of the valu of the aforesaid crowns. That is to say, fifty thousand to the then emperor or king of the Romans; to the king of France fifty thousand; and to each of the said dukes the like sum;-the whole to be levied on the lands and moveables of the said Liegeois, by seizure of their goods and bodies wherever they may be. They are likewise to signify their consent, that should obstacles be thrown in the way by any of the said towns to prevent the articles of the said treaty from being carried into effect, the bishop of Liege, and the archbishop of Cologne for the time being, shall be the arbitrators between such towns,—and their decision shall be final. “When a legal pope shall be elected, and his authority over the whole church of God be acknowledged, then such as make opposition to the execution of the above treaty shall be laid under an interdict, which shall not be taken off, until sufficient reparation be made, and the aforesaid pecuniary forfeitures be paid. Should any of the towns, or their inhabitants, offer any insult, in contradiction to the above treaty, to either of the said dukes or their successors, the bishop of Liege, or his vicar in his absence, the chapter and citizens shall be required to constrain the offenders to make full reparation within one month from the time of complaint being made. And should such reparation not be made within the month, as aforesaid, after the summons to that effect has been delivered, the country shall be liable to the same fines as before mentioned. “The dukes of Burgundy and of Holland order, that all these articles be fairly engrossed, and then sealed with their seals, and then given to the lord bishop of Liege, or to his chapter, with a copy for the city of Liege and one for each principal town. In return, the bishop and the towns shall give to the dukes aforesaid, letters signed with their great seals acknowledging the receipt of the above treaty, and promising obedience to all the articles of it, and binding themselves to the fines therein mentioned. “As many noble persons and others, as well secular as ecclesiastic, have presented many petitions to complain of the great losses they have suffered during the late rebellion, and specifying their particular grievances, the dukes aforesaid, not having had time to examine them with the attention they deserve, will have them examined with all possible speed, and will attend to each of them.” The whole of the above, having been written out fair, was, by the command of the two dukes aforesaid, publicly proclaimed in the great hall at Lille, and in their presence, the 24th day of October, in the year 1408.


DuriNg the expedition of the duke of Burgundy against the Liegeois, a great many of the principal lords were, by the king's orders, assembled at Paris. Among them were, Louis king of Sicily, Charles king of Navarre, the duke of Brittany, the duke of Bourbon, and several others, the greater part of whom were friendly to the duchess-dowager of Orleans and her children in their prosecution of the duke of Burgundy. Many councils were held as to the manner in which the king should proceed against the duke of Burgundy, who was the principal actor in this murder, as has been before explained. It was at length determined in these councils, that a most rigorous prosecution, in conformity to the laws, should be carried on against him; and should he refuse to obey, the king, with all his subjects and vassals, should march, with as great a force as could be raised, against him, to bring him and his abettors to due obedience. At the same time, at the solicitations of the duchess of Orleans and her children, the king annulled all his letters of pardon which he had formerly granted to the duke of Burgundy, and declared them of no weight, in the presence of the queen, the duke of Aquitaine, the princes of the blood, and the whole of the council. The duchess demanded and obtained letters, confirming this renunciation of the pardon; after which, she and her daughter-in-law, wife to the young duke of Orleans, left Paris, and returned to Blois.

Not long after this, news came to Paris of the great victory which the duke of Burgundy had gained over the Liegeois. This was confirmed by the return of the king's ambassadors, sir Guichard Daulphin and sir William de Tignonville, who, as has been related, were present at the battle, and gave to the king, and the lords then in Paris, a most circumstantial account of it. On hearing this, several who had been most violent against the duke of Burgundy, now hung their heads, and began to be of a contrary opinion to what they had before held, fearing the steadiness, boldness, and power of the duke, who was said to have a mind equal to the support of any misfortunes that should happen to him, and which would encourage him to oppose and conquer all attempts of his adversaries. In short, all the measures that had been adopted against him were dropped, and the men-at-arms were ordered to return to the places whence they had come.

Ambassadors had arrived from England to treat of a peace, or a truce for one year, between the kings of England and of France; which having obtained, they set out on their return, through Amiens and Boulogne, to Calais. On the road, they heard of the grand victory of the duke of Burgundy, which surprised them very much, and they gave him the surname of “Jean sans peur.” The duke of Burgundy was very active in attaching to his party noblemen and warriors from all countries, to strengthen himself against his enemies, of whom he was given to understand that he had many. IIe held on this subject several consultations with his two brothers and brothers-in-law, namely, duke William of Holland and John of Bavaria, to which were admitted his most trusty friends; and they deliberated long on the

manner in which he should now carry himself. It was at length finally concluded, that he

should openly oppose all, excepting the king of France and the duke of Aquitaine; and those present promised him aid and support with all the power of their vassals, on these terms.


The king of France left Paris, accompanied by the kings of Sicily and Navarre, the queen, the duke of Aquitaine, the dukes of Berry and Bourbon, who, with others of the blood-royal, conducted him, under the escort of a large body of men-at-arms, to Tours in Touraine, as his place of residence,—to the great displeasure of the inhabitants of Paris, who were so much troubled thereat that they barricadoed the streets with chains. They hastily sent to inform the duke of Burgundy, at Lille, of the king's departure, giving him to understand that the greater part of those who had carried him away from Paris were not well inclined towards him. This intelligence was not very agreeable to the duke, for he suspected that the king had only been conducted to Tours that his enemies might carry their measures against him

more securely; for the lords who had the government knew well that the Parisians loved

the duke of Burgundy, and would not that any other should have the government of the kingdom; believing, from the hints he had thrown out, that when in power he would abolish all gabelles, and other taxes which oppressed the people.

The duke of Burgundy first consulted the dukes of Brabant and of Holland, and other

steady friends; and then remanded his men-at-arms from Burgundy, who were on their march to their own country from Liege, and assembled another body from various parts. He advanced to Roye, in the Vermandois, where he mustered his men, and then marched them toward Paris. He quartered himself, on the 23d day of November, in the town of St. Denis, and his forces in the adjacent country. On the morrow, as he was advancing with his menat-arms in array toward Paris, two thousand or more combatants sallied out thence, and conducted him, with every mark of honour, to his hôtel of Artois. Many of the Parisians sung carols in the squares, although all rejoicings had been strictly forbidden on his arrival, to avoid increasing the envy of the princes of the blood. Some of the king's servants said to those who were singing carols, “You may otherwise show your joy for his arrival, but you ought not thus to sing.” Notwithstanding this, all the principal citizens, and those in authority, showed him as much honour and respect as if he had been king himself. WOL. I. K

A few days afterwards, duke William, count of Hainault, arrived at Paris, well accompanied by unarmed men ; and, at the request of the duke of Burgundy, set out for Tours, attended by the lords de Croy, de St. George, de la Viefville, d'Olhaz, and others of the council of the duke, to negotiate his peace with the king, and the lords who had carried him from Paris. The count of Hainault was most honourably received at Tours by the king, the queen, and the other great lords; for the marriage had taken place between John duke of Touraine, second son to the king, and the daughter of the duke of Burgundy: he was also nearly related to the queen.

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On the conclusion of the feasts made on his arrival, the count of Hainault, and those who had accompanied him, opened, in full council, the business of their mission, namely, to make peace for the duke of Burgundy. After many discussions, it was resolved, that the king should send certain persons, selected by him, to hold a conference with the duke of Burgundy at Paris, and point out to him the means of his regaining the good graces of the king. Duke Louis of Bavaria, brother to the queen, Montagu, grand master of the king's household, and other experienced counsellors, were nominated for this purpose; and they returned with the count de Hamault to Paris, when what had passed was told to the duke of Burgundy. As all the circumstances of this treaty were not agreeable to the duke, and as he had many suspicions respecting Montagu, he was not disposed to receive the negotiators in the way they were sent to him. He even personally made many reproaches to Montagu, who bore them patiently, excusing himself for anything that had passed. The treaty, however, having been altered and corrected, was sent back to the king at Tours, and in the end agreed to in Me manner you shall hear.

While these negotiations were going forward, and before their conclusion, the duchesa. dowager of Orleans", daughter to Galeazzo, duke of Milan, died in the town of Blois, broken-hearted at not having been able to obtain justice from the king and council against the duke of Burgundy for the murder of her late lord and husband, Louis duke of Orleans. The duke of Burgundy was much rejoiced at this event, for the duchess had bitterly carried on her prosecution against him. Her heart was buried at Paris, near that of her husband, and her body in the church of the canons at Blois. After her death, Charles, her eldest son, was duke of Orleans and of Valois, count of Blois and of Beaumont, lord of Coni and of Ast,


Charles Duke of ORLEANs.-From a MS. illumination engraved in Montfaucon, Wol. III.

with many other lordships:—Philip, the second son, was count of Vertus, and John, the youngest, was named count of Angoulême. These three brothers, and one sister, thus became orphans, but they had been very well educated; yet, by the deaths of the duke and duchess of Orleans, they were much weakened in support and advice,—and several of the king's ministers were not so zealous to prosecute the duke of Burgundy as they had been. This was very apparent in the negotiations which took place some little time after the death of the duchess, between the duke of Burgundy and the children of Orleans; for although the treaty sent by the king was not wholly to the liking of the duke, as has been said, yet it was so corrected that the parties accepted of it in the following terms:

could not obliterate the affection she had borne for him,

not even when he publicly took pride in them, causing his death by a vain unfounded boast, that even the duchess of

* This unfortunate princess, who was subjected to so much obloquy from vulgar prejudices, was one of the most amiable women of her time. She was loudly accused of

having practised arts learnt in Italy, where the preparation of poison was best understood, and its use most frequently practised, for the destruction of the king. Witchcraft was also imputed to her, but the only arts she practised were the spells of a gentle and affectionate disposition. Whilst her husband, the duke of Orleans, was occupied in gallantries with Queen Isabella, his gentle wife was soothingt he paroxysms of the afflicted king, who, in such cases, could only be calmed by her voice. He was accustomed to call her his dear sister, sa sarur cherie, and was never casy when away from her presence. Her husband's infidelities

Burgundy had smiled on him, a boast never forgiven by the duke. Disappointed of the justice she sought, her heart failed her at last; but, on her death-bed, she called around her her children, and exhorted them never to cease their pursuit of their father's murderer. Dunois, the bastard of Orleans, accompanied them,-a striking proof of the duchess's constant love, since she included her husband's illegitimate child in her affections. He answered her appeal more warmly than the rest, upon which she touchingly exclaimed, “Alas! they robbed me; he ought to have been my son."—FD.


First, it was ordered by the king and his great council, that the duke of Burgundy should depart from Paris with his men-at-arms, and return to his own country, where he was to remain until a certain day, namely, the first Wednesday in February, when he was to meet the king at the town of Chartres, accompanied only by one hundred gentlemen-at-arms, and the children of Orleans with fifty. It was also ordered, that duke William, count of Hainault, should have under his command four hundred of the king's men-at-arms, to preserve the peace. It was also ordered, that the duke of Burgundy, when he appeared before the king, should be attended by one of his council, who should repeat the words he was to say; and the duke, in confirmation of them, was to add, “We will and agree that it should be thus.” Afterward, according to the tenor of the treaty, the king was to say to the duke of Burgundy, “We will, that the count de Vertus, our nephew, have one of your daughters in marriage.” The duke was by this treaty to assign over to his daughter three thousand livres parisis yearly, and give her one hundred and fifty thousand golden francs. When this treaty had been concluded, duke William set out from Paris for Hainault; and shortly after, the duke of Burgundy disbanded his men-at-arms, and left Paris to go to Lille, whither he had summoned the duke of Brabant his brother, duke William and the bishop of Liege, his brothers-in-law, and many other great lords. At this period, there was a great quarrel between the duke of Brabant and duke William. It was caused by the father of duke William having borrowed in former times from the late duchess of Brabant one hundred and fifty thousand florins to carry on a war against some of his rebellious subjects in Holland, which sum the duke of Brabant had claimed as belonging to him. He had in consequence, by the advice of his Brabanters, taken possession of a castle called Huesden", situated between Brabant and Holland. The duke of Burgundy took great pains to make up the quarrel between these two princes, that they might the more effectually assist him in his plans, which were very extensive. After this business had been settled, and the parties had separated, duke William assembled in IIainault, according to the king of France's orders, four hundred men-at-arms and as many archers. The principal lords among them were, the counts de Namur, de Conversant, and de Salme. The duke of Burgundy, conformably to the treaty, set out, the day after Ash-Wednesday, attended by his son-in-law the count de Penthievret, and lay at Bapaume. Thence he went to Paris, with duke William, the above-named lords, the count de St. Pol, the count de Vaudemontf, and several others of the nobility. On Saturday, the 2d day of March, they arrived all together at the town of Gallardon, four leagues distant from Chartres. The Wednesday following, duke William of Holland advanced with his body of forces to Chartres, where the king then was. On the ensuing Saturday, the duke of Burgundy set out from Gallardon, to wait on the king, escorted by six hundred men-at-arms; but when he approached Chartres, he dismissed them all, excepting one hundred light horsemen, in compliance with the treaty, and thus entered Chartres about ten o'clock in the morning, riding straight to the church as far as the cloisters of the canons, where he was lodged. At this same time, the duke of Orleans, in company with his brother the count de Vertus, and, according to the treaty, attended by only fifty men-at-arms, entered the church of our Lady at Chartres, with the king their uncle, the queen, the duke of Acquitaine, and several princes of the blood. That the king and lords might not be pressed upon by the spectators, and that all might plainly see the ceremony, a scaffolding was erected in the church, on which the king was seated near the crucifix. Round him were placed the queen, the dauphin and dauphiness, daughter to the duke of Burgundy, the kings of Sicily and Navarre, the dukes of Berry and Bourbon; the cardinal de Bar, the marquis du Pont his brother, the archbishop of Sens, and the bishop of Chartres, with other counts, prelates, and the family of Orleans, were behind the king. At the entrance of the church, by the king's orders, were a body of men-at-arms drawn up in battle-array. It was not long before the duke of Burgundy entered the church, and on his advancing toward the king, all the lords, excepting the king, queen, and dauphin, rose up from their seats. The duke, on his approach to the king, kneeled down with his advocate the lord

* Heusden,_a town between Gorcum and Bois-le- f Oliver, count of Penthievre. mentioned before. “ Jhuc. : I'rederic, or Ferry, count of Vaudemont.

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