to be wrong; and that, wherever the literal sense of any prophecy will stand in harmony with many others, without a contradiction to season, or impeaching the divine perfections, such explanations cught to be admitted as the true sense of them.' Upon this prin. ciple he proceeds to consider the subjects so particularly enumerated in the title-page. He agrees with some divines in supposing that there are prophecies, not yet accomplished, which, according to the more general belief of Christians, are already fulfilled; among which are the predictions of our Lord, commonly thought to regard the destruction of Jerusalem. The two witnesses, mentioned in the Apocalypse, concerning whom various conjectures have been formed, he concludes to be Elijah the prophet and John the evangelist; and the 1260 days of their prophesying, he understands to mean literally that length of time, or forty-two months of 30 days each. For as to imagining, with most commentators, that a day is put for a year, he thinks it introduces great difficulties, and is making myfteries where there are none. It is not requisite for us to take any farther notice of this performance, which, though it manifests that the anthor has applied himself, with some care, to discover what is intended by several mysterious parts of scripture, is yet hardly sufficient to afford any great and folid satisfaction concerning them to thinking and studious readers. .

MISCELLANEOUS : Art. 24. Considerations on the Causes of the present Stagnation of

Matrimony, under the following heads. I. The unreasonable Deo • gree of Influence and Authority which moft Parents exercise over

their Children in the Concern of Marsiage. II. The high and elegant Education that is given to young Women beyond the

Compass of their Fortunes and Stations in Life. III. The De• bauchery and Extravagance of young Men. IV. The general

luxurious and expensive Taste of the Times, 8vo. 1 s. 6 d.

Ridley. 1772. . The author has here given a sufficient view of the nature of his work. Under the first of the above mentioned heads, the principal evil which he laments is, that parents make wealth the chief confideration in the disposal of their children. Under the second, a deplorable and increasing grievance, he observes, “It is a common maxim with many parents, to give their daughters, what they falsely call, a Good Education, to make them annends for the want of fortune; which is just as rational, as it would be for them to administer bitters to whet their children's appetites, under the notion that a keen stomach will supply the want of food.' Under the third head, he sometimes seriously, and fometimes with a degree of hu. mour, reproves, and endeavours to expose, the extravagance of the present race of our young men. .

· The latter part of the pamphlet is designed to thew that the luxury and extravagance of the age is the banc of matrimony; • and the disorder, says the writer, hath run to fuch a height of malignity, that there is the greatest reason to think it must prove fatal, unless some empiric in politics should Atrike out a mechod of inoculating frue gality,' . ..

There There are many useful reflections in this publication ; but as the author has discovered his learning by a number of Latin, French, and Italian quotations, many of which he has not translated, we should apprehend, this would rather retard, than promote the tale of his work.

Hi. Art. 25. A Letter to John Hanbury, Esq; Member of Parliament

for the County of Monmouth. By Richard Edwards, Clerk, Vicar of Mamble, in the County of Worcester, and Çurace of Pont-y-pool. .410. I S. Swan. 177!.

Relates the affecting case of the writer, who seems, from the facts here stated, to have been reduced to the very brink of ruin, by the gentleman to whom the letter is addressed; and this, principally, in revenge of his having voted against Mr. H. at the last election for the county.-c is not for us, who have only heard one fide of this question, absolutely to pronounce on the merits of the case ; but we are afraid that there is much truth in the unfortunate Mr. Edwards's tale : at the same time that we would hope, no gentleman, of rank and fortune sufficient to entitle him to a seat in the British fenate, could be so far lost to common humanity, as to pursue, with malignant vengeance, a poor Clergyman, for having given his vote according to his conscience. And we may here, generally, observe, that He cannot be expected to be a very strenuous public assertor of the conftitution and liberties of his country, who pri. wately perfecutes his neighbour, for daring honestly to exercise those rights with which the laws of his country have invested him. I

*.* Mr. Edwards being, in the decline of life, and burthened with a family; deprived of a licele school, and certain curacies which he served, is reduced publicly to sollicit relief at the hand of charity, to keep him from starving in a jail. Art. 26. A Letter to Sir John Fielding, Knt. Illustrated with · the Portrait of a Monier. By Robert Holloway. 8vo. Is. 6 d.

Bladon. 1772.

The monster here pourtrayed, is one P , an attorney *, whom Mr. Holloway hath frequently celebrated in the news papers ; but here he gives the public a more ample detail of the exploits of his hero. Seriously, if P. is, indeed, such a monfier of wickedness as he is here described to be, we can fcarce think of a more dreadful misfortune happening to any society, than that such a wretch should exist among them. We have heard many shocking stories of the knaveries, perjuries, and robberies, committed by the rotten mem. bers of the law, but the crimes here alleged against one Practitioner feem so far to surpass every thing else of the kind, that (for the honour of the law, and; indeed, of human nature) we hope the man's guilt is greatly exaggerated in this narration : perhaps the Devil himself is not altogether fo black as he is painted. In this case, too, the painter may be prejudiced against the object before kim, as he tells us that he has himself been most vilely and auda. ciously robbed and plundered by this legal freebooter. -But thould it hereafter appear, that the picture drawn by Mr. H. is not overe charged with monstrosity, how alarming'is his farther intelligence,

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* An associate, as our author says, of the late notorious Bolland.


LI 3

that there are among us] five hundred P- s, at this dat, ia full vocation of their profeflion !'-If it be true that we are seal v exposed to the depredations of such a swarm of Weitminster Hail Locufts, Mr. H. may well add, as he does, this lively exclamation, • How wretched is the condition, how precarious the property and liberty of four-fifths of the nation!' But if the evil be grown to lo enormous an heighth, may we not hope, with our author, that it will soon become the object of' a parliamentary inquiry,' as vorbing less than parliamentary wisdom and power' will prove a iuficient ftiptic to stop the mischief.' Art. 27. The History of the Herculean Straits, now called the

Straits of Gibraltar : including those Ports of Spain and Barbary that lie contiguous thereto. Illustrated with several Copper. Plates. By Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas James, of the Royal Regiment of Artillery. 4to. 2 Vols. 21. 2 s. bound. Rivisz. ton, &c.

Colonel James having resided during several years in the garrisoa of Gibraltar, was naturally induced to engage in the inquiries which make the subje&t of the present work. · The mountains of Abila and Calpe, with the Herculean Straits, and the ancient cities of Gadira, Tingis, Ceuta, and Carteia, have considerable renown, as haring been connected with important events; and to form into a regular history the materials concerning them, which are fcattered in a mul. titude of books, was an undertaking, from which, if properly exo cuted, much real advantage might have accrued. But to draw facts, from a state of obscurity, in which they have long been involred, to reconcile circumfiances which seemed to be contradictory, and to ascertain what is doubtful, is a talk for which few are qualined. Our author, unfortunately, is not of this number; and his werk will conduce to nothing greatly beneficial, if its defects do not stimulate some person, of superior talents, to do justice to the topics which Col. James would illustrate.

This writer poffeffes, notwithstanding, some flore of learning, and that persevering industry which is lo necessary to those who engage in extensive researches. In other and more important qualifications he is deficient. He wants that vigour of mind, which leads to dife covery and manly investigation. The difficulties, which start up before him, sometimes confound and overwhelm him. In the selection of his facts, he discovers no choice or skill; and they perpetoally appear without precision. The reader sees them indillioctly. and without those circumstances and illustrations which ought to have accompanied them. Nor is he altogether free from credulity and superstition. He never penetrates into the principles and conduct of great operations; and he judges of statesmen and heroes by the standard of a rigid morality. Though he enters far into the wild field of history, he affords us no political instruction. The arrangement of his materials is aukward and unnatural ; his repetitions are frequent and disgusting; and his language, almost always careless, is frequently disgraced with foreign idioms and grammatical ime purities. ** The plates, however, which adorn and illustrate the present pabo lication, appear to be exact, and are well executed. 3

ell executed.

St. Arte

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Art. 28: An Affemblage of Coins, fabricated by Authority of the

Archbishop of Canterbury. All the metropolitical Coins, whether already published, or latent in private Cabinets, so far at least as

the Author's Correspondence extends, are here engraved in one • View, and illustrated with a proper Commentary. An Eray is

annexed, in which fome Account is given of the Origin, and the variable Fate and Fortune, and the final Determination of these interior and subordinate Mints; and something concerning the Nature and particular Circumstances of them, with other incidental Matters relative to the Subject, is occasionally noticed ; with Intention of throwing some Light on a Branch of the Science of Medals, both curious and copious, though but imperfectly considered by our Englith Medallids: To the whole are subjoined. two Differtations on similar Subjets, I. On a fine Coin of Ælfred the Great, with his Head, Il. On a famous Unic of the late Mr. Thoresby, supposed to be a Coin of St. Edwin, but shewn to be a Penny of Edward the Confeflor; wherein a Plan is laid down for re-engraving Sir Andrew Fountaine's Tables of the

Saxon Coins. By Samuel Pegge, M. A. 410. 7 s. 6 d. Boards. · Snelling. 1772. * This verbose title sufficiently explains the nature and intention of the present performance. In regard to its merit, we cannot express ourselves in the highest terms. It addresses itself to the mere antiquary, and reflects but a very feeble light on our history. It is, moreover, with little satisfaction, that we can contemplate the bulls and counterrances of men, who have come down to us, with the character of having been, in general, more solicitous about the grandeur of their own order, than the peace and emolument of society. · In investigating the origin of the prelatical and subordinate mints, our author attempts a subject that secms rather beyond his reach. It is abundantly clear, that the dignified clergy, as well as the nobility of the highest rank, exercised, in early times, the privilege of coining money ; and the foundation of this prerogative, in regard to the former, is to be found by attending partly to the influence of the feudal arrangements, and partly to that of religion. But of this our author does not appear to have had the most distant conception ; nor does he seem to have been aware, that an inquiry of this fort, is not calculated to do honour to our metropolitans. It would be an indifferent compliment, to point out to a class of men, whose profesion enjoins them to preach and to practise dirinterestedness and humility, the methods which conducted them to the higheft temporal advantages.

In treating of the · Fine Coin of Ælfred', and of the Famous Unic of the late Mr. Thorelby,' our author is more within the line of his studies and knowledge. But, on the whole, we cannot, with juftice to the public, fay much in commendation of any part of his present work. - See more of this author's productions, Rev. Vol. xiii. p. 462 *; and Vol. xxiv. p. 350 t.

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* A Series of Differtations on some elegant Anglo-Saxon Remains. + Memoirs of the Life of Roger de Weseham. st... L14


Art. 29. in Eljay on the present high Price of Provisions. By Jor

Wimpey. vo. IS, 1 d. Davies. 1772. " The delign of this Essay (to use the Author's own words) is to examine the liveral opin ons concerning the dearners of provifians, and the reasoning usud for their support. To distinguith and separate the causes which arc natural and unavoidable, and their effects therefore irrerediable, from those which are the effects of artioce and management, and therefore curable by the prudent interpoition of government. And, lastl, to endeavour to poin: out the moll probable means of paving the way to redress, at least in some measure, the evil complained of,' In examining the opinions of others, this Author aticn.pts to invalidate the account we formerly gave of an ar icie on this jub ect *; and feems to speak with fome degree of petulance of those, who by profeflion are the monthly arbitors of literari merit,' and with a kind of sneer to extol our dijcernment and giner: 179. The account we gare of that publication was an act or justice to the Author and to the public; and it is but jullice to ourselves to declare, that we find no reason, from any thing offer d b; Mr. W- , to retruct or to alter our opinion. And as he has bespoke our candour, we are glad of an opportunity of decla. ring: (we hope Mr. W will not consider it as any impeachment of our judgment or in partiality) that, though he is not one of the ablett writers on this subject, he has thrown out several hints and observations which defore the attention of the public. : Our Author has taken pains to inform limieif of several facts relaring to the dearness of provisions, which are worthy of notice, and which we with to fee under proper regulation. Though this com, plicated evil, in the production of which so many causes concur, cannot be entirely renioved, a prudent policy miglit be established, which would help to leton it, or at least to prevent is increase. We entirely agree with Mr W- in attributing the present enormous price of provisions, in a great measure, to the ' immoderate confumption of corn and hay, occalioned by the almoit infinite number of horses which are now kept for pleasure: a species of luxury as ruinous in its consequences to individuals, as pernicious in its effects to the community, and which, therefore, loudly calls for redress. A lai io subject the owners of such horses to a considerable tax, would, perhaps, be one of the moft falutary kind. The quantity of hay and corn used for this purpose would rear and farten an incredible number of catile, and could not fail of greatly reducing the price of butcher's meat, pork, and bacon. Belide, it would operate mot beneficially in rcipect to thousands, by reitraining them from an exponce, which is not only unrecessary, but which is by no means suited to their circumitance and income. Fashion and example are greatly an overmatch for reason and economy, and 'tis not the least among the acts of human policy, for a late to conllrain its subjects, by prudential laws, 10 act more wisely, and be happier than they would if left to carve for themselves. And it all our taxes were levied with this view, as far as the nature and fitness of things would

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• See Monthly Review for March, 1772, Art. 3a..


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