculture, and for the banks of the lake deserve to be noticed, as the entire want cultivation of tropical as well as extra-tropical productions. of trees has compelled the natives to apply them to nearly Many persons have considered these valleys as the most as many uses as the bamboo is employed in India. With fertile, and the most beautiful parts of South America. Here these rushes the natives build their huts, and make the the slopes of the mountains are generally covered with finc
trees to a great height. This description however applies the Parana, the other great branch of the La Plata fronı only to the northern part, between 17° 30' and 20°. Farther the Atlantic Ocean: this distance hardly exceeds sixty or south the valleys are narrower, and the ranges which enclose seventy miles. Both these great rivers also rise nearly in them without wood, and nearly without vegetation ; with thu same parallel between 20° and 21°; their sources are the exception of a few valleys, the only pasture for llamas 25° of long. distant from each other, or upwards of 1000 and guanacoes.
miles. No part of America has a greater abundance of water The Pilcomayo rises on the southern declivity of the than this region. The rivers which descend from the eastern mountain-knot called Cordillera de los Lipez, and running declivities are very numerous and contain a volume of water generally due east, is soon increased by numerous other which cannot be exhausted by irrigation. These rivers streams, some of which are considerable, as the S. Juan, may be considered as the true sources of the Amazon and which rises about 22° 30', and falls into the Pilcomayo froin La Plata rivers, being at a greater distance from the mouths the south; the Paspaya, which rises in the neighbourhood of these rivers than any other streams. This is certainly of Potosi on the southern declivity of the eastern Cordillera true as far as regards the Amazon ; for the Cordillera Real and soon becomes navigable; and the Cachymayo, which contains the sources of the greatest of its tributaries, of the rises not far from the source of the Cochabamba, and traRio Madeira. This large river is formed by the junction of verses the beautiful and well-cultivated valley of Chuquisaca. two considerable streams, the Rio Beni and the Rio Mamore, Soon after the junction with the Cachymayo, the Pilcoboth of which descend from the Cordillera Real and unite mayo, continuing its eastern course, forms for about 100 their waters between 10° and 11°S. lat. The upper branches miles the boundary-line between Bolivia and Buenos Ayres, of the Rio Beni are the Rio Caca, the Rio Chuqueapo, and when turning suddenly to the south it enters the desert the Rio Quetoto. The Rio Quetoto, the most southern of called Grande Chaco, and leaves the territories of Bolivia. them, rises where the Sierra de Santa Cruz detaches itself The whole eastern portion of Bolivia, from the banks of from the eastern Cordillera, and taking a N.E. and N. course the Pilcomayo and the frontier of Buenos Ayres to the enters the plain, where it soon meets the Chuqueapo, which junction of the Mamore and Beni, is one extensive plain, has its origin in the valley of the Desaguadero to the north- which from east to west extends about 200 miles, and from west of the Nevado de Illimani. The Chuqueapo, which south-east to north-west upwards of 700. A few isolated is only prevented by a low ridge from entering that river, ranges of hills rise in some parts, but neither their place after having passed the town of La Paz, traverses the great nor their height haş been determined with any degree of chain (16° 55') through an enormous chasm. It then runs accuracy. In the southern part of this plain lies the waterfor nearly a hundred miles through a fine valley and joins shed between the attluents of the Amazon river and those of the Quetoto on entering the plain. After this junction the La Plata, but as far as our information goes it does not the river continues its northern course, dividing the appear to rise to any great height above the sea.
This plain mountainous country from the eastern plains till it meets is principally watered by the Beni, the Mamore, and the the Rio Caca, The Caca, under the name of Mapiri, Ubahy, which in the rainy season, from October to April, inrises likewise in the valley of the Desaguadero, at no great undate the country along their banks to a considerable exdistance from the Nevado de Sorata towards the west, and tent. In many places there are lakes, and though none of running first north and then east, traverses by a deep them are very large, the exhalations, united with those from chasm, the Cordillera Real north of the Nevado de Yani, a the inundations, render the climate excessively humid. This high snow-capped peak. During a very tortuous course humidity, added to the heat which prevails all the year the Mapiri is joined by a great number of streams which round, gives rise to many dangerous diseases, and renders descend from the eastern declivity of the same Cordillera, this plain very unhealthy, especially for Europeans. This and by their union the Rio Caca is formed. This stream part of the republic has consequently been almost abandoned joins the united rivers Quetoto and Chuqueapo about 13o | by the Creoles, though its great fertility would better repay 30', and the river formed by their junction is called Beni, the labour of the cultivator than any other district of the which name it preserves in its northern and north-north- country. Immense forests of high trees cover nearly the eastern course to its junction with the Mamore. Thus the whole of these plains, but their valuable products are entirely Beni brings to the Madeira all the waters from the eastern neglected, except that a considerable quantity of cocoa is and from a portion of the western declivities of the Cordillera gathered by the natives and brought to the towns of San Real, as well as a portion of those from the Sierra de Santa Lorenzo de la Frontera, La Paz, and Cochabamba. The Cruz.
plantations consist commonly of mandiocca and maize, those The other great branch of the Madeira, the Mamore, of cotton and rice being rare; all the other tropical producrises under the name of Cochabamba in the western extre- tions which might be cultivated with the greatest advantage mity of the valley which bears the same name, and is dis- are almost entirely negle ted. tinguished by its cultivation and its numerous products. It Where the borders of Bolivia, Brazil, and Paraguay meet, first runs E. by S. and afterwards due E., when being the Lake of Xarages extends along both banks of the river swelled by many small rivers, it assumes the naine of Rio Paraguay, and their lake has repeatedly disappeared and reGrande. It afterwards makes a very large semicircular appeared on our maps. As far as it is known, there seems sweep, by which it arrives at the town of Santa Cruz de la to be in this part of South America an extensive depression Sierra, whence it runs N.W., and after uniting with the of the surface, which being traversed by a large river subChaparé at about 16° 30' receives the name of Mamore, ject to a considerable annual increase of water, is by turns and by degrees changes its N.W. course into a N. one. inundated and drained; but how far this depression of the The Chaparé is formed by four or five streams descending surface extends is not determined, this portion of the South from the northern declivity of the Sierra de Santa Cruz. American continent being very little known. Before the Mamore unites with the Itanez, a large river Rain never falls on the coast along the Pacific. In the which rises in the western parts of Brazil, it receives the valley of the Desaguadero, in the mountain-region, and in waters of the Yacuma, whose source is at no great distance the plains, the summer is the rainy season; but the rain is from the banks of the Rio Beni, and which runs through an continual only in the plains. The mountains are subject extremely that country. The Itanez (Brazil) is increased to tremendous hail-storms, during which the traveller is before its junction with the Mamore by the river Ubahy, obliged to halt, and the parts of the body which are exposed which rises in a lake called Laguna Grande, in the country are so severely bruised and cut by the hailstones as to bleed of the Chiquitos, and is therefore also called Rio de Chiqui- copiously. Thunder-storms are also peculiarly severe in tos. It is said to run nearly parallel to the Mamore, but at these elevated regions. In winter the traveller is subject a considerable distance from it; but as this part of Bolivia to a temporary blindness called surumpi, which is caused by is very little known, we have no certain information about the rays of the sun being reflected from the snow, and renit. After the junction of the Mamore with the Itanez, the dering it impossible to open the eyelids for a single moment; river continues its northern course till it meets the Beni at the smallest ray of light becomes absolutely insupportable. the most northern angle of Bolivia, from which point the This complaint generally continues two days. Earthquakes river has the name of Madeira.
are very common along the coast of the Pacific, less so in The waters which descend from the eastern declivity of the valley of the Desaguadero and the mountain-region, the Andes south of 18° S. lat. go to the Pilcomayo, one of but in the plains they have not been observed. the principal branches of the La Plata river. The Pilco The scanty productions of the Valley of the Desaguadero mayo rises at nearly the same distance from the Pacific as have been noticed. The few places on the coast which are
cultivated produce no grain but maize: excellent fruits I though their food still consists partly of fish and game. however grow, especially figs, olives, and melons, besides Some of them make excellent cotton cloth, and in general pomegranates, plantains, and algarrovas (Prosopis dulcis, they have a taste for mechanical arts, and are good carHumb.), a kind of pulse, which grows to the length of a penters. They show also some talent for music and paintfoot, with its seeds enveloped in a substance like cotton, ing, in which they were initiated by the Jesuits. But the which is eaten. It is of a sourish taste, but very cooling. Indians who inhabit the Lower Beni below Reyes, and those Cotton, a little sugar-cane, and the Arundo donax, of which on both sides of the Ubahy, as well as the Chiquitos, who there are large plantations, are also cultivated.
occupy the country bordering on Brazil and Paraguay, still The other portions of the republic, especially the beautiful lead a roving life, live mostly on wild roots and fruits, and vales watered by the Cochabamba and Cachy Mayo, are on game, and go naked. more fertile. As the levels which occur along their banks The inhabitants of foreign extraction are either the deare at different elevations above the sea, they abound in all scendants of Spaniards, or of Africans and the mixed races. the fruits, grains, and other agricultural productions com The descendants of the Spaniards are most numerous in mon to Europe and to tropical countries. Among the spon- the mining districts, and in the valleys of the Cochabamba taneous products are cocoa, sarsaparilla, different species of and Cachy Pilco, where they may be said to compose vanilla, copaiva balsam, and caoutchouc. The mighty forests the great bulk of the inhabitants; they are much less nuwhich line the rivers abound in the finest timber for all pur- merous on the coast and in the valley of the Desaguadero, poses, especially for ship-building, and in trees which distil and their number in the plains is very small. The people of aromatic and medicinal gums. The plantain is found in pure African blood are few in number, but the mixed races, abundance; and there is a species of cinnamon called by which owe their origin to a mixture with negroes, are nuthe creoles the canela de clavo, which only differs in the merous on the coast; much less so in the mining districts, greater thickness of the bark and its darker colour from and in other parts very few of them are found. that of the East Indies.
The population of Bolivia has been differently stated. At Besides the animals peculiar to the valley of the Desa- first it was asserted that it amounted to 1,200,000 souls; guadero, there are the tapir, the jaguar, the leopard, six or but this is evidently an exaggeration. Immense tracts seven sorts of monkeys, and several amphibious creatures. consist of barren deserts, others, though fertile, are not Of domestic animals, there are horses, asses, and mules, cultivated, and nearly uninhabited, and the bulk of the but for sheep the climate is too warm. Great herds of population is concentrated in two larger and several smaller horned cattle find abundant pastures on the banks of the valleys. More recent information has reduced the popurivers in the plains.
lation to 630,000. As however no recent census has been Many of the birds seem to be unknown to the naturalist. taken, and several extensive districts, possessed by the There have however been noticed different kinds of parrots, independent Indians, are not even visited by Europeans, several species of turkeys, and a multitude of beautiful the population cannot be ascertained with any degree of singing birds, as the thrush, the whistler, and the maltico, certainty. remarkable for its plumage and the sweetness of its note. The republic of Bolivia is politically divided into five de
All the rivers, but especially those of the plains, abound partments, and each department into provinces. in fish ; but the names given to them by travellers render I. The department of Potosi comprehends the most it difficult to determine if any of them resemble those of southern portion of Bolivia, namely, the whole of the coast Europe.
along the Pacific, the south-western part of the valley of the Gold is found in abundance in many places, but espe- Desaguadero, and the southern part of the mountain-region cially on the eastern declivity of the eastern Cordillera, as far north as the banks of the Pilco Mayo and Paspaya where it is washed down by rivers which run between slate- rivers. Nearly the whole of its surface is covered with mountains in narrow ravines. All the waters descending sand or barren mountains, but as it contains numerous from this range, which fall into the Beni or its branches, mines of silver at Potosi, Porco, and other places in the carry down gold sand, but more particularly the small northern range, which have been long worked with consiriver Tipuani, which falls into the Mapiri. The mines of derable success, the country about them is more popuPotosi have long been considered as the richest in the world lous than any part of the republic, except the valleys of for their produce of silver, but they are now little worked, the Cachy Mayo and Cochabamba. It is divided into five which is also the case with other silver mines. Copper is provinces, Atacama, Lipez, Porco, Chayanta, and Chichas. likewise abundant : at Corucuero, a small place about Except the capital, Potosi, this department contains no seventy miles from La Paz, enormous masses of native considerable place. Along the rocky coast there are some copper are found crystallized in the form of perfect cubes. good harbours, and though the communication between the Though, according to some experiments, this ore contains other parts of the country is rendered exceedingly difficult seven-eighths of pure copper, it cannot be turned to and expensive on account of the high mountains and the any use, being found in very high mountains and at a sandy desert along the coast, one of them, Cobija, at present great distance from the coast. Besides these metals there called Puerto de la Mar, has been declared a free port, are ores of lead and tin ; and saltpetre, brimstone, and though it only contains about fifty families of Indians. salt.
Farther southward is the harbour of Tucapila. The inhabitants of Bolivia are composed of aborigines, II. The department of Charcas or Chuquisaca extends and of people of foreign extraction. The aborigines form over the mountainous country between the rivers Paspaya by far the greater portion of the population, probably more and Rio Grande de la Plata, in which the valley of the than three-fourths. They may be divided into those who Cachy Mayo is comprehended in all its extent, and a great speak the Quichua language, and those who speak different portion of that of Cochabamba. A small part of the valley dialects. The Quichua language prevails among all the of the Desaguadero is also included within its limits. It inhabitants of the coast and of the valley of the Desa- contains some considerable mines, and is, with the following guadero. Agriculture had been adopted by them before department, the most populous portion of Bolivia, on acthe arrival of the Europeans, and even at present it is count of its fertility and the healthfulness of its climate. their principal if not their exclusive occupation. But they It is divided into six provinces, Zinti, Yamparāes, Tomina, make no improvement in agricultural operations, which may Pária, Oruro, and Carangas. Chuquisaca is the capital be attributed to their very feeble mental powers. They of Bolivia. Orúro in the valley of the Desaguadero, nearly have been converted to the Catholic faith, but retain 13,000 feet above the sea, contains upwards of 5000 inhasome ceremonies of their antient religion.
bitants, in whose neighbourhood considerable silver-mines The natives who do not speak the Quichua language in- are worked. A road leading from Oruro to Potosi traverses habit the eastern declivities of the Andes and the plains the southern part of the eastern Cordillera, and rises in the extending to the east of them. They are divided into a mountain-pass of Tolapalia to 14,075 feet. great number of tribes who speak different languages: in III. The department of Cochabamba lies to the north of the province of Moxos alone there are thirteen tribes. the preceding, and comprehends the greatest part of the Some of them have been converted to the Christian reli- rich and well-cultivated valley of the Cochabamba or Guagion, and with their change of they
also päi, the Sierra de Santa Cruz, and the
ne valleys which partly changed their manners and mode of living. Instead lie on the northern declivity of this chain. Every kind of going naked, they wear a light dress of cotton, have fixed of agricultural proluce is here grown in abundance, and in dwelling-places, and apply chiefly to agricultural pursuits, some of the rivers which fall into the Chaparé gold is col
lected. This department is divided into six provinces, Sa- | Tacna. The road connecting Tacna with La Paz traverses cába, Tapacarí, Arque, Palia, Clissa, Misque.
one of the two passes called Las Gualillias, of which the The capital of this department, Oropesa, contains about northern (17° 43') rises to 14,200, and the southern (170 16,000 indiabitants, and is the most industrious of the towns 50') to 14,830 feet, and though foreign commodities pass. of Bolivia, the manufacture of cotton goods and of glass ing through any part of Peru have to pay a transitbeing carried on to some extent. It is situated at the duty of 3 per cent., this road is preferred for the transport western extremity of the department in a fine valley, tra- of merchandise. Few foreign commodities are imported versed by the Codorillo, a branch of the Cochabamba. The into Bolivia. They are chietly iron and hardware, with a small town Cochabamba, from which the department has few articles of finery, as silk, &c. The exports are nearly received its name, lies on the banks of the river Guapäi or altogether limited to the precious metals, and to different Cochabamba.
kinds of woollens, made of the wool of the llamas and IV. The department of La Paz extends over more than alpacas, and to hats made of the wool of the vicuñas. The half of that part of the valley of the Desaguadero which be- agricultural products of this country will never be exported, longs to Bolivia, and more particularly over the northern till commerce has made its way up the Amazon and Maportion. It contains also the eastern Cordillera from deira rivers. the Nevado de Illimani northward, the numerous valleys Being as it were excluded from foreign commerce, the which lie on the eastern declivity of that range, and Bolivians are obliged to satisfy their wants by their own inthat portion of the plain to the west of the Rio Beni. dustry. The manufactures of cotton are the most extensive. The lower part of the valleys and the plain are very fertile, The better kinds are made in Oropesa; but in many disbut only a few spots are cultivated. The rivers bring down tricts the Indians make great quantities, which are coarse a great quantity of gold sand. It is divided into six pro- though strong. Next to these are the woollens, made of vinces, Pacayes, Sicá-sica, Chulumani, Omasuyos, Lare- the hair of the llamas and alpacas. The coarser kind, cája, and Apolobamba. It contains only one town of im- called hanascas, is used by the lower classes for dress, and portance, the capital La Paz.
likewise for blankets ; the finer sorts, called cambis, are emV. The department of Santa Cruz de la Sierra is by far broidered with great care, and used as carpets by the the largest, and extends over nearly the whole plain which rich. The best are made at La Paz, and are very dear. At constitutes the eastern part of Bolivia. The greater part San Francesco de Atacama very fine hats are made of the of it is still occupied by independent tribes of Indians; and wool of the vicuña, and at Oropesa very good glass is made. other districts, where the Creoles had formerly settled, have In some towns in the neighbourhood of the silver-mines been abandoned on account of their unhealthiness. It is they make vessels of silver-wire, which are not without divided into fire provinces, Moxos, Chiquitos, Valle Grande, elegance, but Meyen thinks that those made in China Pampas, and Baures. Some time ago it was reported that are superior in taste and much cheaper. In some disthe inhabitants of this department were not inclined to join tricts the Indians dye the plumes of the American ostrich the republic, but intended to form a separate state under with brilliant colours, and make of them fans and a kind the name of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, but no certain infor- of parasols. (Pentland and Parish in Geogr. Journ. V.; mation has reached us on this subject. The capital of it is Meyen's Reise um die Welt; Memoirs of General Miller; San Lorenzo de la Frontera, not far from the old town Capt. Basil Hall; Temple ; Azara.) Santa Cruz de la Sierra, on the banks of the Rio Grande BOLLANDUS, JOHN, a learned Jesuit, was born at de la Plata, with about 10,000 inhabitants.
Thienen (Tirlemont) in the Netherlands, August 131h, Very little is known of the present political condition 1596. He entered the Society of Jesus at the early though of this country. In 1825, when Buenos Ayres had re not unusual age of sixteen, and became eminent in it as a nounced its claim on Upper Peru, and the representatives teacher both in the Netherlands and other countries. The of the country determined to form an independent state, share which he took in the Acta Sanctorum, or · Lives of they adopted a constitution proposed by Bolivar, according the Saints,' entitles him to especial notice. to which the executive power was to be placed in the hands The history of this work is not uninteresting, although of a president chosen for life, and the legislative was to the work itself, otherwise than for occasional consultation, consist of three bodies, the senate, the tribunes, and the defies time and patience. It consists of fifty-one volumes censors. At the same time Bolivar was chosen president. in folio, of the larger size and bulk. The design of this But the military force which Bolivar had sent to Bolivia, vast collection was first projected by Père Heribert Roswhich consisted of Columbian troops, being expelled by an weida, a jesuit then of the age of sixty, and consequently army from Peru, the constitution of Bolivar was abolished, too far advanced to execute much of his plan, which was and the Bolivians were left at liberty to make a new con to extend no further than sixteen volumes folio, with two stitution. What kind of constitution has been adopted is volumes of illustrations: a trifle in those days, had he not known.
begun earlier. In 1607 he had begun by printing an octavo No country, perhaps, is under greater disadvantages with volume, entitled Pasti Sanctorum, consisting of the manurespect to commercial intercourse with foreign countries script lives of some saints which he happened to find in than Bolivia, though possessing a coast of more than 250 the Netherlands; but he died Oct. 5th, 1629, before he miles, with several good harbours. The part which is con- could accomplish what he had undertaken.
The exetiguous to the coast is a sandy desert, which produces nothing cution of his project was then entrusted to Bollándus, fit for a foreign market, and it is separated from the rest who was about this time thirty-four years of age, and of the country by a chain of high and nearly impassable who removed from Mechlin to Antwerp for the purpose, mountains, up to the parallel of Potosi. Even if a road | After examining Rosweida's collections, he established a were made in these parts, it would traverse a country general correspondence all over Europe, instructing his probably not less than 300 miles in extent, where neither friends to search every library, register, or repository of men nor animals could find food. The only road which any kind, where information might be found; but beconnects the coast with the internal districts of the republic, coming soon sensible of the weight of his undertaking, he runs on the comparatively level country along the shores, called in the assistance of another Jesuit
, Godfrey Henschen and passes to the valley of the Desaguadero by the pass of Guelderland, younger than himself, more healthy, and of Leñas (19° 45') which rises to 14,210 feet, and thence equally qualified in other respects. With this aid he was runs to Orúro and La Paz. But this road, like all others enabled to publish the first two volumes, folio, Antwerp, in this country, is only practicable for mules and llantas, 1643, which contain the lives of the saints of the month of and consequently does not allow the transport of very heavy January, the order of the Calendar having been preferred. or very bulky commodities. To go from La Paz to the In 1658 he published those of February in three volumes; more populous districts on the eastern side of the eastern and two years after, his labours still increasing, he engaged Cordillera, this high chain must be traversed by the pass with another associate, Père Daniel Papebroch, at that time of Pacuani (16° 33'), which rises to 15,226 feet. Another about thirty-two years old, whom he sent with Henschen to mountain-pass which leads from Orúro to Chuquisaca, Italy and France, to collect manuscripts, but he died before which rises to 14,700 feet, is called the Pass of Challa the publication of another volume, Sept. 12th, 1665. After (17° 40'). The difficulties encountered in travelling from his death the work was continued by various hands, who the port of Cobija to Oruro are so great, that though the were called · Bollandists. Henschen and Papebroch pubBolivians have declared Cobija a free port, they hardly use lished the lives of the saints of the month of March in it, and prefer importing the small quantities of foreign com three volumes, Antw. 1668; and those of April in three modities for which there is a demand, through Arica and ) volumes, 1675. The saints of the month of May occupy