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Antonine, as well as more extensive and circumstantial. It appears to have been collected, in the fourteenth century, by one Richard, a native of Cirencester, but a monk of West, minster. Whence the whole collection was made we are not fufficiently informed; though the Itinerary in particular is said, by Richard himself, to have been collected from some remains of records drawn up (betwixt the years 138 and 170) by autho, rity of a Roman general'; whom Mr. W. conjectures to have been Lollius Urbicus, governor of Britain under Antoninus Pius.
These invaluable remains were in the most imminent danger of perithing for ever, bad not Mr. Bertram, an English gentleman, fortunately discovered the manuscript at Copenhagen in 1747. A copy having been transmitted to the late Dr. Stukeley, he published a translation of the Itinerary part with a cominent, in 1757; and in the subsequent year the whole work was printed at Copenhagen, and a few copies sent to England as presents. -Our Author having frequently referred, in the course of his work, to this Itinerary of Ricardus Corinensis, has subjoined it to his history, together with the parallel parts of Antonine's celebrated Itinerary, chat one may illustrate the other. He hath also annexed, in distinct columns, the modern places correspondent to each ancient name, as afligned by Gale, Horseley, and Stukeley.
Under the guidance of Richard's and the other Itinerary, with the occasional assistance of Ptolemy, the Notitia, and Ravennas, our Author proceeds to point out the sites of the Roman stations in general within the county of Lancaster, and others bordering upon it, as well as to trace the roads which extend betwixt them.
In the history of the Roman people, he remarks, there are few particulars which so strongly betray their native grandeur of foul, as the roads which they profecuted over all the ample extent of their empire.' Though the Romans, doubtless, found many roads previously laid out for public use, yet there, he thinks, were scarce likely to answer all their exigencies. They therefore constructed new ones, two of them indeed in the line of two ancient British ways, (the Watling and Ikening streets) and perhaps others; but all upon plans better calculated for convenience and duration. Mr. W. is of opinion, that these roads were not carried on, as is frequently imagined, by the soldiery, but that the Romans were merely the directors, and that the more laborious employ was imposed upon the natives; which seems no improbable conjecture.
It has been questioned by antiquarians, whether the stations or the roads of the Romans were prior in time. And though no determination hath hitherto been given to this
question, preceding writers : For instance, though Baxter fupposes the Portus Siftuntiorum to have been the mouth of the Mersey, and Sukeley fixes it at the mouth of the Lune, yet Mr. W. deems them both mistaken, and agrees in opinion with Horseley, that it must have been at the mouth of the Ribble: “And from the great fingularity of the name which the Romans conferred upon it, THE HARBOUR OF LANCASHIRE, it appears to have been the only river in the county which was employed as an harbour by them. Passing through the center of the Siftuntian country, and opening with the largest mouth into the fea, the Romans naturally preferred it to the Mersey or the Lune, and made it the one port for the county of Lancaster.'-But it was then, he observes, a much more confiderable æstuary than it is at present; for he acknowledges that it now affords a much worse barbour' than either of the last-mentioned rivers.
1007. hondbury, ruine ficers road to, an half in
question, yet the decision of it appears to be very obvious to Mr. W. who absolutely affirms, that the stations were certainly prior ;' and that the roads, being only the channels of communication between them, could not (well) have been constructed till after the peace of the country (wherein the ftations were fixed, probably, during the conquest of it) was tolerably settled. The Roman road at the extremity of the Castle-field, the site of ancient Mancunium, was cut down from the surface to the base, in 1765, and the materials of it, we are told, lay plainly distinguished from the natural gravel of the ground by the melted bricks and broken mill-Itones which were found incorporated with them. It appeared to be constructed with a strong gravel mingled with large boulders and rocky fragments. The whole road was about fourteen yards in breadth, and a yard and an half in depth.'-From Mancunium he traces this road to, and determines (what he esteems) che genuine site of, Cambodunum, originally fixed at Almondbury, and since removed, by Horseley, to Gretlanda moor. But the former lying, he thinks, too much to the south, and the latter equally too much to the north, of the visible Roman road, Mr. W. declares he has ac last been fortunate enough to discover the ground whereon to settle this long-lost town, which he now fixes at a place called Slack, in the town thip of Longwood, and parish of Huchersfield, in Yorkshire. Here he found four closes called the Yeld Fields, (i. e. the Eald or old fields) adjoining to the track of the Roman road from Mancunium, and at the proper distance from thence. In these fields many large foundations of buildings have been discovered, composed of strong stone and mortar. Also a great quantity of bricks, (apparently Roman) urns, bones, coins, and several other thinus, particularly a Roman altar, now in Mr. Whitaker's own possession, a figure of which, and the inscription, are given in a plate. These remains appearing to be what he supposes, he exultingly concludes, in the genuine fpirit of antiquarianilin, « Thus have we clearly found what industry has vainly coiled, and genius has ineffectually Ichemed, to discover through the long extent of a century and an half, the real lite of Cambodunum.'
The position of Condate hath allo embarrassed the antiquarian cricics ; fetiled originally a: Congleton, it has since been fixed at or near Northwich; but, according to this writer, it was neither at one nor the other, but at Kinderton in Chelhire. For the realons however of chis change, which appear plausible enough, we must refer to the work ittelf.
Chap. 5. is employed in pointing out several other Roman stations, and tracing the roads of communication betwixt them. In these relearches our Author sometimes differs from
Chap. 6. opens with the following judicious remarks. These are the Roman roads that coursed from Mancunium to the neighbouring stations. And such as they are, they must fare in the great admiration and the high praise which antiquarians have bestowed upon the roads of the Romans in general. But surely those critics have been too lavish in their eulogiums upon them. Antiquarianism is the younger sister of bistory, less sedate and more fanciful, and apt to become enamoured of the face of time by looking fo frequenely upon it. But let not this be the conduct of her roberer disciples. Let not the sensible antiquarian disgrace himself and his profession by admiring greatly what is merely ancient, and by applauding fondly what is only Roman. The pencil of age may juftly be allowed to throw a Thade of respectableness, and to diffuse even an air of venerableness, over the productions of very ancient art. And we may appeal to the native feelings of every senfible beholder for the truth of the observation. But this is all that can be allowed to the mere influence of time. And the antiquarian chat once oversteps this reasonable limit, sacrifices the dignity of sentiment to the dreams of antiquarianism, and gives up the realities of history for the fables of imagination.'.
The Caftra Æfiva, or summer camps of the Romans, were, he observes, a requisite addition to their regular stations. As the latter were generally fixed upon the southerly siope of an bill or bank, they were well calculated for the keenness of our winters, and as ill for the warmth of our summers. The Romans therefore naturally constructed an additional camp for their station in the summer.' For this purpose, he supposes they necessarily selected fome site in the neighbourhood of the regular ftacion, which was fully open to the north. Such was apparently the general reason for which the Romans constructed their summer-camps, and such the general principle upon Rev: Jan. 1772
· · which
which they selected the proper positions for them. On this principle, a luinmer-camp was absolutely neceffary at Mancunium, as the warm beams of summer are uncommonly fervid and scorching upon the hope of the Castle-field.'-To the question, “But where would the Romans most probably settle the summer station?' Mr. W. replies, Its real site appears to have been pretty near to the regular station, about a mile to the north of it, and is now the site of the Collegiate Church, and other buildings. "This (he immediately adds) is infinitely the propereft site in the vicinity of the town that can pretend to attract the notice of the enquiring antiquarians. This is absolutely the only site in the vicinity of the Itation that could pretend to attract the notice of the examining Romans.'
With respect to the number of troops kept up here, it is supposed by Horseley, that the Roman garrison in Britain, during the second, third, and fourth centuries, amounted only to three legions, the sixth Victorious, the twentieth Valerian and Victorious, and the second Augustan, and the auxiliaries regularly attendant upon thein. And with this supposition the History of Dio, the Geography of Prolemy, and the Itinerary of Antonine, seem all to concur, as they all mention there three and only these three legions to be resident in the island. This number of legions, as appears from the complement of a single legion during those centuries, which was 6100 foot and 726 horse, and from the stated proportion of the auxiliary to the legionary troops, which was equal in the infantry and double in the cavalry, must have contained about 36,600 foot and 6,534 horse.'--. But, thus considered, three legions and their auxiliaries are plainly insufficient for the purpo!es of garrifoning the island.' The stations mentioned in the Itineraries are not fewer than 140, but rather more, even after the Romans had retired to the valium of Antoninus, and had abandoned all the stations from Inverness to the Friths. But it would be evidently ridiculous to distribute a body of about 43,000 men into 140 principal stations, as such a distribution could allot only 307 for a station, and its attendant castellets ; --and each station is supposed to have had several such depen. dant upon it.
The garrison therefore of each station, with its castellets, could not, Mr. W. thinks, have been less than 400 effective men: and, even upon this disposition, the total amount would have been 56,000. But a much greater number probably refided in the kingdom, as, during the dispersion of the rest, some considerable bodies must have been kept together, the more effectually to overawe the conquered Britons within the walls, and the unconquered without. "And such bodies actually appear to have been thus kept together, one large corps
being quartered at York, another at Chester, and a third at Caerleon in Monmouthshire. This being the case, there must certainly have been more than three legions within the island' and the positive testimony of Josephus assures us, that in the reign of Vespasian there were four. The account of Richard, as well as several inscriptions that have been discovered, evince that there were more afterwards. Inscriptions have been found in Wales which clearly exhibited the name of the tenth legion; and to this we may add the seventh, or Claudian legion, which was settled at Gloucester, where it must have remained for a considerable period, as she town was denominated from it Claudioceftria. Thus are five legions discovered to have been resident within the iland; iwo additional to the number supposed by Horseley.
Chap. 7.— Regularly as the Romans extended their conquests in the island, they appear equally to have erected stations for themselves, and to have contructed cities for the Britons.' - By this means the progress of their arms was distinctly marked by the progress of cultivation, and the face of the country gradually brightened up, as the line of their conquests advanced.'- As the Romans prevailed, they carried along with them all the useful refinements of civil life. These they intro. duced, not with the godlike design of softening the rough genius of Lancashire, and of diffusing the sweets of social happiness among its inhabitants, but merely to promote the little purposes of their own selfish policy. That eternal wisdom however, which gave all the central regions of the globe to the Romans, and gave them for reasons worthy the great Father of Humanity, directed the low cunning of man to his own exalted ends, the higher cultivation of the rational powers, and the better propagation of the system of redeeming benevolence.'
Agricola subdued Lancashire in 79, and immediately ordered stationary forts to be erected. This was necessarily the first object of his attention :- The second had a deeper reach and more permanent consequences. Actuated by principles of policy, he exerted all his address to invite the Sistuntii from their original habitations amidst extenfive forests and marthes (where they might have kept up some kind of independency) to a common residence in towns; and his address prevailed. -Such was the first commencement of the present towns of Lancashire in general, and of Manchester in paruicular.
The rise of Manchetler is thus described : « The town was originally constructed, not as the old central parts of it are now planted, at the distance nearly of a mile from the Castle-field, but in the more immediate neighbourhood of the station. No tradition however ascertains the particular site. In the vicinity