« 前へ次へ »
Our Author controverts another declaration of Mr. Young's, vit. that' two mowings of clover do more good to the ground than feeding it off with cattle,' and thinks he should have explained so fingular an opinion. Whether this opinion be right or not, must, we apprehend, be determined by experiments ; but Mr. Young has certainly explained his opinion, viz. that “ the fermentation created in the earth, by two thick crops, contributes more to prepare the soil for wheat, than the dung of cattle, which must be thinly spread, and therefore cannot raise much fermentation."
Mr. Peters declares that Mr. Baldwin of Clapham is a convert to the broadcasting of lucerne, and makes above 16 tons (value 181.) of an acre: and, in sect. 5, affiçms, that fiinty unprofitable ground, by rainfoin, yields from 5 1. to 61. per acre : and, in fect. 6, he observes, that such lands, about Dunstable in Bedfordihire, would answer nobly under sainfoin, which now produce little, although dearly manured with woollen rags: and, in fect. 7, he notes the Spaniards giving salt to sheep, and its use in hay for oxen or horses.
In sect. i, of chap. VIII. Mr. Peters laughs at Mr. Young for recommending burnet as a late spring food for sheep, and refers to his own provisions in the beginning of this work. He also ridicules Mr. Rigal of Heidelberg, for giving burnet to his goat; and affirms The would have thanked him for a belly ful of good grass.
He recommends the method of dipping a turkey chick as soon as hatched in cold water, and forcing it to swallow a pepper-corn. These prescriptions our English housewives have long known: nor are they ignorant of the method of relieving them in mature age, by drawing three or four bloody feathers at their rumps : nor are they strangers to the feeding young chicks with eggs hard boiled. We know not, indeed, that they are acquainted with feeding them with oatmeal and treacle,
In fect. 4, Mr. Peters shews, from the premiums of the Dublin Society, that 16 lb. of wheat, sown on a plantation acre, has produced 124, 137, nay, 19; fold.
On mention of the Dublin Society he observes, that France has 13 principal Societies for Agriculture, and 19 co-operating ones; that in Sweden and the German Universities, the art of agriculture is taught as a science, and an academy for it is etablished in Tuscany.
In sect. 5, Mr. Peters considers an acre of land as Debtor and Cre. ditor, and produces a profit of 41. 12 s. 3 d. &c. for one year, or profit on 100 acres for one year 4611. 9 s. 9 d, or for ten years 46141. 17 s. rod. 'a very respectable sum,' as he calls it ; but then he adds, It is not what land does, but what land may be brought to to do.' But how shall we know what it may do, if it does it not?
The last section displays the inconvenience of thick rowing of wheat, from its lodging in A. D. 1770.
In his Addenda, Mr. Peters has many useful hints on fea-water, as yielding different quantities of salt in different places; on change of jeed, from foils opposite to that on which it is to be foun; on choosing feed full, thin-coated, uninfected with smui, weeds, &c. ; on the usefulness of farm tooks, viz. a diary, a field poit-book, a fock: book, a book of debtor and creditor for each field, and a kdger; on the necessity of fowing wheat early, both in wet and dry ground (and
here he advises a penal law against fowing after November 30); on tables of the number of grains of different kinds in an ounce, and plants on an acre, at various distances, in order to calculate the quantity of feed; on wild oats, which he rightly supposes to be seeds originally created and mixed with the earth, and brought to vegte tate after long ploughing t; on the expences and loss of laxd in finall inclosures ; on an improvement of a circular coulter to prevent the wheat trubble from gathering ; on a swelling ncar the udder o newly lamb'd ewes ; on Spelt (a kind of corn betwixt wheat and barley :) on the value of a rye crop on many lands nearly that of wheat per bushelf; and on correcting the lomax plough. He concludes there Adáenda by a declaration that he proposes to lay before the public the cause of the high price of provisions; and, in a Postscript, he de fcribes a ftillet and cannula, which he recommends to be uled in the relief of hoven cattle: but we regard the Complete Farmer's remedy for this distemper, viz, raking, as superior to all others.
With respect to our Author's language, it is too fanciful, and fan vours too much of the bombaft, especially for works of this kind; which require a plain, manly style, suitable to the gravity and importance of narrative subjects. There is, indeed, an appearance of conceitedness in Mr. P.'s manner, which many Readers may contider as indicating a want of judgment. We do not, however, absolutely, pronounce lo serere a sentence on our Author, who has judicioutis collected a variety of useful obfervations from other Writers, and added some good ones of his own
ART. VIII. Discourses on the Parables of our blefed Saviour and the dia
racles of his holy Gospel. With occasional Hiustrations. By Cherly's
Bulkley. Vols. Ili. IV. 8vo. 10 s. Horsfeld, &c. 1771. TN chese two volumes * this Author's present design is com.
I pleted. The contents of the third volume are, The Marriage in Cana; the Buyers and Sellers in the Temple; the good Centurion ; the miraculous Cure of a Leper; the miraculous Draught of Fishes; the Storm rebuked; the Demoniacs; the Cure of the Paralytic; the miraculous Increase of the Loaves and Fishes; the Pool of Bethesia; our Lord's Transfiguration ; the Cure of the Man born blind; Christ the Light of the World; together with an Introductory Discourse, containing general Observations on our Saviour's Miracles.
The subjects of the fourth volume are, The Resurrection of Lazarus ; the cursing the barren Fig-tree; Peter's cutting off the Right Ear of Malchus; the Resurrection of Chrift; the Afon
+ Mr. Peters seems to ascribe the vegetation to the poverty of the soil; but we think that, by being long exposed to the air, they become capable of vegetation, although the foil be not exhausted, as is the case in regard to ketlocks in old ground, however tilled.
| Viz. 3 s. 6 d. when wheat was 4 s. 3d. in February lar in Northumberland. * See Reviews for June 1771, and for Janvary 1772.
cenfion cension of our blessed Saviour; the miraculous Effusion of the Spirit; the Abuse of the miraculous Gifts among the Corinthians ; St. Peter's miraculous Cure of the lame Man; Ananias and Sapphira; Elymas the Sorcerer ; the Popish Miracles; and a concluding Address.
After the remarks we have cursorily made on the former voJumes, we have now little more to add, than that the Author continues to write as becomes an ingenious and sensible man; and in an agreeable, instructive, and practical manner. The particular subjects which he has chosen have afforded him an opportunity of insisting and enlarging upon the credibility of the goipel history, and also of establishing and illustrating the evidence of its truth. He does not fail to give proper attention to these points, which are here presented to our view with strength and solidity; while, at the same time, he offers a variety of other considerations (as they arise from his different subjects) which respect the temper and behaviour that becomes the profeflors of Christianity, and which he recommends with conviction and energy. Although he may in some respects differ in sentiment from several others who believe the gospel, we apprehend that persons of every denomination may peruse these, Discourses with satisfaction and improvement.
The miracles of Christ were of divers kinds, performed in a public manner, and in a short space of time, as well as upon fudden occasions: they appear with a real dignity, and are commonly directed to come immediate and important use, while they bore an illustrious teftimony to the divine authority of the perion by whom they were effected; in their different kinds and circumstances, they also lead to several reflections of a practical and profitable kind. Particulars of this nature are frequently inlifted upon in these Discourses.
Toward the close of the sermon on the miraculous Cure of a Leper, the Writer observes that, “ We have here two different fpecies of humility in a very lively manner exhibited : that of the recipient, and that of the donor. And then only is it, that benefits appear in all the perfection of their grace and loveliness; when humility adorns alike the person, who receives and he who consers them. Sometimes the humility of the one expressing itself in petitioning for the favour, is apt to excite the arrogance of the other in bestowing it. But in such a case, it must iurely lose more than half its merit; and on the other hand a favour received with haughtiness is sure to be received with loss; be: cause it cannot in that case be received with innocence and honour. And yet there are chose, who, though they love the benefit, cannot bear the thoughts of the obligation,—and have even that malignity of spirit as to envy the goodness by whichi abey are daily cherished. And this accounts for a wonderful
phenomenon in the moral world, which would otherways per. haps be altogether inexplicable : that I mean of men's behaving, and deliberately chusing to behave, with the greatest insolence and arrogance, contempt and ingratitude towards those, to whom of all others they are most obliged. And yet thole there are of that evil nature, that--the goodness of which they are made deeply sensible, is that which gives them the greatest pain : and consequently it must be their own benefactors, on whom they look with the most malignant eye; and thus the generous benefactor himself is sometimes not a little embarrassed.-Upon the whole, however, his duty is plainly this, to go on in acting towards them the kind and friendly part, and to leave their souls, and their future account, to God and thenselves. For, from our Saviour's own example, we learn, that, though there are many too vile to be the objects of our esteem, there are none either so depraved in temper, or so despicable in condition, as to be beneath the notice of our benevolence and compassion. The servant of one centurion shared alike in his miraculous compassion with the son of another; and even the unclean detested leper feels the restoring touch of his friendly hand. Nay, such was the unconquerable force of his benevolence, that he laboured incessantly for the highest good of thole who were ever making him the basest returns. In imitation then of this pure, spotless example, let us neither grudge our favours to the worst, nor disdain to bestow them on the meanest of mankind. And in the manner of conferring them let us remember thai there is a grace, humility, and condescension, that at once increases the merit of our compaffion, and enhances the joy of him towards whom we exercise it. Let us not infult and reproche, while we seem to commiserate and relieve. And let us avoid with detestation all that assuming, haughty air in conferring our favours, which may seem to indicate, that we rather do it for the sake of thewing our superiority; than of exercising our benevolence. Let the humble language, cven of our most beneficial and useful actions, be the fame with that of our Saviour's, “ fee, thou tell no man.” For to the perfect humility of his temper, I think we are plainly led by the evangelical bittory itself to ascribe this injunction."
• The fermon entitled the Drminiacs is founded upon the mira. cle of the dæmons entering into the swine. The Author decares his apprehenfion that the accounts of the demoniacs in the gospel history, 5 are so many instances of a real viabolical pofTeflion, and that the several diftempers under which they laboured, were truly owing to a diabolical influence and agency. ! This, he thinks, is what every one must allow to be the most obvious sense and meaning of the language made use of by the Evangelists in relating the several inftarces referred to. InfoRev. Feb. 1772.
much that nothing but the total incredibility of the thing itself can reconcile the mind to any other account of it.' The principal part of the discourse is therefore employed in considering those arguments which support his opinion, and endeavouring to obviate the objections raised against it. But for these partie culars we must rcfer our Readers to the Author himself,.
In the sermon on the miraculous increase of the Loaves and Fipes, our Author, after some general reflections, principally applies himself to explain and inculcate the virtue of frugality. We Thall transcribe what he says in introducing this part of the discourse, as we think it contains an hint that may be useful in this age of luxury and extravagance. .
Never surely, he observes, could there have been lefs oco' casion than at such an entertainment as this for the exercise of. frugaliiy. Little, we may presume, did any of the multitude think of “ gathering up the fragments which remained” after fo miraculous a repast. With more probability may we imagine, that many of them might be almost tempted to think of living for ever by miracle alone. But to prevent any presumptuous expectations of this kind, especially among his own immediate disciples and stated attendants, our Lord expressly orders them “ to gather up the fragments which remained, that nothing might be lost.” Frugality has been the lesson of wisdom in every age ; and it has ever been the labour of her sons to make men sensible of its importance. But never, surely, could it have been with such peculiar energy inculcated as here by our blessed Saviour; and that, not only on account of his extraordinary mission in general, but likewise the particular nature of that very miracle itself with which the recommendation of the duty is so immediately connected. It is a duty which we are extremely apt to overlook, in consequence of the vain imagination we entertain of a plenteousness and abundance that renders it unnecefiary. We think that we fall always be fure of a competency without it; and that it is a virtue fit' only for those whose penurious and scanty circumstances constrain them to the observance of it. But,'surely, if such a plea as this could ever have had any force, it must have been in the cale before us. Gather up the fragments ! why, what occae fion can there be for that, might fome be ready to suggest, upon hearing such an injuction given, when we may, at any time, be thus miraculously supplied ? yet such were the orders given by our divine instructor, and, as in the wisdom of his prophetic character he has chosen with such a peculiar emphasis and force to inculcate upon us this duty of frugality, it is that which I proposc, in the remaining part of our discourse, more dillingly to treat of. It is a luij ct that may not at first view, appear to be of, a very elevating or pathetic nature. Yet Cicero, I remember, bucaks out in raptures upon it, “ Ye gods,