seven volumes, the second and third, by Henschen and BOLO'GNA (Lat. BONO'NIA), a city in the Papal Papebroch only, were published in 1683; the first, fourth, State, next to Rome in population and importance. It and fifth bear the date of 1685, and had the assistance of is situated in 44° 30' N. lat. and 11° 20' E. long. in a plain Francis Baert and Conrad Jauning; the sixth and seventh north of the Apennine ridge and between the rivers Reno volumes were published by the same parties, in 1688. and Savena. A canal, called Naviglio, navigable for large Henschen's personal labours however had been concluded boats, connects Bologna with Ferrara, from whence, by by his death, Sept. 11th, 1681. The saints of June fill six means of the Po, the Adige, and the intermediate canals, volumes; the first published in 1695; the second in 1698; the water-communication extends to Venice. The popula. the third in 1701; the fourth in 1707, by the same parties; tion of Bologna is about 70,000, but with its surrounding in the fifth, 1709, John Baptist Sollier was added as an territory or commune about 74,300. (Calindri, Suggio Staeditor; the sixth volume of this month, 1715, in two parts, tistico dello Stato Pontificio, 1830.) Towards the end of was edited by Conrad Jauning alone: the ‘Martyrologium the last century, when Savioli wrote his ‘Annali Bolognesi,' Usuardi Monachi' being added by Sollier. Papebroch the population of Bologna was then also reckoned at 70,000. died June 25th, 1714. The saints of July extended to Bologna is a thriving city, with an industrious population : seven volumes; the two first by Jauning, Sollier, and John the higher classes, who consist chiefly of landed proPinei, published in 1719 and 1721; the title of the third prietors, are wealthy. Many noble families reside at Bovolume had the addition of the name of William Cuper ; in logna, where they have fine palaces the most remarkable the fourth volume, 1725, the name of Peter Bosch was of which, the palaces Fava, Magnani, Bentivoglio, Zamadded ; and these names were continued in vol. v. 1727, beccari, Marescalchi, Bevilacqua, Lambertini, Baciocchi, vol. vi. 1729, and vol. vii. 1731. The same names also whose owner is Napoleon's brother-in-law, Ercolani, Malappear as editors of the first three of the six volumes of vezzi, Sampieri, have valuable galleries and fresco paintings August, 1733, 1735, 1737; the fourth volume of August by the great masters. The palace of the Podestà, in which was by Pinei and Cuper only, 1739; the fifth and sixth, Hentzius, son of the Emperor Frederic II., and nominal 1741 and 1743, by Pinei, Cuper, and John Stilting. The king of Sardinia, spent in confinement twenty-two years of saints of September fill eight volumes. The first, 1746, is his life, and in which he died in 1272, contains the archives by Pinei, Stilting, John Linpen, and John Veldius; the of the city. The Palazzo del Pubblico, a large structure, second, 1748, by Stilting, Limpen, Veldius, and Constan- is the residence of the cardinal legate and the seat of the tine Suyskhen; the third, 1750, by the same parties, with various courts of justice. In the square before it is a the addition of John Perier; the fourth, 1753, by Stilting, handsome fountain with the colossal statue of Neptune by Suyskben, and Perier; the fifth, 1755, by the same, with Giovanni da Bologna. the addition of Urban Sticken ; the sixth, seventh, and Bologna abounds with churches, most of which are rich eighth, 1757, 1760, and 1762, by Stilting, Suyskhen, Pe- in paintings. The principal are San Petronio, a magnificent rier, and John Cleus. The saints to October 14th fill six though incomplete structure, which has a meridian line volumes; the first, 1765, edited by Stilting, Suyskhen, Pe- traced on its pavement by the astronomer Cassini; the rier, Cornelius Bye, Jacobus Bue, and Joseph Ghesquière ; cathedral: and the church of San Domenico, with the tombs the second, 1768, and the third, 1770, by Suyskhen, Bye, of Hentzius, of Taddeo Pepoli, the best magistrate of Boand Ghesquière. Hitherto the editors are all designated logna in the time of the republic; of Guido and his pupil as members of the Society of the Jesuits; and the volumes Elisabetta Sirani; of Count' Marsigli, and other illustrious uniformly printed at Antwerp. The fourth volume of October individuals. The adjoining convent is the residence of the was printed at Brussels, typis Regiis,' 1780, by the same Tribunal del Sant' Uffizio or Inquisition, which still exists editors, with the addition of Ignace Hubens, and all are now in the Roman States, where however its power is little felt, styled . Presbyteri Theologi.'. The fifth volume, printed at and it has none of the terrors of the Inquisition such as it Brussels 'typis Cæsareo-regiis, 1786, is by Corn. Bye, Ja- existed till lately in Spain and Portugal. cobus Bue, and John Baptist Fonson. The sixth volume, Bologna is surrounded by walls and has twelve gates;

Tongerloæ, typis Abbatiæ, printed at the Abbey of Ton the streets are tolerably wide, and most of them have low gerloo, 1794, is described as partim à Cornelio Byeo, Jo. arcades on each side to shelter pedestrians from the rain. anne Baptista Fontono, presbb. Anselmo Berthodo Ord. In the centre of the city are two lofty towers, the highest S. Benedicti P. M. partim à Joanno Bueo presb. Sardo of which called Asinelli, from the name of its founder, is Dyckio, Cypriano Goorio, Mathia Stalsio, Ord. Præm. Cann. 320 feet high; the other, Garisenda, is only about oneRegul.

half of the height of its neighbour, but inclines on one It is to be regretted that a work so full of curious infor- side about nine feet. This inclination, it is said, like that mation as the . Acta Sanctorum,' continued through a series of the tower of Pisa, was the result of a depression of the of volumes for a hundred and sixty-five years, should re- ground under its foundations, and the fearful effect it promain unfinished: but the great inass of monasteries in duces on the beholders is finely alluded to by Dante in Europe has been suppressed: no purchasers can now be canto 31 of the Inferno.' The Asinelli is also a little out found for long sets of legendary reading; and it seems of the perpendicular, though in a much slighter degree. likely that the remaining lives will never be added to the Both towers date from the twelfth century. It has been collection. The continuation was interrupted, probably for observed that Bologna, seen from the neighbouring hills, ever, by the entrance of the French troops into Belgium in has in its outline the appearance of a vessel with one mast, 1794.

represented by the Asinelli, while the inclined Garisenda Bollandus published separately,-1. Vita S. Liborii Epis. represents the chains. copi,' 8vo. Antw. 1648. 2. ·Brevis Notitia Italiæ ex Actis The University of Bologna is the oldest and still one of SS. Januarii et Februarii,' 8vo. Antw. 1648. 3. ·Brevis the first in Italy. Its origin is stated to have been under Notitia triplici status, Ecclesiastici, Monastici, et Sæcularis, Theodosius II., and it is said to have been restored by excerpta ex Actis SS. vulgatis à Bollando et sociis,' 8vo. Charlemagne. We find it enjoying great celebrity early in Antw. 1648.

the twelfth century. It has the following classes, -- theology, The following works may be considered as connected with medicine, law, philosophy and mathematics and belles letthe great set of the · Acta Sanctorum:'--1. 'Exhibitio Er- tres.' The faculty of medicine has the most and the best rorum quos Papebrochius suis in notis ad Acta Sanctorum filled chairs. For the distribution of the various courses, commisit, per Seb. a Sancto Paulo,' 4to. 1693. 2. 'Examen and other details concerning the method of instruction, we Juridico-Theologicum præambulorum Sebastiani à Sancto refer to an article in No. XVI. of the Quarterly Journal Paulo, auctore N. Rayæo, 4to. 1698. 3. • Responsio' v. of Education' on the Statistics of Education in Italy. AnPapebrochii, 3 tom. 4to. 1696-1698. 4. 'Acta Sanctorum nexed to the university are a museum, a botanical garden, Bullandiana apologeticis libris vindicata,' fol. Antw. 1755. an anatomical cabinet, and a library containing 80,000 voThis last work is usually found as an accompaniment to the lumes and 4000 MSS. Among the actual or late professors set of the “ Acta.'

of the University of Bologna the following names deserve (Life of Bollandus prefixed to the first volume of the mention,- Galvani, Zannotti, Monti, Orioli, Tommasini, month of March in the Acta Sunctorum, where is also Mezzofanti, and Clotilde Tambroni ; the last was a lady the portrait of Bollandus; Foppens, Bibliotheca Belgica, professor of Greek, who died in 1817. Bologna boasts of 4to. Brus. 1739, tom. i. p. 584 ; Moreri, Dictionn. His other female professors, especially Novella d'Andrea, who torique, tom. ii. fol. Par. 1759 ; Chalmers's Biographical taught canon law in the fourteenth century; and Laura Dictionary, vol. vi. pp. 25, 26 ; Biogr. Universelle, tom. v. Bassi, professor of physics, in the eighteenth century.

Besides the library of the university, the city of Bologna


p. 60.)

has a public library, the legacy of a clergyman named | Gauls, were conquered by the Consul Scipio Nasica, and Magnani, which occupies three rooms of the convent of San Felsina became a Roman colony B.c. 191. The Romans Domenico, and contains 83,000 volumes. The academy of changed its name into Bononia. The Via Æmilia, a conthe fine arts has a splendid gallery of paintings, chietly of tinuation of the Via Flaminia, was carried from Ariminum the Bolognese school. The Instituto delle Scienze, founded through Bononia. In the civil war between Antony and by Count Marsigli, has an observatory. The Philharmonic the senate, Bononia was attached to the party of the former, Lyceum, in which 100 pupils are maintained at the expense and it was here that the Consul Pansa, defeated by Antony of the town, possesses a valuable musical library of 17,000 in the first battle of Mutina, died of his wounds B.C. 43. volumes, collected by Father Martini, a great Bolognese In the autumn of the same year the famous meeting took composer of the eighteenth century. The College Venturoli

, place between Antony and Octavius in a small island formed founded in 1825, is devoted to students of architecture. by the river Rhenus (Reno) between Bononia and Mutina. There is also a college for Spanish students, founded by Car- The precise site of that island has been a matter of dispute. dinal Albornoz; and another for Flemish students, who are There are documents as late as the thirteenth century in sent here by the goldsmiths' company of Brussels. It was which the appellation Isola Rheni occurs as being in the founded by John Jacobs, a Flemish goldsmith, and a friend district of Borgo Panigale, which is a village about four or of Guido. The public school for the children of the poorer five miles north-west of Bologna, and two or three miles classes is a fine building by the Bolognese architect Terri- north of the point on which the road from Bologna to Mobilia; the children are taught, gratuitously, Latin, arith- dena crosses the Reno. It appears also that the little river metic, singing, and drawing. (Valéry, Voyage Littéraire Lavinius, still called Lavino di Sopra, which now flows en Italie, 1833.)

northwards into the Samoggia, whence the united streams Bologna is an archbishop's see, and the series of its run to join the Reno above Cento, formerly on descending bishops ascends as far back as the fourth century. St. from the Apennines into the plain of Bologna took a short Petronius, who lived about 430, was the tenth bishop of cut to the eastward into the Reno, not far from the town, Bologna. The city as well as its province, called Legation, and somewhere about the spot where the island is supposed are administered by a cardinal legate appointed by the pope to have been, and this junction would serve to explain the The court of appeal for the four provinces of Bologna, Fer- words ad confluentes used by some historians in speaking of rara, Ravenna, and Forli, sits at Bologna, and consists of the place of meeting. The Reno, like all Apennine streams, six judges.

is subject to overtlowings, and consequent alterations in There are several manufactures of silks, paper, and its bed, and it forms even now several little islands near pottery. The large sausages of Bologna, called mortadelle, Bologna. have a long established reputation, as well as its liqueurs A fire consumed great port of Bononia under Claudius and confitures. The people of Bologna are frank, spirited, (Tacit. xii. 58), when 10,000,000 sestertii were granted from and fond of gaiety; they are the most independent in mind the public treasury for rebuilding the town. On this occaand bearing of any in the Papal State, owing probably to sion young Nero pleaded before the senate in favour of the long enjoyment of their municipal liberties; the lower Bononia. (Sueton., Nero, vii.) In the third century the classes are noisy, and their dialect is the most uncouth and first Christian church was built in Bononia, and dedicated rough sounding in all Italy. The women are generally to St. Felix, which was afterwards destroyed in the pergood looking. Among the educated classes there is much secution under Diocletian, when Proculus, Agricola, Viinformation, and Bologna is still one of the most learned talis, and other Christians of Bononia, suffered martyrtowns of Italy. There is a casino, or assembly.rooms for the dom. Bononia escaped with comparatively little damage nobility, besides reading-rooms and private conversazioni. the invasions of the northern barbarians. Alaric besieged There are several theatres, at which some of the best per- but did not take this city. It also seems to have escaped formers of Italy are generally engaged.

the ravages of Attila. In the time of the Longobards The air of Bologna is pure, but the sudden changes of its Bononia formed part of the exarchate of Ravenna under temperature, owing to the proximity of the Apennines, the eastern empire, until Liutprand occupied it with the occasion frequent inflammatory diseases. Cutaneous dis- rest of that province. Bononia was one of the towns given eases were formerly common among the people, but the by Pepin to the see of St. Peter, after his defeat of the increase of cleanliness, and a better diet, have contributed Longobards. Under the church, Bononia was administered greatly to extirpate them. Bologna is one of the Italian by dukes. probably of Longobard race. In the confusion of cities in which there are most foundlings; about one-seventh Italian affairs after the extinction of the Carlovingian dynasty, of the births are illegitimate.

the towns of the exarchate no longer recognized the domiBologna bas produced many distinguished individuals. nion of the church, whose temporal sway was not acknowNo less than eight popes have been natives of this city, ledged even at Roine itself. The bishops, and the various among whom Benedict XIV. is the most illustrious. The dukes and marquesses divided among them the dominion of naturalist Aldovrandi, the anatomist Mondino, who was the the country. Under the Othos of Saxony, Bononia, as well reviver of anatomy in Europe at the beginning of the four- as the other cities of North Italy, obtained privileges and teenth century, the physician and naturalist Malpighi, the franchises as imperial towns governed by their own municipal naturalist and astronomer Marsigli, the mathematician and laws. Under Conrad the Salic we find counts of Bononia, engineer Eustachio Manfredi, the brothers Zannotti, Galvani who administered justice together with the Missi of the and his nephew Aldini, Zainbeccari, and many more scien- emperor. tific and literary men were natives of Bologna. Fantuzzi In the wars of the investitures between the church and has devoted no less than 9 vols, folio to the biographies of the empire, the towns became de facto independent of the Bolognese writers: Notizie degli Scrittori Bolognesi, latter. The municipal independence of Bononia or Bulogna 1781-94.

was acknowledged by the Emperor Henry V. in 1112, by a Outside of the walls, the Campo Santo, or cemetery, con- charter. The commune had the right of coining money, tains many handsome monuments, which have been illus- The citizens assembled in general comitia, and appointed trated in a recent work : Collezione scelta di Cento Mo- the magistrates, at the head of whom were the consuls, who numenti Sepolcrali del Cimitero di Bologna.' On the hill were chosen from among the class of milites or nobles only. called Della Guardia, about three miles from Bologna, is The judges and notaries were to be approved by the the handsome church of La Madonna di S. Luca, which is emperor, in whose name the judges administered justice. joined to the town by a long arcade consisting of 635 arches. The town was divided into four wards, the militia of which The once splendid monastery of S. Michele in Bosco was were commanded by their respective vexilliferi. The country sadly dilapidated during the French wars, and its frescoes districts were subject to the town, the territory of which by the Caracci and others were nearly effaced by the hands was at first extremely limited, being surrounded on every of the soldiers,

side by a host of feudal nobles, and by the domains of the The drigin of Bologna is lost in obscurity. It was the churches and monasteries, which were independent of the principal city of the Etruscans north of the Apennines, and jurisdiction of the town. By degrees however several of was then called Felsina. When the Gauls invaded Lom- the surrounding nobles applied for the citizenship, and being bardy, the Boii, one of their tribes, crossed the Po, and esta- admitted came to reside in the town. Others lost their blished themselves in Felsina and the neighbouring country. territory in wars against the city, so that Bologna came to Afterwards the Boii became involved in wars with Rome, rule over a great part of Æmilia, the country now generally and they were favourable to Hannibal in his invasion of Italy. called Romagna, which extends from Bologna to Rimini. After the end of that war the Boji with the other Cisalpine In the war between Frederic I. and the Lombard League

Bologna joined the latter. It likewise fought against | Panaro, which divided it from Modena, to the Silaro, which Frederic II., on which occasion the Bolognese took pri- divides it from Imola in the province of Ravenna, is about soner Hentzius, the natural son of the emperor, whom they thirty. It is watered in its length by the Reno, which enters detained in captivity till the time of his death. The war of the Po near Ferrara, and by numerous torrents descending the Bolognese against the Modenese, who were of the im- from the Apennines. The north-east part of the province perial party, has been immortalized by Tassoni in his clever near the Po is very marshy and subject to inundations, and burlesque poem La Secchia Rapita.' The factions of the the southern part is mountainous, but the middle part or Guelphs and Guibelines proved the ruin of the liberties and plain of Bologna is very productive, and in a high state of independence of Bologna, as well as of the other North cultivation. The lower hills also, and valleys at the foot Italian cities. Ambitious and rival families sided under of the Apennine chain, are well cultivated. Corn, wine, either banner. The Lambertazzi, the head of the Guibeline fruit, all sorts of vegetables, hemp, fax, and silk are the party, being worsted in the city by the Geremei, the chief principal products of the country. A great quantity of family of the Guelphs, were, after much bloodshed, driven cattle is also reared. away in 1274 with 15,000 of their partisans and dependents, The population, including the city, is 324,000. (Calindri, men, women, and children. They however rallied in the Saggio Statistico, 1832.) The territory is divided into 280 towns of Romagna, where they were joined by Guido da communes or parishes, and has a number of large villages Montefeltro, lord of Urbino, and made incursions to the very and market-towns: the principal are, St. Agata, 3000; St. gates.of Bologna. The Geremei applied to the pope for Agostino, 5000; Argetata, 3000; Argile, 2600; Baricella, assistance, offering to acknowledge him as liege lord of 5000; Bazzano, 2200; Borgo Panigale, 3400; Budrio, Bologna. Pope Nicholas III. accordingly sent a legate to 10,000; Calderara, 3000 ; Castelfranco, 5500; Castel Guelfo, Romagna to restore peace to that province, and through his 2400; Castelinaggiore, 3400 ; Castel S. Pietro, 6600 ; Casmediation the Guibeline exiles were recalled. The pope tiglione, 2800 ; Crespellano, 3400; Crevalcore, 6800; Galwas now acknowledged protector and suzerain of Bologna. liera, 3200; S. Giorgio di Piano, 3300; S. Giovanni in In 1334 the pope's legate, Cardinal Bertrand du Poiet, Persiceto, 6700; Granaglione, 2700; Lojano, 3000 ; Malalhaving rendered himself odious to the people by his tyranny, bergo, 4700; Medicina, 9000 ; Molinella, 7000 ; Minerbio, was driven out of the city, and soon after Taddeo de Pepoli, 5000; S. Pietro in Casale, 4500; Porretta, 2200. Each of a wealthy citizen, was proclaimed lord. He used his autho- these numbers includes the whole population of the rerity with temperance and justice and for the good of the spective territory or commune, of which, generally speaking, commonwealth for twelve years, but after his death his two about one-half may be reckoned as the resident population sons, not able to maintain their power, sold the town to the of the town, the rest living in detached farm-houses, cotArchbishop Visconti of Milan. The yoke of the Visconti tages, or hamlets. All the above towns are styled terre; was hard and cruel, and after several rebellions and re-con- they are all parishes and market-places, and many of them quests, sometimes under the Visconti, sometimes ruled by are surrounded by walls. They have each a municipal the papal legates, now a prey to popular anarchy, and now council composed of twenty-four or eighteen members, taken subject to some of its own principal families, among which one-half among the nobles or chief proprietors, and the other that of Bentivoglio stood highest in influence, Giovanni half among the tenants or farmers. Seats in the municipal Bentivoglio was made Principe del Senato, or first magistrate councils are hereditary, subject however to the qualification of Bologna, in 1462, and he retained the chief authority over of holding possessions or domicile within the commune, the state for forty-four years, under the nominal high do- being past twenty-four years of age, and having a good minion of the papal see. (BENTIVOGLIO.) Giovanni how- moral character. Two relatives in the first degree cannot ever incurred the displeasure of the haughty pontiff, Julius sit in the same council. Vacaneies in the councils are filled II., who marched an army against him in 1506, and took by the councils themselves by majority of votes. The counthe city, where he established the direct dominion of the cils appoint the magistrates, i. e. the gonfaloniere, and four church. In 1511 the sons of the late Giovanni Bentivoglio, elders, and all the other communal officers and servants. supported by the French, regained possession of Bologna, The gonfaloniere is renewed yearly, the elders are renewed where they remained until the following year, when, after by halves every year. The councils vote every year the the battle of Ravenna and the retreat of the French municipal expenditure, as well as the communal taxes and armies, the town surrendered again to Pope Julius, who other means to provide for it. This budget must be apbuilt a castle to keep the citizens in awe. From that time proved of by the legate, after which it is printed and pubtill the end of the eighteenth century Bologna remained lished. The council administer the communal property, subject to the papal see, retaining however its senate, the subject likewise to the inspection and approbation of the members of which were appointed for life by the pope, and legate. This municipal system exists in all the papal state. appointed in their turn all subordinate civil officers, and The peasants of the province of Bologna are seldom proadministered the finances of the commune; a gonfaloniere prietors, few have even leases, but they hold their farms di giustizia, and eight anziani, who were changed every from father to son by a tacit agreement, giving one-half of two months; and the tribuni della plebe, and massari dell' | the produce to the landlord and paying half the taxes. arti, who were the heads of the respective trades or com Several branches of the same family are often seen living panies. The senate coined money in the name of the city, and working together on the same farm. They are sober, and the word 'Libertas' was retained on its escutcheon. peaceful, and industrious, and generally superior in morality

In June, 1796, Bonaparte entered Bologna, and drove to the lower classes of the cities. The farms are not so away the papal authorities. In February, 1797, Bologna large as in Lombardy, but the peasantry live better on the becanie the chief town of the Cispadane republic, which produce of the farm than the hired and poorly paid labourers after a few months was united to the Cisalpine republic, of the latter country. This metayer system prevails over afterwards called the Italian republic, and lastly transformed most of the northern papal provinces, and also in Tuscany. into the kingdom of Italy in 1804. Bologna was then the Upon the whole the province of Bologna is one of the capital of the department Del Reno. In 181•1 Bologna was finest and richest in the papal state. The mineral waters occupied by the Austrians. In 1815 General Stefanini, in of La Porretta in the Apennines are much frequented by the name of Austria, restored Bologna and the other lega- invalids. tions to the papal authorities. In 1831 an insurrection BOLOGNESE SCHOOL OF PAINTING. The hisbroke out at Bologna against the papal government, which torians of the fine arts employ the word school, as it is was put down by the arrival of an Austrian auxiliary force. often used in reference to other pursuits, only to denote a

For the antiquities of Bologna see Malvasia, Marmora similarity of opinion, aim, or practice among many indiFelsinea, and Montalbani, Antichita di Bologna ; and for viduals; but the term is so far true to its literal import, that its history Savioli, Annali ; and Leandro Alberti, Istorie the similarity of taste alluded to does not so much arise di Bologna.

from the accidental coincidence of independent modes of BOLOGNA, LEGAZIONE DI, a province of the papal thinking, as from some common influence, and generally state, is bounded on the east by the province of Ravenna, from the example of one powerful mind. Nor does this on the north by that of Ferrara, on the west by the duchy always involve a defect of originality: in the complicated of Modena, and on the south by the central ridge of the art of painting the advances to perfection were of necessity Apennines, which divides it from Tuscany. Its length very gradual; the greatest masters were largely indebted to from south-west to north-east, from the sources of the Reno the labours of their predecessors, and each of them may above La Porretta to the confines of Ferrara beyond Malal- thus be said to have sprung from a school as certainly as bergo, is about fifty miles, and its greatest breadth from the that he founded one. But when excellence was once ap


UNE of the sixteenth century, about which time the followers of

proximated, originality seemed only compatible with a celebrated as a goldsmith and engraver of niedals before he difference in the mode, since a difference of degree appeared betook himself to the pencil at a comparatively advanced to be no longer possible; and while the desire of novelty age. Vasari says that he was born in 1450, and that his sometimes degenerated to caprice, and imitation ended in first picture was dated 1490. He is celebrated as a painter insipidity, the most plausible ambition seemed to be that who succeeded beyond most others in giving an expression which aimed at combining excellences not hitherto united of sanctity and purity to his Madonnas, and a letter of in any one school. This was at least the professed object Raphael's is extant in which this merit is particularly of the Caracci, the most celebrated among the Bolognese alluded to. Francia, who, in that middle style which the masters. It happens that this new effort took place in a Italians have called antico-moderno, ranks with Perugino school which had not before distinguished itself so greatly and Bellini, should, like them, have preceded the highest as the rest. The most brilliant epochs of art, south of the development of the art in a Raphael or a Titian ; but it Alps, concur; the greatest masters having been contem- is precisely in this highest corresponding point that the porary with each other in the beginning of the 16th century: Bolognese school is wanting, and the eulogists of Francia To this rule, which applies to Venice, Parma, Florence, and hare in vain endeavoured to exalt him to a level with the Rome, the Bolognese school is an exception, since it attained painters of the first rank with whom he happens nearly its comparative perfection nearly a century after the pro- to coincide in date. Vasari relates that when the St. Ce. duction of the finest works of Italian art.

cilia of Raphael made its appearance in Bologna, accordThe merits of the most distinguished later masters of the ing to him in 1518, Francia, to whose care it had been Bolognese school have been done ample justice to by many consigned by the great painter himself, was so amazed at historians and biographers, but it must be confessed that its vast superiority to his own efforts that he soon after died the Florentine Vasari, who was naturally anxious to extol of mortification. It has been satisfactorily proved, by the the genius of the Tuscan artists, sometimes betrays a dis- date of some pictures of Francia, that he lived some years position to undervalue or to vilify the earlier Bolognese after this, but the story has been recently repeated by painters whom he notices in his work, and he did not live Quatremère de Quincy in his life of Raphael, and by Tieck to see the revolution which the Caracci produced. The (Phantasien über die Kunst). The school of Francia prechief historian of the Bolognese school, Malvasia (Felsina sents no distinguished names. The summit of the art had Pittrice), on the other hand, in his eagerness to defend his been already reached elsewhere, and his followers, who were countrymen, has not unfrequently exaggerated their merits, inferior to him, were eclipsed by the disciples of Raphael. and the two should be compared with the more impartial These introduced a more or less servile imitation of the opinions of recent writers, among whom Lanzi, though style of their great model into Bologna ; the best were again perhaps disposed to exalt his own Florence, will be Ramenghi called Bagnacavallo, and Innocenza da Imola. found the most rational.

It is in the account of Bagnacavallo (which includes a The arts of design were kept alive during the middle notice of Innocenza, Aspertini, and Girolamo da Corignola) ages by mosaics and by illuminated manuscripts; the former that Vasari speaks so contemptuously of the Bolognese were commoner at Rome and Ravenna, than in the other school. Bagnacavallo was however occasionally original, Italian cities, but the art of missal-painting, which was and some of his productions were considered worthy of the practised wherever there was a monastery, seems to have particular attention and study of succeeding masters. Three attained some perfection at Bologna at an early period. distinguished names precede the epoch of the Caracci, The Franco Bolognese mentioned by Dante (Purgatorio, Primaticcio, Niccolò dell' Abate, and Pellegrino Tibaldi. canto 11) as superior in this art to his master, Oderigi di Niccold dell' Abate belongs strictly to the school of Modena, Agubbio, it appears sometimes painted in larger dimen- but he is associated with the Bolognese painters by some sions, and the recorded dates of still earlier painters might works, at Bologna, hy his joint labours with Primaticcio at enable Bologna to contend for the palm of antiquity not Fontainebleau, and by the extravagant compliment paid to only with Florence but with Siena and Pisa. Franco, who him in a sonnet by Agostino Caracci, in which he is said has been called the Giotto of his school, is the supposed to unite all the excellences of all the great masters. Primafounder of the style of the Bolognese painters of the 14th ticcio and Tibaldi began their studies, though at very differcentury. Many of their now fading works exist in the ent times, under Bagnacavallo; the first, who was the elder church di Mezzaratta, a gallery, as it were, of antient spe- by many years, assisted Giulio Romano at Mantua, and cimens which, as Lanzi remarks, is to this æra of the Bo- under his direction acquired a facility and a classic taste lognese school what the Campo Santo at Pisa is to that of which he afterwards displayed in a series of designs for the the early Florentines. In order, however, that this com- ceilings of Fontainebleau, where he was employed by parison should be just, it would be necessary to select cor- Francis I. and his successors. The frescoes painted from responding dates ; some of the works in the Campo Santo, these designs, and which are now no longer in existence, as for instance those of Benozzo, were executed after the were chietly executed by Niccold dell' Abate. Pellegrino middle of the 15th century.

Tibaldi soon left Ramenghi for Rome and Michael AnAbout 1400 the most prominent name is Lippo Dalmasio, gelo, to whose style he devoted himself; his successful imicalled, from the subjects to which he almost confined him- tation of the great Florentine master, whose powerful deself, Lippo delle Madonne : some of his works remain, and sign he sometimes blended with the excellences of oiber Malvasia relates, with reference to one in the church of S. schools, places him in a relation to his prototype similar to Procolo, that he heard Guido extol its purity and grandeur that which Bagnacavallo holds to Raphael, and the Caracci of expression, and assert that, notwithstanding the subse- honoured him with the appellation of the Reformed Miquent advancement of the art, no modern painter could chael Angelo.' Tibaldi was employed in Milan and afterinfuse so holy a feeling into similar subjects. In this early wards in Spain, and thus the three greatest masters of this epoch of the school the predilection for the style of the intermediate period were absent from Bologna a great part Greek paintings, the common prototypes of Italian art, seems of their lives. to have been more decided, and to have lasted longer than The name of Prospero Fontana stands at the head of any other.

It may be here observed that the modes of those who, living from the earlier to the latter part of the representation to which the Byzantine painters and their sixteenth century, and inheriting but little of the genius of Italian followers adhered were in many cases consecrated the great masters, survived their own slender reputation to by tradition, but independently of this the works themselves, witness the rising fame of the Caracci. In the same class rude as they were, often exhibited a solemnity of treatment may be mentioned Passerotti, as the latest Bolognese painter which may in some degree account for the veneration in alluded to by Vasari. The others may be passed over, with which they were held. The Florentines who visited Bo- the exception of Denis Calvart, a native of Antwerp, who, logna and painted there left no permanent impression; a after settling in Bologna, where he opened a school, not native artist, Marco Zoppo, who studied at Padua (where only had the honour of parıly instructing Guido, Domenihe was the rival of Mantegna) and afterwards at Venice, chino, and other celebrated Bolognese painters, but also of introduced the arrangement of the Venetian altar-pieces in introducing that elevated style of landscape-painting which some works subsequently done by him in Bologna ; but the afterwards added a new lustre to the school in the hands of early simplicity or severity was preferred perhaps as fitter the Caracci, Domenichino, Grimaldi, and others. for religious subjects, and was rather confirmed than dis Thus the imitation of the two great Florentine and Rocarded by the greatest painter of the first epoch, Francesco man masters lasted with no other change than that of Francia. This artist, who was contemporary with Raphael, increasing mannerism or insipidity, till beyond the middle and survived him some years according to Malvasia,



the elder Zuccaro in Rome and those of Bronzino in Flo- | may be remarked that the efforts of Lodovico can hardly be rence may be ranked with the Fontanas and the Passerottis considered so spontaneous and independent as the historians of Bologna. The characteristic excellence of the Venetian of art have commonly asserted. It has been already shown school had been occasionally blended with the other styles, that a new impulse had manifested itself in the Roman and but in general the influence of each was separate and Florentine schools even previously to the revolution which exclusive: meanwhile, owing to the ascendancy of the two the Caracci effected; and whatever may have been the first, the imitation of Correggio can hardly be said to have origin of that impulse, the sudden rise of various and power. extended uninterruptedly beyond his own date, since Par- ful talents in Bologna may be considered a symptom rather migiano, who indeed rather holds the rank of an original than the cause of general improvement. master, survived him but a very few years. Baroccio may Among the numerous scholars of the Caracci, Domenitherefore be considered to have led the way, about 1565, chino holds the first rank ; but the merit of this painter was not only in including Correggio among the great models long unnoticed in Rome, where he resided some time, owing proposed for imitation, but even in preferring him to the rest. in some degree to the intrigues of his rivals. Poussin had the The example thus set to the Roman school was followed honour of bringing some of his best works into notice, and soon after by Cigoli in Florence, viz. about 1580, a period declared him to be, in his opinion, the greatest painter after which immediately precedes the dawning influence and fame Raphael. By some modern critics, too, he has been preferred of the Caracci. They too, from whatever cause, partook of to the Caracci themselves : his chief excellence, and that in the new admiration, and in their attempt to unite the excel- which he approaches Raphael, is his expression. The gracelences of the different schools, it was natural that a style, ful Albani, who left the school of Calvart for that of the Cawhich had been hitherto in a great measure overlooked, racci, perhaps like Domenichino imbibed his taste in landshould form a chief element of that eclectic perfection which scape from the Fleming: he communicated it to Francesco was proposed as the object of attainment. Accordingly, the and Giovanni Battista Mola, who often suffered it to predoimitation of Correggio preponderates in the first works of minate in their own historical works, and who occasionally these masters; and Annibale Caracci's letters from Parma painted the landscape backgrounds to the figures of Albani: prove that, like many other painters of the day, he consi- these consisted frequently of females and children in subjects dered the excellence of Correggio as a new discovery. connected with poetry or allegory, and he excelled in them

Lodovico Caracci, who had studied in Venice, Florence, perhaps more than in sacred subjects. The more brilliant and Parma, conceived the plan of introducing a new style, talents of Guido excited the jealousy of the Caracci from according to his biographers, when alone and unassisted, the beginning. Lodovico encouraged Guercino as a rival to and it is said that he persuaded his younger cousins Agos- him, and Domenichino was put forward, it is said, for no tino and Annibale to devote themselves to painting in order other reason, by Annibale in Rome. The light and silvery to aid him in effecting his purpose. He sent them, after tone which is observable in of Guido's best works is well-grounded elementary studies, to Parma and Venice, said to have been owing to an accidental expression of Annifrom the latter of which schools it may be observed the Bo- bale Caracci, who at a time when the dark style of Caralognese painters seem to have borrowed least. The first vaggio excited general attention, and was imitated among work of importance done after their return to Bologna was others by Guido himself, remarked that the opposite treata series of compositions, representing the story of Jason, in ment, with appropriate subjects, would perhaps be still more an apartment of the Palazzo Fava: Lodovico himself as- attractive. Caravaggio, who was born in the Milanese, and sisted, but the greater part was the work of Annibale. The painted in Rome, Naples, and elsewhere, cannot be placed severe criticisms and opposition which this performance ex- in the Bolognese school, which however he greatly incited induced the Caracci to strengthen their party, and fluenced: he belongs to the successful innovators who, at the famous school was opened which shortly attracted most the close of the sixteenth century, sought to oppose literal of the rising painters who were studying with Denis Cal- and unselected nature to the insipid imitation of the purer vart, Cesi, and Fontana :-ample details as to the mode of styles, and may be considered the chief representative of a study in the school of the Caracci may be found in Mal- class of painters called by the Italians the Naturalisti and vasia. The fame of these masters was soon after firmly the Tenebrosi. Among the painters of the Bolognese school established by their works; and Agostino, as an engraver Guercino, born at Cento, seems to have been most smitten as well as a painter, contributed to spread and sustain their with the vigorous effects of Caravaggio, although in his name: but the enmity of the abettors of the old style was latest practice he acknowledged the charm of Guido's style not completely silenced till the frescoes in the Palazzo Mag- by attempting to unite it, perhaps with little success, to his nani were executed. Denis Calvart was the last to fall in own. His dark pictures are generally his best, and he somewith the general approbation; and it appears from Malvasia times united the higher qualities of expression and of form that his chief objection to the new mode of study was the with the magic of his relief. Both Caravaggio and Guercino constant reference to nature which was now deemed indis- studied in Venice, and the former particularly aimed at the pensable: from this objection the previous state of the style of Giorgione ; yet their works, however admirable, preschools and the manner of the painters of Bologna may be sent but few traces of Venetian principles, and this is to be inferred.

accounted for by the spirit of innovation which manifested Annibale Caracci repaired to Rome shortly before 1600, itself in every branch of the art, and which took the oppoand painted in various churches; but his great work, the site of the vices of the day. The negative and somewhat monument of his powers, and the specimen of the school heavy colour of the two masters alluded to was opposed to a most frequently quoted, although not perhaps the most cha- tlorid and weak imitation of the colourists, the excesses of racteristic, is the series of frescoes in the Farnese palace. which are ridiculed by Boschini in his · Carta del Navegar In this work Agostino among others assisted: the Cephalus Pittoresco.' and the Galatea, according to Bellori, were painted entirely Lanfranco, born at Parma, was another distinguished by him. The admirers of the antique and of the Roman scholar of the Caracci, and assisted Annibale in the Farschool prefer this work even to Lodovico's performances in nese palace in Rome: his own great work, the cupola of Bologna: Poussin and other painters, who visited Roine St. Andrea della Valle in the same city, is the best specimen early in the seventeenth century, gave it the highest praise. of his powers, and it is here that as a machinist (the term

The followers of Lodovico at Bologna were however true applied by the Italians to painters of large compositions on to the founder of the school : posterity seems to have con- ceilings and in galleries) he aimed at the grandeur of man. firmed the opinion, and to have decided that this great ner and boldness of foreshortening which he had long painter, with less academic power than Annibale, is more studied in the works of Correggio at Parma. original in style. Sir Joshua Reynolds thus speaks of Lo Of the remaining disciples of the Caracci it may be sufdovico Caracci : His unaffected breadth of light and sha- ficient to mention the names of Tiarini, Lionello Spada, and dow, the simplicity of his colouring, which, holding its proper Cavedone. All the more noted scholars before mentioned rank, does not draw aside the least part of the attention had numerous followers, and perhaps none more than Guido. from the subject, and the solemn effect of that twilight which in these the manner of the respective masters naturally deseems diffused over his pictures, appear to me to correspond generated, and no new talent arose. The taste in landscape with grave and dignified subjects better than the more artin which the Caracci introduced or improved was inherited ficial brilliancy of sunshine which enlightens the pictures of and almost exclusively practised by Giovanni Battista Viola, Titian.'

the Grimaldi, and others: the most perfect specimens of this The principles and practice of the Caracci and their branch of art, as practised in the school, are however to be scholars superseded for a time every other styie in Italy, yet it I sought in the works of Domenichino and Annibale Caracci.

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