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fions were curbed and restrained, by the same spring, or principle of action, with those of all other men; viz. by a prospect of good and evil, that might befall them in this world. They were temporal prosperity and temporal adversity, temporal or bodily pleasures and temporal or bodily pains, temporal life and temporal death, that were set before the Jews, in order to command and restrain their appetites and pasions; and which, together with the incentives to affociation, that arise from the human constitution, were intended, and were, in fact, sufficient, to hold them together in society, even whilst the belief of the doctrine of futurity is declared to be wanting among them. And, if the forementioned principles were sufficient to hold the Jews together in society, exclufive of the belief of the doctrine of futurity ; then, surely, they may be sufficient to answer that purpose to any other nation, or people ; at least, the question is, why should they not ? and consequently, the admitting Mr. Warburton's third proposition destroys his first. For, admitting the Jews were under a theocracy, that God was their civil governor, it alters not the case ; because, they were governed in the same way, were

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influenced by the same principles of action, by the same maxims of policy, as all other civil societies are ; viz. by connecting their present happiness with their duty, or sociableness; and by making their present happiness and their disobedience, or unfociableness, to be incompatible. But then, it is to be remembered, that tho' God did give the Fews, by the hand of Moses, a body of laws, guarded with fanctions as aforesaid, and thereby provided for their safety, in the same way that other civil

that other civil governors provide for the safety of the people, respectively, who are committed to their care; yet he did not put those laws in execution, nor charge himself with the execution of them; but left the Jews to govern themselves, by those laws that he gave them, or kindly provided for them; and therefore, he was not their civil governor, nor were they under a theocracy, as is pretended.

If it should be said, had God only given the Jews a body of laws, by the hand of Moses, guarded with fanctions as aforesaid, this would have been altogether insufficient to have answered the purposes of government to them, because their appetites and parsions would not have been curbed or restrained

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thereby; but this was not all, for, befides this, he governed them by a particular, fpecial, and immediate interposition of his power and providence, in counselling and advising them, by Urim, and by his Prophets ; and also by specially interposing, in bringing down his extraordinary blessings and his judgments upon them: and by theje they were held together in society, and rendered a sociable people, which otherwise they would not have been. Upon which I observe, that the giving the fews a body of laws, guarded with

proper san&tions, together with those excitements to association, which arise from the human constitution, were proper and sufficient, when duly attended to, to hold them together in society, or they were not? If they were, then they would have been sufficient, had God's extraordinary interpositions been wanting ; and consequently, those interpofitions were not necesary to that end. If they were not proper, nor would haye been sufficient for that purpose; then the Deity stands arraigned of indiscretion and misconduet, in providing means that were not adapted, nor sufficient, to reach the end

proposed to be obtained by them ; but the Jews were held together in society by those means,

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and, therefore, what is urged must needs be a most grievous calumny upon him. That God did extraordinarily interpose, by way of counsel to the Jews, their history sets forth, as in the case of their going to war with the Benjamites ; (Judges xx.) tho' that advice, upon the whole, seems to have turned to bad account ; twenty-two thousand men of Judah being sain in their first encounter, eighteen thousand men of Israel in the second, and twenty-five thousand men of Benjamin in the third. God also sent prophets among them, to reprove them for their evil deeds, and to forewarn them what would be the consequcuzces thereof; tho' these kind monitions seem to have had but little effect. God likewise, sometimes, tho? very rarely, interposed, in an extraordinary way, by bringing down hiş Special blessings and curses, or judgments, upon that people, as in the case of fire coming down from heaven, and destroying the two captains and their fiftįes ; (2 Kings i.) which extraordinary interpositions may. be considered as marks, or instances, of God's extraordinary kindness, or displeasure to them. But then, as these special providences, (according to the accounts that are given us, in the Jewish histories), were very seldom dif

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pensed, were founded on arbitrary pleasure, there being no fixed rule when they should, or should not, take place, and consequently, must have been most uncertain, they might, or might not happen; fo, in the nature of the thing, these extraordinary dispensations could not be a sufficient foundation for government safely to rest upon, nor a proper principle for the holding men together in society by. Civil society and civil government require fome fixed, stable, permanent principle for these to rest upon, in order to render them lasting, and to answer the purposes of association ; and not what is fluctuating and uncertain, which was the case of God's extraordinary providences among the Hows. Good and evil at a distance, or when uncertain, has but little influence upon the human appetites and passions, as experience theweth. Ecclesiastes viii. Because sentence against an evil work is not speedily executed; therefore the heart of the fons of men is fully set in them to do evil. If God had given a body of laws to the Jews, guarded with proper sanctions, and, instead of leaving it to them to execute those laws, had charged himself with the execution of them, and, without the instru

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