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About the year 1700 the greatest name was Carlo Cig. / authors speak of Bolor, it is evident that the name is not nani, a painter of considerable repute in his day, and who properly applied to this range, and it is uncertain whether so far revived the principles of the school that he professed it can be applied to any mountain-range at all

. Marco to unite the anatomical science of Annibale Caracci with Polo, after leaving Badakhshan, or Balascia, and traversing the more attractive qualities of Correggio. Under his aus- a country called Vocam, arrives at the highest mountains pices the Clementine Academy of Bologna was instituted in the world, and having passed them, to the table-land of to preserve as much as possible the acknowledged principles Pamer. Travelling from it in a north-eastern direction, for of the art, and to point out the best models for imitation. forty days, over a mountain-region of great extent and eleBut while the impulse which the Caracci and their scholars, vation, he adds that this country was called Belor. Afterhad communicated to the school was gradually exhausting wards he arrives at Khashghar. But Nasir Eddin evidently itself, a pernicio is and in many respects opposite tendency gives the name of Belur to a place which, according to his had been gaining ground. The specious facility and con determination, lies 3° 36' E., and 10'8. of the town of Badakhsequent popularity of the machinists who imitated Vasari in shan. Mr. Erskine, in his introduction to the history of the Florence and the Zuccari and Arpino in Rome had been Emperor Baber (xxvii. note), was the first who observed that with difficulty opposed by the united efforts of the Caracci, there was a variance between Marco Polo and Nasir Eddin, and appear to have been the chief causes of the neglect of and a still greater between them and our maps. Julius Domenichino. This empty facility, no longer contrasted Klaproth, at a later date, compared the passages of Marco with such distinguished talents, was naturally considered Polo with the great Chinese map, and found the name of the highest proof of ability, and by degrees almost extin- Bolor inserted on it not far south of the position which Nasir guished the taste for well-studied imitation. A Bolognese Eddin has assigned to Belur. To reconcile the passage of writer and painter, Zanotti, who was long professor of the Marco Polo with the position of Nasir Eddin and the Chinese Clementine Academy, was one of the first to raise his voice map, Klaproth reasonably supposed that the first part of against this destructive mannerism, and to recommend a Marco Polo's route had been towards the east, and that consemore frequent reference to nature. He has been considered quently Belor and Bolor mean the same place. The opinion to have led the way to opinions far more decided than his of Klaproth has been adopted by Ritter, and the respective own as to the necessity of returning to the first principles positions of the places have been inserted on Grimm's of imitation, and indeed to the methods of the earliest mas. Atlas von Asien. As we think that this determination is ters. These notions have been openly expressed in Ger- well founded, and that consequently the name of Bolor will many, where the writers on art, allowing for some exagge disappear from the place which it now occupies in our maps, ration in their views, have had the merit of directing the we do not describe that mountain-range which lies between attention of the world of taste to the simple but impressive 40° and 35° N. lat. on both sides of the meridian 72° E. of productions of the older Italian painters, from whom Ra- Greenwich_under this name of Bolor, but under that of phael caught the feeling which aided him in his study of Tartash Tagh, the name by which it is known among nature.

the natives. The Chinese map gives it the name of TarTo recapitulate, the school of the Caracci has been often tash-i-ling. described as merely imitative, but perhaps this has arisen BOLSĒNA, a town in the papal state, in the province rather from the well-known and professed object of its insti- of Viterbo, situated on the slope of a hill near the northern tutors and followers than from a particular evidence of that bank of the lake of Bolsena. It is an old decayed-looking object in their productions. If a certain resemblance of town, rather unhealthy in summer, with about 1500 inhamanner, whatever it be derived from, characterise the mas-bitants. Bolsena is near the site of the antient Volsinii, ters, it may be admitted that no school presents so much one of the principal cities of the Etruscans, which sustained variety as is to be met with in the works of their disciples. several wars against Rome, and, owing to its strong position, This, it must be confessed, cannot be said of the followers maintained its independence after the rest of Etruria had of Michael Angelo and Raphael. The example of an eclec- been conquered. But the citizens of Volsinii in the pride tic style may thus lead to a more original style, whereas the of wealth and security, having become addicted to inexample of an original style, if it cannot be surpassed, can dolence and pleasure, einancipated their slaves, and enonly end in a weaker copy. Yet assuming that the Caracci trusted them with arms for the defence of the town, and were as independent of the spirit of their age and as free to even admitted them into the senate. By degrees the liberti choose their path as their biographers would lead us to or freedmen, becoming possessed of all the power in the suppose, had they endeavoured to follow up the feeling of state, tyrannized over their former masters, held their Francia (not to return to Lippo Dalmasio or to Giotto), they persons and property at their mercy, and violated the might have succeeded in connecting the highest effort of honour of their wives and daughters. The citizens secretly the school with that earlier, national, or local style, which, sent deputies to Rome imploring assistance. A Roman as we have seen, was nipped in its growth before it was army, under the Consul Fabius Gurges, marched against fully developed, partly perhaps because Francia devoted Volsinii

, and defeated the revolted liberti, but the consul himself so late in life to the art, and thus still adhered to was killed in the engagement. A new consul, M. Fulvius the incomplete and, as it were, preparatory mode of imita- Flaccus, was sent from Rome, who after a siege took Voltion when the perfect one had already been introduced. sinii, B.C. 266. Most of the revolted liberti were put to The merit of this painter, as one of the characteristic Italian death, but at the same time Fulvius Flaccus razed the masters, should not however be forgotten, and his style is city which had so long withstood the power of Rome. He not the less interesting from being connected with that carried away the spoils, among which it was said there original school of Umbria, distinct from the Florentine, were 2000 statues, a number evidently exaggerated. (See which was remarkable for purity of expression, and which Livy's narrative of this event, with Niebuhr's remarks had so much influence on the education and genius of upon it, Römische Geschichte, 3rd vol.) The inhabitants Raphael.

built themselves a new town in the neighbourhood. This BOLOGNIAN PHOSPHORUS. (PHOSPHORUS.] new Volsinii is little noticed in subsequent history. Se

BOLOGNIAN STONE, a variety of sulphate of ba- janus, the favourite of Tiberius, was a native of it. The rytes. [Barium]

Via Cassia passed through Volsinii. Among the few reBOLOR, or BELUR TAGH, a name on all our maps, mains of antiquity at or near Bolsena are some ruins of a down to the latest, given to the extensive mountain-range temple, said to have been dedicated to the Etruscan goddess which encloses the high table-land of eastern Asia on the Nursia. Two antient urns are in the vestry of the church west, and separates it from the deep depression which sur of Santa Cristina, and in the place before the church is rounds the sea of Aral on all sides and the Caspian on another urn with curious basso rilievi, representing satyrs three. This name, we believe, is first found on some Rus and bacchantes, and near it is likewise a large and elegant sian maps made in the beginning of the last century, and vase of oriental granite. It is in the church of Santa afterwards adopted by D'Anville in his Atlas of the Chinese Cristina that the miracle of the bleeding host is reported in empire, since which time it has been continued. But as the old legends to have occurred, which furnished Raphael this name is not known in the countries contiguous to the with the subject of one of his finest paintings in the Vatican. range, at least not in those of which we have obtained Bolsena is 56 miles N.N.W. of Rome, on the road to Floany information, it may be asked whence is it derived. It rence. is found to rest on the authority of Marco Polo, the Vene BOLSE'NA, THE LAKE OF, is in shape nearly tian traveller, and on that of the Arabian geographer Nesir oval, and covers about seventy square miles. It is almost Eddin. But on examining the passages in which these wholly surrounded by hills, which are covered with trees,

vines, and gardens. To the south-east the town of Monte- tioned, and of which only the outside walls are now stand fiascone rises on a conical hill a short distance from the ing. In front of this mansion there was a fine terrace, lake, and from the summit there is a splendid view of the from which a magnificent flight of steps led to the entrance. surrounding country. To the eastward, behind the town The gallery in this fine range of apartments was 200 feet in of Bolsena, is the calcareous ridge of Bagnorea and Orvieto, length by 22 in width; the dining-room 78 feet by 32 ; the which divides the basin of the lake from the valley of the two drawing-rooms are 39 feet, the other 36 feet by 33. Dr. Tiber. (BAGNOREA.) South-west of the lake, the country Pegge, Horace Walpole, and others, thought that these opens into the unwholesome plains which extend towards buildings were erected after the Restoration by William the sea.

At this end, the river Marta (Lartes flumen) Cavendish Duke of Newcastle, son of the Sir Charles, who issues out of the lake, and after a course of about forty miles built what is called the castle. Diepenbeck's view of Bolenters the sea near Corneto. The lake is subject to over- sover (1652) however decides the point of their previous flowings; it is in many places shallow near its borders, existence, and that they were built before the civil wars is where it is covered with reeds and frequented by multitudes more than probable, as otherwise there would have been no of water-fowl. The air around the lake is unhealthy in room at Bolsover for the splendid entertainment which the summer, though not so deleterious as that of the plains Earl of Newcastle (such was then his rank) gave to King towards the sea. The lake of Bolsena abounds with fish and Charles, with the queen, the court, and all the gentry of large eels, which were celebrated in the time of Dante. the county. The earl had previously entertained the king (Purgatorio, xxiv. 22.) Two small islands rise out of the at Bolsover in 1633, when he went to Scotland to be lake, Isola Bisentina and Isola Martana. It was in one of crowned. The dinner on this occasion cost 40001.; and these islands, some say the Martana, and others the Bisen- Clarendon speaks of it as 'such an excess of feasting as tina, that Queen Amalasonta, daughter of Theodoric, the had scarce ever been known in England before. In the Gothic king of Italy, was confined, and died a violent death. early part of the civil war the castle was garrisoned for the After her father's death she became regent of the kingdom, king, but was taken in 1644 by Major General Crawford, during the minority of her son Athalaric, who dying pre- who is said to have found it well manned and fortified with maturely, Amalasonta took for her colleague in the cares great guns and sirong works. During the sequestration of of the kingdom her cousin Theodatus, who soon after con- the Marquis of Newcastle's estates, Bolsover Castle suffered tined her in the island on the lake of Bolsena, where she much both in its buildings and furniture, and was to have was strangled in 535. Theodatus was himself shortly after been demolished for the sake of its materials, had it not been put to death by Vitiges. The hills that surround the lake purchased for the earl by his brother, Sir Charles Cavendish. of Bolsena are basaltic; but the rock in most places has a The noble owner repaired the buildings after the Restoration, covering of rich mould, though in others it is bare and and occasionally made the place his residence. It now beshows hexagonal prisms ranged in all lines of directions, longs to the Duke of Portland, whose family derived it in vertical, horizontal, and oblique. The country produces the female line from the Newcastle Cavendishes. Although very good wine, both red and white, especially of the muscat still inhabited, the mansion has long ceased to be even occakind.

sionally occupied by its owners. BOLSOVER, a parish and formerly a market-town in The small town or village of Bolsover is pleasantly situthe hundred of Scarsdale, county of Derby, 23 miles N.N.E. ated, together with the castle, upon a point projecting into from Derby and 130 miles N. by W. from London. At the a valley which surrounds it on every side except the northtime of the Domesday Survey the manor of Bolsover (Bele- east, where the separation has been made by a deep cut. sovre) belonged to William Peveril, who is supposed to have The number of houses in the parish, which includes part of built Bolsover Castle. Not long after the forfeiture of this the township of Gapwell, amounted to 320 in 1831, and the property by William Peveril the younger for poisoning population to 1429, of whom 695 were females. The inhaRalph Earl of Chester, in 1153, we find the castle men- bitants are chiefly employed in agriculture. The parish tioned as having been given with the manor by Richard I. church, dedicated to St. Mary, is of a mixed architecture, in 1189, to his brother John on his marriage. The castle was having portions of the Norman style intermixed with late in the possession of the barons in 1215, but was taken from English architecture and with some modern additions. them by assault for the king (John) by William de Ferrers, | The living is a discharged vicarage in the diocese of LichEarl of Derby. The manor and castle continued some-field and Coventry, with the annual net income of 111. times a direct property of the crown, and at other times it | There is a small charity school, endowed with 6l. per anwas in the possession of various nobles under grants from the num, said to have been given by the Countess of Oxford. crown. The Earl of Richmond (father of Henry VII.) died the school-house was erected in 1756. The interest of possessed of it in 1456, together with the Castle of Hareston, nearly 30001., bank annuities, bequeathed by Mrs. Smithboth of which were granted in 1514 to Thomas Howard | son in 1761, is applicable to the assistance of the poor at the Duke of Norfolk, on the attainder of whose son it again discretion of the minister, churchwardens, and four trustees. reverted to the crown, Edward VI. granted it to Talbot Earl | (Pegge's Sketch of the History of Bolsover and Peak of Shrewsbury, in whose family the manor of Bolsover con- Castles ; Bray's Tour into Derbyshire; Pilkington's Pretinued until the time of James I., when Earl Gilbert sold sent State of Derbyshire ; Lysons's Magna Britannia.) it to Sir Charles Cavendish. The old castle was in ruins

BOLTE'NIA (zoology), a subgenus of Ascididæ, a falong before. Leland mentions it as in ruins in his time, mily of the group Tunicata, which, according to William and no vestige of it now remains. That which is now called Sharp MacLeay,* are the animals that connect the Acrita, the castle is nothing more than an ill-contrived and incon or lowest primary division of the animal kingdom, with the venient domestic residence with somewhat of a castellated Mollusca, from which, he observes, they differ in the followappearance. It was begun, immediately after he made the ing points : First, in having an external covering consistpurchase, by Sir Charles, who appears to have removed on ing of an envelope distinctly organized and provided with the occasion what remained of the old castle. It is a two apertures, of which one is branchial, the other anal. square, lofty, and embattled structure of brown stone with Secondly, in their mantle forming an internal tunic correa tower at each angle, of which that at the north-east angle sponding to the outer covering or test, and provided like it is much higher and larger than any of the others. The with two openings; and thirdly, in having branchiæ which building stands on the brow of a steep hill overlooking a occupy all, or at least part, of the membranous cavity large extent of country. A flight of steps on the east side formed by the internal sides of the mantle. From the leads through a passage to the hall (the roof of which is Acrita the Tunicata (or Heterobranchiata, as De Blainville supported by stone pillars), and thence to the only room calls them) differ in having distinct nervous and generative designed for habitation on this floor. This apartment, called systems, while their intestinal canal is provided with two the 'pillar parlour,' is 21 feet square, and has an arched openings, both internal. (Tunicata.] MacLeay, in his ceiling which is supported in the centre by a circular pillar, excellent · Anatomical Observations on the Natural Group around which the dining-table is placed. Above stairs of Tunicata, after referring to the investigations of Cuvier, there is a large room, about 45 feet by 30, called the star bestows well-merited praise on the ‘inimitable labours' of chamber;' there are also a smaller apartment and two Savigny, and censures De Blainville for his obvious wisli lodging-rooms on this floor and eight on the attic story, to obliterate them. He well observes, that dissection must which are all very small: the floor of every room is of stone or plaster. The residence of the family of Cavendish was • Anatomical Observations on the Natural Group of Tunicata, with the probably in the magnificent range of ruined apartments description of three species collected in Pox Channel during the late Northern which extend to the west of the structure we liave men

Expeditiou,' by William Sharp MacLeay, Esc., A.M., F.L.S.- Trans. Linn,
Soc, vol, xiv. p. 527.

always be resorted to when we wish to understand the MacLeay, after quoting Captain Sabine (Appendix to character of the Tunicata, whether simple or compound; Parry's Voyuge to Melville Island) and Fabricius (Fauna and adds, that the naturalist who contents himself with Groenlandica), gives the northern seas of America as the describing the external aner' ance of an Ascidia may re- locality of the animal. Captain J. C. Ross (Appendix to main even more ignorant of the nature of the inclosed Sir John Ross's Second Voyage) says that a single specianimal than that person is of Mollusca who knows no more men was dredged up from a depth of seventy fathoms near of them than the shells they inhabit. The following is the Elizabeth Harbour. He observes that he can add nothing generic character of Boltenia (Savigny) as reformed by to Mr. MacLeay's admirable description, except that the MacLeay for satisfactory anatomical reasons, detailed in his colour of the body is a very light brown ; that of the pedicle memoir, every word of which is worthy of the deepest atten- darker. tion of the comparative anatomist.

The sphere wherein this Ascidian moves must necessarily External character.-Body with a coriaceous test, sup- be very contracted. Anchored by its pedicle, the length of ported from the summit by a long pedicle, and having both its moorings fixes the limit of its motions, which are most orifices lateral and cleft into four rays.

probably confined to the oscillations arising from the agitaAnatomical character.-Branchial pouch divided into tion of the waves. Both the body and pedicle, as MacLeay longitudinal folds, surmounted by a circle of compound ten observes, are scabrose or covered with a rough surface, tacula, and having the reticulation of its respiratory tissue which is formed by exceedingly short coarse hairs. The simple ; abdomen lateral ; ovary multiple.

original colour he could not ascertain ; but in spirits it was There are three species recorded, viz. Boltenia ovifera, cinereous or dirty white, which, he adds, may possibly be Boltenia fusiformis, and Boltenia reniformis. We select the true colour of the animal, as it is not unfrequently that the latter, Ascidia globifera of Captain Sabine, Ascidia of the other ascididæ. MacLeay's specimen was brought clavata of Otho Fabricius, as an example of the subgenus. home from Winter Island by William Nelson Griffiths, Esq., The following is MacLeay's character and description. while under the orders of Captain (now Sir Edward) Parry.

Specific character.-Obscure, roughish; body subreni BOLTHEAD, a chemical vessel, usually of green glass, form, the orifices being somewhat prominent; peduncle ter- and of a globular form, with a narrow neck. It is chietly minal.

employed in the process of sublimation. Description.-Envelope sub-pellucid, whitish; mantle or BOLTON-LE-MOORS, a borough town in the poputunic very thin, provided with transverse, circular, narrow lous parish to which it gives name, in the hundred of Salmuscles, which cut each other very obliquely.

ford, county palatine of Lancaster, comprising the township Tentacula about ten or twelve in number, very unequal, of Great Bolton, and the chapelry of Little Bolton; 11 miles clavate, with the clava plumiform or beautifully divided into N.W. of Manchester, 6 miles W.S.W. of Bury, 12 miles S. a number of regular lacinia.

of Blackburn, 11 miles S.E. of Chorley, 43 miles S.S.E. of Branchial pouch marked with about fifteen or sixteen Lancaster, and 197 miles N.W. by N. of London. It is in large folds, and having the net-work simple and regular as 53° 33' N. lat., and 3° 34' W. long. in the Cynthia mamus of Savigny. [CYNTHIA.]

The parish of Bolton contains twelve townships and six Dorsal sulcus having the two lateral filaments winged chapelries, of which the following is a list, with the estiand the intermediate simple.

mated annual rental of the lands, &c., of each :Esophayus descending vertically to the lower end of the

Population Estimated Value body, as suspended, and there meeting an ascending ovoidal Anglezarke, township

168

£975 stomach without any apparent internal folioli.

Blackrod, chapelry

2,591

4,618 Intestine with an oblong, longitudinal, open loop, which

Bolton, Great, township 28,299

27,887 is prolonged to the pedicle ; rectum narrow and sub-conical,

Bolton, Little, chapelry 12,896

11,747 and ascending nearly parallel to the @sophagus, only

Bradshaw, chapelry

773

2,166 higher; anus having a scolloped margin.

Breightmet, township 1,026

2,307 Liver coating the stomach behind the right ovary, and Edgworth, township

2,168

2,989 running from the lower end of the body, as suspended, about Entwistle, township

701

1,684 half way up. It is divided into several granulated globes, Harwood, township

2,011

2,492 some of which are separated from the others, particularly Lever, Darcy, chapelry 1,119

1,378 towards the pharynx.

Lever, Little, township 2,231

2,611 Ovaries two, elongate, lobate, situated on each side of the Longworth, township

179

545 body, and directed towards the anal orifice; right ovary Lostock, hamlet

606

1,668 straight, claviform, lying close within the loop of the intes. Quarlton, township

376

1,327 tine; left ovary larger and less lobate, but undulated and Rivington, chapelry

537

2,650 extending downwards behind the branchial vein.

Sharples, township

2,589

3,228 Tonge with Haulgh, township 2,201

2,632 Turton, chapelry

2,563

4,193 Total

63,034 . £77,097 The increase in the population of the town of Bolton has been very rapid since the year 1773, when there were only 5339 inhabitants in the two townships. In 1801 they amounted to 17,416, in 1811 to 24,149, in 1821 to 31,295, and in the census of 1831 they are returned at 41,195, showing an increase in 58 years of 35,856 persons. The returns for the whole parish during 30 years preceding the year 1831 exhibit a proportionate increase. In 1801 the parish contained 29,826 inhabitants; in 1811 this number was raised to 39,701, in 1821 to 50,197, and in 1831 to 63,031. The tables drawn up at the last census exhibit the following particulars connected with the population of this borough :

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The boundaries of the borough, as laid down in the 1 a Mule. This was the discovery of a man of the name of Boundary Act, 2 and 3 Will. IV. cap. 64, are not the boun- Samuel Crompton, wlio lived in a part of an interesting old daries of the town: a portion of Little Bolton lying to the house about a mile from Bolton called 'Hall in the Wood,' north of Astley Bridge, and extending as far as Horrock's where the experiments were carried on which resulted in Fold, is excluded from the franchise, and the small ad- this valuable invention. Fortunately for the public, but joining township of Tonge with Haulgh is included in it. unfortunately for the inventor, no patent was taken out for The borough returns two members to parliament.

the machine. It consequently came into immediate use, The name of Bolton is involved in obscurity, though and made the fortunes of thousands, while the ingenious its affix of le Moors evidently points to a Norman origin, discoverer, after receiving the product of two subscriptions and affords proof of the early importance of the place, which of 105l. and 400l., raised with difficulty from those wbom required to be thus distinguished from other towns of the his invention had enriched, was remunerated by a parliasame name. If, as it has been supposed, Bolton is a cor- mentary grant of 5000l. In the mean time Şir Richard ruption of Bodelton or Bothelton, a town which is men- | Arkwright, another native of Bolton, who had risen from a tioned in the Calendarium Rotulorum Chartarum' pre- very obscure condition, had established large factories in served in the Tower of London, the manor belonged at the Derbyshire, where he carried the cotton machinery to tbe time of the Conquest to Roger de Merscheya, by whom it greatest perfection. The opposition made by the labourwas sold, along with his other lands between the Ribble ing classes in Bolton to the improvements in machinery and the Mersey, to Ranull de Blunderville, Earl of Chester, has, at various times, driven the most lucrative branches from whom it came into the possession of the Earl of Ferrers, of employment from that town to other places. The inand from him to an antient Lancashire family of the name troduction of the mule and of the power-loom was not acof Pilkington. In the possession of this family the manor complished untii they had enriched other communities for remained for nearly a century, until Sir Roger Pilkington, some time. After a while cotton factories began to rise up then high sheriff of the county, was attainted and beheaded in various parts of the town, filled with machinery upon at the commencement of the reign of Henry VII., for ad- the best principle. Foundries and machine manufactories hering to the cause of Richard III. at the battle of Bosworth followed them, and a great exter sion was immediately given field. His estates were confiscated and given to Sir Thomas to the trading interests of the place. Some of the largest Stanley, then created Earl of Derby. In this way the Earl mills in the county are in Bolton. Two of the principal of Derby became possessed of nearly all the land in the town spinners have each more than 100,000 spindles employed, of Bolton, which he held until part of it was again confis- and there are nearly fifty factories in the town and the cated during the Commonwealth, in consequence of the immediate neighbourhood. The cotton manufacture which conduct of the Earl of Derby in the civil commotions of is carried on in these mills, comprehending the dressing those times. By a series of mutations, not easily traced, and carding of the raw material, and the spinning it the manorial rights became divided among several indivi- into yarn, employs steam-power equivalent to about 1100 duals, by whom they are still held. The earls of Derby and horses. About fifty steam-engines are used in the spinningBradford have each one third part, two other individuals mills alone. At seven persons to one horse power (which have each one-twelfth, and a fifth party holds one-sixth. is Baines's calculation) ihere would therefore be 7700 perThe manor of Little Bolton is in the possession of Thomas sons, old and young, engaged in the mills alone in Bulion. Tipping, Esq.

But this average is taken too high; five would be more During the political dissensions in the reign of Charles, accurate, giving a total of 5500, which corresponds very Bolton began to rise into notice, owing to the ardent spirit nearly with the returns. In 1831 the whole number of manifested by the inhabitants in favour of the Common- men employed in the cotton and silk trade in the townships wealth. During the long strife between the royalists and of Great and Little Bulton was 6100. The women and the parliamentarians the town was garrisoned by the latter, children would quadruple the number. in whose possession it remained till 1644. After Prince The weavers of Bolton produce a great variety of fabrics, Rupert's successful attack upon the parliamentary troops probably a greater variety than any other single place in whó besieged Lathom House, the then residence of the ihe county. Plain and fancy muslins, quiltings, counterStanley family, finding that they took refuge in Bolton, he panes, and dimities, are the chief kinds of cloth, but camfollowed them with his army, where, being joined by the brics, ginghams, &c. are also woven. Formerly fustians, earl of Derby, he attempted to take the town by storm. jeans, ibicksetts, and similar fabrics, were the principal ar. After several assaults the royalists, being repulsed with ticles made in the town, but these descriptions of cloth are great loss, retired, until the earl of Derby, having collected now chiefly produced in the power-loom, as well as calicoes his tenantry and levied new troops, returned to the attack, and dimities. Silk goods are not produced here to any exand succeeded in dislodging the parliamentary forces, and tent. Several attempts have been made to introduce them obtaining possession of the town. It did not remain long among the Bolton weavers, but without much success. in their hands, for by one of the singular vicissitudes of The bleach works in the town and neighbourhood are those eventful times it was again surrendered to the parlia- among the largest in the kingdom, and employ a considerment; and after the battle of Worcester the unfortunate able number of persons, ten millions of pieces being the earl, who had signalized himself in the attack upon Bolton, average number annually bleached in the parish of Bolton. being taken prisoner, was condemned by a military tribunal The steam-power used in these works is calculated to be at Chester, and sent under an escort to Bolton, where he equal to the power of nearly 500 horses. was beheaded October 15th, 165).

In the foundries it is nearly as great, twenty-five steam: Several centuries prior to this date the town was famous engines being employed in them. The iron foundries and for its manufactures.' Leland speaks of its being a market machine shops in Bolton are numerous and extensive. for cottons and coarse yarns; and another writer (Blome), Steam-engines are made at several of them, and, together who wrote somewhat later, describes it as 'a fair well-built with the machinery that is manufactured here, are consitown, with broad streets, with a market on Mondays, which dered of the first quality. is very good for clothing and provisions; and it is a place of Many other branches of trade connected with the above great trade for fustians. There seems to be little doubt are carried on to a considerable extent; and there are several that the making of woollens was imported by some Flemish large chemical and paper-works in the town and its vicinity. clothiers, who came over in the fourteenth century; that A great proportion of the cotton goods manufactured other branches of trade were introduced by the French re- here are sold in Manchester, where the nianufacturers fugee manufacturers, who were attracted by the prosperity have warehouses for the storing and sale of their cloths. of the neighbourhood ; and that the manufacture of cotton They meet their customers there from all parts of the cloth was improved, and in many of its kinds introduced, country, one, two, or three days of each week, but always by some emigrant weavers, who came from the palatinate on Tuesday, which is the cotton market day in that metroof the Rhine.

polis of the cotton trade. On that day all the principals or Bolton made no great advances in population until the their representatives from every establishment in the county improvements in the machinery for spinning cotton gave connected with the cotton trade, more particularly bleachers an impetus to the trade, which has been gradually in- and manufacturers, meet in Manchester. The practice, creasing ever since. Almost the first invention in point though apparently inconvenient, and certainly attended of importance originated in this town. It was a machine with much trouble, bas so many advantages that there is which combined ihe principles of the spinning-jenny and no wish, even among those who are most remote from the the water-frame, and was called from that circumstance, market, to alter it,

Bolton is well accommodated with the means of convey of the public peace. The consequence of this mode of ap. ance to all parts of the kingdom. Being on the direct line pointing such important officers is the same as in most of the north road from Manchester, coaches are constantly other towns similariy situated,-a most inefficient policepassing through it in that direction. The intercourse with an evil which is so strongly felt by the inhabitants, that it Manchester, already very easy and frequent, will be ren- is likely they will seek to remove it by incorporating themdered much more so by the new rail-road which is being selves under the provisions of the Corporation Reform Bill laid (1835) between the two towns, the completion of which Little Bolton has a police act distinct from Great Bolton, is expected in the course of a year. There is also a railway, which vests the appointment of a certain number of trustees which was opened in 1831, connecting Bolton with the annually in the rate-payers. The sum raised last year for Manchester and Liverpool line at Kenyon, by which pas- the purposes of lighting, paving, and cleansing Little Bolsengers are conveyed to either of the two great towns. The ton, amounted to 1918. 58. 10d., being 18. 6d. in the pound distance by it to Liverpool is thirty-two miles, to Manches- upon the annual value. The parochial concerns of the two ter twenty-two miles. The advantages of inland navigation townships are each as separate as their municipal affairs, have been enjoyed since 1791, when a canal was made and in both are well managed. In Great Bolton, the sum from Manchester to Bolton, with a branch to Bury. It collected for the relief of the poor was about 40001.. being begins on the western side of Manchester from the river 28. in the pound upon the annual value. In Little Bolton, Irwell, to which it runs nearly parallel, crossing it at during the same year, 16742. 6s. 10d. was collected for the Clifton, and again near Little Lever, where its two branches relief of the poor, being 1s.6d. in the pound upon the annual to Bolton and Bury separate. Its whole length is fifteen value of the property in the township. miies one furlong, with a rise of 187 feet. The two towns The town is well lighted with gas by a company incorthus connected with Manchester, being on the same level, porated in 1820. It is also admirably supplied with water, no lock is required between them. The distance by canal brought from a distance of four miles N.E. of the town. from Bolton to Manchester iş twelve miles; from Bolton to The springs are first collected in a large reservoir near their Bury six miles.

source, from which the water is conveyed in earthenware The whole district through which the canal runs abounds pipes into another reservoir, about a mile from the town, with coal. The mines, though not perhaps so close to the from whence it is again conveyed through an iron main of town, appear to have been worked when Leland wrote his thirteen inches diameter to the various parts of the town.

Itinerary.' He says • They burne at Bolton sum canale The water descends from an elevation of about 700 feet ; but more se cole, of the wich the pittes be not far off. The but the elevation of the reservoir from which the inhabitants principal mines for cannel coal belong to the earl of Bal- are supplied is not more than eighty feet, and is not found carras, and are in the vicinity of Wigan : but some of an to give sufficient pressure to raise the water to the height inferior quality is found nearer Bolton. The common coal at which it is wanted. The company are about to remedy lies round the town, and is the main source of its prosperity. this, by making another reservoir on a higher level, which

The two townships of which the borough of Bolton con- will make the water available to all the purposes for which sists are separated by a small river called the Crole, which it is required. This undertaking was effected at an expense rises at Red Moss in the hamlet of Lostock, and runs due of 40,0001., subscribed in shares of 501. each, by a company west into the Irwell, dividing in its course. Great and Little established by act of parliament in 1824. The scale of Bolton, the south side of it being the township of Great charges is so moderate as to put it within the power of the Bolton, and the north side the chapelry of Little Bolton. poorest inhabitants to have the water brought into their Though an antient town, the streets of Bolton are wide and own houses. Dwellings under 101. are charged 10s. a year, straight, and the houses generally well built. The roads and houses of greater value one shilling in the pound upon jeading to and from the town in every direction are kept in the annual rent. good condition, and the principal entrances are good. The The churches and chapels, the exchange, news-room, and town covers nearly a square mile, having been very consi- library, the dispensary, the workhouse, and the town hall in derably extended in the S.W. direction, under an act of Little Bolton, are the only edifices that can be considered parliament obtained in 1792 for inclosing Bolton Moor, a as public buildings. Of these the large parish church, dedilarge tract of waste land comprising nearly 300 acres, which cated to St. Peter, is supposed to be several centuries old, was divided into allotments and sold by public auction on a but has few pretensions to architecture. It has a low tower, perpetual chief-rent to be secured by buildings, and made and is surrounded with a very extensive burial-ground. payable to trustees appointed in the aforementioned act. A The living is a discharged vicarage in the deanery of Manfifteenth part was deducted as a compensation to the lords chester, and in the archdeaconry and diocese of Chester, of the manor, to whom were reserved also the mines and and is returned of the yearly value of 4641. in the Eccleminerals underneath the surface. The powers of these siastical Returns. Another church was recently erected trustees were extended by another act in 1817, by which in Great Bolton, at an expense of 13,4121., part of which they were empowered to raise a rate to the amount of 28. 6d. was defrayed by a grant from the parliamentary comin the pound upon the annual value of the property of the missioners. It is a handsome building with a tower, in town for the purposes specified in a former act for light-the English-Gothic style, and contains 923 free siting, cleansing, paving, and improving the town of Great tings. The living is a perpetual curacy in the gift of the Bolton. The many expensive improvements which were vicar of Bolton. The largest church in Little Bolton, St. made previous and subsequent to the passing of the last George's, a brick building, with a tower and bells, was act involved the trustees in expenses beyond the amount built by subscription in 1796. The living is a perpetual of their annual receipts from the Moor, which, united with a curacy, to which the subscribers had three presentations, want of proper economy, rendered it necessary for them to get which are now exhausted, and it reverts to the bishop of an enlargement of their powers, in order to obtain a mort-Chester. There is also a chapel of ease in the same towngage upon the Moor rents. In this way they raised 12,0001., ship, dedicated to All Saints, in the gift of Thomas Tipto defray the interest of which, together with other de- ping, Esq., lord of the manor, which is also a perpetual mands, a police rate, varying from 1s. to 28. 6d. in the curacy. It is endowed with 2001. private benefaction, 2001. pound, was annually laid upon the inhabitants, and paid royal bounty, and 22001. parliamentary grant. The places for a number of years, until, in the year 1835, the tax was of worship belonging to the dissenters in Bolton are numediscontinued, and by a better administration of the funds rous and spacious. There are two each for Baptists, Indeyielded by the chief rents on Bolton Moor, not only have pendents, and Unitarians, one each for the Society of they been found equal to defray the annual disbursements Friends and Swedenborgians, a Roman Catholic Chapel

, for the lighting, paving, cleansing, and improving the town, and seven places for the various denominations of Mebut, in addition, 2000l, of the debt has been discharged. thodists. The income of the whole property is 25001., 4001. of which The institutions for education in Bolton are numerous. The is absorbed by the interest of the mortgage.

free grammar-school, contiguous to the parish churchyarıl, The powers of the trustees of Great Bolton, who are ap- educates 120 boys. It was founded in 1641 by Robert pointed under the Police Act, do not extend to the preserva- Lever, citizen and clothier of London; and in 1651 an old tion of public order. Officers are annually selected at a school, of unrecorded foundation, was, with its revenue and court leet called by the lords of the manor, in each township property, united to it; since which time both have been respectively, under the names of a boroughreeve, two con- considered as one school. The income is 485l. per annum stables, and a deputy-constable, in whom all authority is of which the head master receives a salary of 1601., the serested, during their continuance in office, for the preservation cond master 1001., and the writing-master 751 per annum,

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