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creeds; and, in the next place, the acquisition of languages would lay too generally open, a book, from which they pretended to draw doctrines it immediately opposed, and which they had abused to the vileft of purposes. "
Their apprehenfions were not groundless. Soon after the middle of the thirteenth century, that book was laid open, and the minds of men began to open with it. The parliament called upon Richard the Second to revoke the power he had given to the bishops for the arbitrary punishment of heretics; and it was revoked accordingly.
Unfortunately, however, for the cause of religious liberty, the successor of Richard supported the tyranny of the eccieli. astics. Not that he was a bigot. Religion was indifferent to him ; but he was poor, and they were rich. Thus poverty, instead of promoting, as the Author under our notice afferts, in this case, prevented the reformation
Of this poverty the popish clergy availed themselves, and by supplying the king's pecuniary wants, which were frequent and pressing, they purchased his authority. The manner in which they made use of it was agreeable to the rancour of their hearts. When the understandings of men were opened against them, they attacked their fears; and those who profeiledly, or even suspectedly, differed from them in religious sentiments, they burned alive. ; Still, however, as learning was diffused, the seeds of religiQus reformation were scattered along with it: the doctrines of Wickliff had many secret abettors, and the parliament, as it grew more enlightened, held the clergy in such detestation, that the latter prevailed with Henry, when he issued his proclamation for a new parliament, to recommend it to the people to chuse such representatives as were UNLEARNED.
But the enmity of the parliament against the clergy, however reasonable in itself, was conducted with ill policy. The king was constantly applying to the former for money, and they as constantly petitioned him to supply himself from the immense revenues of the church. The ecclesiastics, on the other hand, arifully prevented his requisitions by contributions which they could easily spare. Thus, while the parliament supposed that they were weakening the power of the clergy, by lessening their wealth, they were, in reality, strengthening it, by selling the royal authority. The progress of religious reformation was thereby necessarily delayed, and those who favoured the principles of Wickliff, favoured them always at the hazard, frequently with the forfeiture, of life.
The above-mentioned prince, equally inattentive to the rights of humanity, and to the sufferings of his people, indifferent, indeed, to every interest but the establishment or extension of Nn4
his own power, left a son and successor of a disposition more · favourable to the privileges of mankind.
Henry the Fifth had a heart. —He was fusceptible of friendThip, compassion, and general huinanity. His sentiments were liberal. Unembarrassed by superstition, unlimited by bigotry; his understanding, perhaps, owed something to the early licentiousness of his life; and, possibly, the world had less' to fear from such a tutor as Piers Gaveston, than from an Arundel, or a Chichely.
Be that as it mav, it is certain, that the accession of a prince · with affections friendly to human nature, warm and unimpaired by any long experience of the ingratitude of men, a prince who had been so litile trained in the school of superstition,
-not nurs'd in creeds, Nor sung to rest with vespersIt is obvious that the accession of such a prince was by no means promising to the interests of religious tyranny.
The churchmen were aware of this, and while their claim on the royal authority seemed yet unexpired, they made an early application to the young monarch to destroy the followers of Wickliff, and particularly Sir John Oldcastle, one of their principal leaders. Their applications were long dir. regarded. The monarch was too liberal to destroy men for their opinion. At length they had recourse to artifice. They knew his prevailing passion was ambition. They reminded him of his title to the crown of France, and offered him fup. plies to recover it. But this, though it would weigh powerfully with Henry, would probably have been insufficient io' make him sacrifice his humanity, had they not, at the fame time, found means to persuade him, that the innocent reformer's had treasonable designs upon his person and government. The papists succeeded, and the nation blushed with the blood of some of its best and noblest subjects. That blood, however, nourished the seeds of religious liberty, and they afterwards grew into a fair harvest. :
From this view of the origin, state, and first principles of the reformation in this kingdom, ihe falsity of the aflertion, that it had its rise from poverty, will be sufficiently obvious. * We shall now proceed to another stage of the alphabet with this marauding Author, who, like a certain animal, has the qualities of being at once mischievous and entertaining.
CRIMES. . ! A Roman, in Egypt, had the misfortune to kill a con. secrated cat, and the people, enraged at the impiety, tore the Roman to pieces. Had this Roman been brought to a fair trial, and had his judges been blessed with common sense, hey would have sentenced him to ask pardon of the Gypsies
and the cats, and to pay a considerable fine either in money or in mice. They would have told him that it was necessary to respect the follies of a people which he had not power to correct.
• The chief justice would probably have addressed him thys - Every country has its legal follies, and delinquencies thac are so constituted and denominated mercly from time and place, If, in your city of Rome, which is now mistress of Europe, Africa, and Alia Minor, one should kill a pullet that had been consecrated when her grain was given her to know precisely the will of the Gods *, the severest punilhments would be the consequence. We believe you killed our cat from want of knowing her quality and importance. You have the repre. hension of the court. Go in peace, and be more circumfpect for the future.”
"It is certainly a matter of indifference whether a man has a statue in his area or not, yet, when Augustus was master of the world, if a Roman had erected a statue of Brutus in his garden, he would have been punished for fedition. The Author of these remarks has here the voice of antiquity against him, with respect to Augustus Cæsar's disposition to the memory of Brutus. "A ftatue f of brass had been erected to the latter at Milan, in Gallia Cisalpina, which was a fine performance, and a striking likeness. Cæsar, as he passed through the town, took notice of it, and, summoning the magistrates, in the presence of his attendants, he told them they had broken the league by harbouring one of his enemies. "The magistrates, as may well be supposed, denied this, and stared at each other, profoundly ignorant what enemy he could mean. He then turned towards the statue, and, knitting his brows, said, “ Is not this my enemy?” The poor Milanese were dumb with astonishment; but CÆSAR told them, with a smile, that he was pleased to find them faithful to their friends in adversity : and ordered that the flatue pould continue where it was.' .. Under the article of Crimes, deriving different complexions from difference of time, place and circumstance, an offence against our Lady of Loretto is mentioned, with all the horrible circumstances attending it.
"It is well known what respect is necessary to be paid to our Lady of Loretto, by those who travel through the Marche ofAncona. Three young men go thither, make themselves merry at the expence of our good Lady, who took a journey through the air, baited a while in Dalmatia, and changed her situation three or four times before the found that the air of the Adriatic
• Vide Langhorne's Plutarch, vol. v. p. 210.
mely house league farthered
to have their demned,
would best agree with her. Our young bloods, after suppe, sing a catch, written by some heathenish Hugonot, against the removal of the holy house from Jerusalem to the Gulf of Ve. nice. A fanatic hears of this, makes diligent inquiry, produces witnesses, and procures warrants. There warrants alarm the people. Every one of them is afraid of speaking. Common criers, alehouse-keepers, footmen, serving.maids, have heard what was never said, and seen what was never done. All is confusion, all dreadful scandal through the Marche of Ancona. About half a league from Loretto, it is reported, that these three boys have killed our Lady. A league farther, it is allerted, that they threw the holy house into the sea. In the end they are condemned, --- first to have their hands cut off, then to have their tongues torn out, after this to be tortured till they should confess, by signs at least, how many ftanzas the catch consisted of, and last of all to be burnt in a slow fire.
An advocate of Milan happening to be at Loretto at this time, asks the chief magistrate what crime these boys had been guilty of that they were capitally condemned -asks him if they had violated their mother, and afterwards cut her throat and eat her. Oh, no! says the judge, to assassinate and eat one's father or mother is an offence against man only. This is quite a different affair,
CROMWELL. « Oliver Cromwell was regarded with admiration by the Puritans and Independents of his time. He was their heroe, but his son Richard is mine. The father was a fanatic, who would now be hissed in the house of commons for pronouncing half a sentence of that unintelligible jargon, which he vented among his fanatic brethren, while they heard him with gaping mouths, and eyes turned up to heaven at the name of the Lord. If he were now living, and should say, “ We must seek the Lord, we must fight the Lord's battles," if, to the disgrace of human reason, he should introduce this Jewish jargon into the parliament of Great Britain, he would be thought more fit for the society of Bedlam, than for the command of an army.
Undoubtedly he was brave-and so are wolves. There are apes too that are as furious as tygers. Of a fanatic he became an adroit politician, that is to say, the wolf was metamorphosed into a fox. By his knavery he rose to the first ranks that the outragious enthusiasm of the times could give bim. He rose to the pinnacle of grandeur, and, like a thorough-paced villain, trod on the necks of the fanatic wretches who had raised him. He reigned, 'tis true, but he lived in discontent and horror. His days were uncaly, and his nights without reit. He was a stranger to the confolations of friendship and society. His death was untimely, and certainly more justly so than that of the monarch he brought to the scaffold.
biors È Richard Cromwell, on the contrary, born with an humble, Hugot but sensible mind, refused to keep his father's crown * at the 10: expence of the lives of three or four factious subjects, which ont i he might easily have sacrificed to his ambition. He chose rather was to retire to a private station than to be the most powerful aflala per fin, He rejected, without regret, the protectorate, to live like
: a common citizen. Happy and easy in the country, he enjoyed is a good state of health, and possessed his soul in peace for the Vant fpace of ninety years, the friend and protector of his neighrewnbours.--Let the reader determine which condition he would
chuse, that of the unquiet father, or that of the peaceable be ia : son,
THE COUNTRY RECTOR. This is a dialogue between Ariftus and Theotimus, the latter e of whom was going to take possession of his living in the
country. The dialogue (for this Author has written so much, that he frequently re-writes from himself) appeared some years ago in the Dillionaire Philofophique ; however, there is so much good sense and humanity in it, that it merits the most extensive
cu: si circulation.
Arifius. So, my friend, you are going to take possession of
your living in the country, Logo : Theotimus, I am: I have got a little parish, and I like it
better than a large one. I have but a small portion of knowledge and industry. I could not poffibly take care of seventy thousand fouls, as I have myself no more than one. A great flock would make me afraid ; I may possibly do some good to a small one.
I know enough of jurisprudence to prevent, as far as in me Ik lies, my poor parishioners from ruining themselves by law-suits. ,I understand enough of agriculture to give them useful advice. dh". The Lord of the manor and his Lady are good people, without [10% superstition, and will aflikt me in doing good. I Aatter myself thes that I shall be very happy, and that I shall see no body unhapDoa py about me. -122 Arist. But does not the want of a wife give you some uneasia E ness? Such a companion would certainly make your life more
comfortable. You would find it very agreeable after having
preached, chanted, confessed, communicated, baptized, inBannel terred, visited the sick, reconciled the disputes of your pari. che c hioners, and spent the day in their service, to meet at home a Bobbi tender and amiable woman, who would take care of your linen comm and your person, who would enliven you in health, nurse
you in sickness, and bless you with fine children, whom you Services might bring up to be useful members of society. It is a pity Feeds that you who are in the service of mankind should be deprived
ng of a comfort lo necessary to man. 2:30 : So our Author expresses himself.