d'Ollehaing, who repeated to the king the following words:–“Sire, behold here my lord of Burgundy, your subject and cousin, who is thus come before you, because he has heard you are angry with him, for the action he has committed against the person of the late duke of Orleans your brother, for the good of yourself and your kingdom, - the truth of which he is ready to declare and prove to you, whenever you shall please. My lord, therefore, entreats of you, in the most humble manner possible, that you would be pleased to withdraw from him your anger, and restore him to your good graces.” When the lord d'Ollehaing had said this, the duke of Burgundy himself addressed the king, saying, “Sire, I entreat this of you:”—when instantly the duke of Berry, seeing the king made no reply, bade the duke of Burgundy retire some paces behind,-which being done, the duke of Berry, kneeling before the king, said something to him in a low voice,—and immediately the dauphin, the kings of Sicily and Navarre, with the duke of Berry, knelt down to the king and said, “Sire, we supplicate that you would be pleased to listen to the prayer of your cousin the duke of Burgundy.” The king answered them, “We will that it be so-and we grant it from our love to you.” The duke of Burgundy then approached the king, who said to him, “Fair cousin, we grant your request, and pardon you fully for what you have done.” After this, he advanced, with the lord d'Ollehaing, toward the children of Orleans, who, as I have said, were behind the king, weeping much. The lord d'Ollehaing addressed them, saying, “My lords, behold the duke of Burgundy, who entreats of you to withdraw from your hearts whatever hatred or revenge you may harbour within them, for the act perpetrated against the person of my lord of Orleans, your father, and that henceforward ye may remain good friends.” The duke of Burgundy then added, “And I beg this of you.” No answer being made, the king commanded them to accede to the request of his fair cousin the duke of Burgundy. Upon which they replied, “Sire, since you are pleased to command us, we grant him his request, and shall extinguish all the hatred we bore him; for we should be sorry to disobey you in anything that may give you pleasure.” The cardinal de Bar then, by the king's orders, brought an open Bible, on which the two parties, namely, the two sons of the late duke of Orleans and the duke of Burgundy, swore on the holy evangelists, touching them with their hands, that they would mutually preserve a firm peace towards each other, without any open or secret attempts contrary to the full meaning of their oaths. When this was done, the king said, “We will that henceforth ye be good friends; and I most strictly enjoin, that neither of you attempt anything to the loss or hurt of the other, nor against any persons who are attached to you, or who may have given you advice or assistance; and that you show no hatred against any one on this occasion, under pain of offending against our royal authority,+excepting, however, those who actually committed this murder, who shall be for ever banished our kingdom.” After this speech of the king, these princes again swore they would faithfully abide by their treaty. The duke of Burgundy then advanced to salute the wife of the dauphin, the duke of Acquitaine; and about an hour after this ceremony had taken place, the duke took his seave of the king, queen, and the lords present, and set out from Chartres for Gallardon, where he dined. Many who were there were very much rejoiced that matters had gone off so well; but others were displeased, and murmured, saying, that henceforward it would be no great offence to murder a prince of the blood, since those who had done so were so easily acquitted, without making any reparation, or even begging pardon. The duke of Orleans and his brother shortly after took leave of the king, queen, dauphin, and the lords of the court, and returned, with their attendants, to Blois, whence they had come, not well satisfied, any more than their council, with the peace that had been made. The marquis du Pont, son to the duke of Bar, and cousin to the duke of Burgundy, who before this day was not beloved by him, on account of the murder of the duke of Orleans, followed him to Gallardon, where they dined publicly together in great friendship and concord. About two o'clock in the afternoon, duke William, the count de St. Pol, and other great lords, visited the duke of Burgundy at his lodgings in Gallardon, and then returned together toward Paris. The king, the queen, the dauphin, and the other kings, princes, and cardinals, arrived at Paris on Mid-Lent Sunday; and the dukes of Burgundy and of Holland, with the cardinal de Bordeaux, who was at that time in Paris, on his way to the council of Pisa, went out to meet them, followed by upwards of two hundred thousand Parisians of both sexes, eager to receive the king, singing carols, as he entered the gates, and conducting him with great rejoicings to his palace. They were very happy that the king was returned to Paris, and also that a peace had been concluded respecting the death of the late duke of Orleans. They attributed the whole to the great mercy of God, who had permitted that such strong symptoms of a civil war should be so readily extinguished; but they did not foresee or consider the consequences that ensued. The greater part of the Parisians were obstinately attached to the duke of Burgundy, through the hope that by his means all the most oppressive taxes would be abolished; but they did not see clearly all the mischiefs that afterward befel the kingdom and themselves, for in a very short time, as you shall hear, a most cruel contention broke out between the families of Orleans and Burgundy.


In this year died the queen of Spain", sister to Henry king of England, and mother to the young king of Spain and queen of Portugal. The Spaniards after her death sent home all the English servants, male and female, belonging to the late queen, who returned to England in much grief and sorrow at heart.

At this same season, great numbers of prelates, archbishops, bishops, and abbots, set out from various countries of Christendom to attend the council at Pisa which was assembling to restore union to the church, which had for a long time suffered a schism, to the great displeasure of many princes and well-inclined persons.

About this same period, Henry't king of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, took to wife the daughter of Henry king of England. These kingdoms were put into the hands of the king of Denmark by their queen, who divested herself of all power and profit over them in favour of king Henry.

AMé DE virty, A SAVOYARD, WITH THE DUKE of Bourbox
[A.D. 1409.]

At the beginning of this year, Charles king of France was much oppressed with his usual disorder. On this account, when the kings of Navarre and Sicily, and the duke of Berry, had properly provided, in conjunction with the duke of Burgundy, for the state of the king, and the government of the realm, they went to visit their own territories. In like manner, the duke of Burgundy went to the marriage of his brother Philip count of Nevers, who took to wife the damsel of Coucy, daughter to sir Enguerrand de Coucy f, formerly lord and count of Soissons, and niece by the mother's side to the duke of Lorrain and to the count de Vaudemont; which marriage was celebrated in the town of Soissons. This ceremony was performed on Saint George's day, and the feasts and entertainments lasted for three days afterward. There were present the duchess of Lorrain § and the countess of Vaudemonts, who had come expressly thither to do honour to the lady of Coucy and her daughter. When these feasts were over, the duke of Burgundy, attended by his son-in-law the count de Penthievre, set out for Burgundy; and shortly after, the count de Nevers conducted his wife, and the duchess of Lorraine and the countess of Vaudemont, to his county of Rethel, where she was received with every token of joy. During this time, the duke of Bourbon was challenged by Amé de Viry, a Savoyard, and a poor blade in comparison with the duke of Bourbon; nevertheless, he committed much damage by fire and sword in the countries of Bresse and Beaujolois. The duke was very indignant at this, and assembled a large body of men-at-arms and archers to punish and conquer him. He ordered his son, the count de Clermont, to lead on the van, and he speedily followed in person. In his company were the counts de la Marche and de Vendôme, the lord d'Albret, constable of France, Louis de Baviere, brother to the queen, Montagu, grand master of the king's household, the lord de la Heuse and many more great lords, who advanced with a numerous body of men to the county of Beaujolois. Amé de Viry was informed of the great force which the duke of Bourbon was marching against him, and dared not wait his arrival; for he had not strength enough to garrison the forts he had taken. On his retreat, he marched to a town called Bourg-en-Bresse, which belonged to the earl of Savoy, his lord. The earl, however, would not support him against his great uncle, the duke of Bourbon, but gave him up, on condition that Amé should make every amends in his power for the mischiefs he had done, and should surrender himself to one of the prisons of the duke, until he should have completely made him satisfaction, but that no harm of any sort should be done to his person. The duke of Bourbon gladly received him, and thanked his nephew for his friendship.–This caused a quarrel of some standing to be made up ; for the earl of Savoy had declared his great uncle owed him homage for his lands of Beaujolois, which he would not pay,+but now the dispute was mutually referred by them to the duke of Berry. When these matters were concluded, the duke of Bourbon returned to France, and disbanded his forces. Some time after, by means which Viry made use of with the duke, he obtained his liberty. Waleran count de St. Pol intended being of this expedition with the duke of Bourbon, and raised a large force; but on marching near Paris, he was ordered not to proceed further, and to return to the frontiers of the Boulonois, where he had been specially commissioned by the king.

* Catherine of Lancaster, wife of Henry III. and mother of John II. kings of Castile. I do not find a queen of Portugal in the catalogue of her children; but this event seems to be here strangely misplaced. Turquet says, “L’an suyvant, 1418, décéda la royne D. Catherine, agée de cinquante ans, de mort soudaine, et füt enterrée à Tolede, en la chapelle des roys derniers.”

+ Eric X. king of Denmark, &c., son of Wratislaus, duke of Pomerania, by Mary of Mecklenburg, niece to

Margaret, the Semiramis of the North, married Philippa,
daughter to king Henry of England, by Eleanora his second
wife. His great aunt Margaret was still alive.
# See ante, p. 16.
§ Margaret of Bavaria, sister to the emperor Robert,
married Charles the bold, duke of Lorrain.
| Margaret, heiress of Vaudemont, married Frederick
brother of Charles duke of Lorrain.


ABout Ascension-day, the king of France, who had been grievously ill, was restored to health, and in consequence, the dukes of Berry, Burgundy, and Bourbon, with many other lords, instantly returned to Paris. Two combats were ordained to be fought in the square behind St. Martin des Champs, in the presence of the king and the aforesaid lords. One was between a Breton knight, called sir William Batailler, and an Englishman named sir John Carmien, for a breach of faith.

When they were met, and Montjoye king-at-arms had proclaimed their challenges and the causes of them, in the accustomed manner, he bade them do their duty. Sir William, who was the appellant, issued first out of his pavilion, and marched proudly toward his adversary, who was advancing to meet him. They threw their lances without effect, and then made use of their swords: but in this last combat the Englishman was slightly wounded below his armour, when the king instantly put an end to the fight. They were both very honourably led out of the lists, and conducted to their lodgings.

The other combat was between the seneschal of Hainault and sir John Cornwall, an English knight of great renown, and who had married a sister to the king of England *. This combat was undertaken by the two knights at the desire of the duke of Burgundy, when at Lille, to show their prowess in running a few courses with the lance and giving some strokes with the battle-axe: but when the duke had caused the lists to be prepared, the two champions were ordered by the king to repair to Paris, and to perform their deeds of arms in his presence. According to these orders, and on the appointed day, sir John Cornwall entered the lists first, very grandly equipped, and, galloping his horse around, came before the king, whom he gallantly saluted. He was followed by six little pages mounted on as many war-horses, the two first of which were covered with furniture of ermines, and the other four with cloth of gold. When he had made his obeisances, the pages retired without the lists. Shortly after, the seneschal arrived, attended by the duke of Brabant and his brother, the count de Nevers, each holding a rein of his horse, on his right and left. The count de Clermont bore his battle-axe, and the count de Penthievre his lance. When he had made the circuit of the lists, and had saluted the king, as sir John Cornwall had done, they prepared to tilt with their lances; but as they were on the point of so doing, the king caused it to be proclaimed that they should not proceed in this matter, which was very displeasing to both of them, and forced them to return to their hotels. It was again proclaimed, by the king's orders, that this deed of arms should not be carried further,-and that in future no one, under pain of capital punishment, should, throughout his realm, challenge another to a duel without a substantial cause. When the king had magnificently feasted these two knights, and shown them much honour at his court, they departed, as it was said, for England, with the intention of completing their deed of arms. During this time, the cardinal de Bar, son to the duke of Bar, and Guye de Roye, archbishop of Rheims, in company with master Peter d'Ailly, bishop of Cambray, and several other prelates and churchmen, were journeying to the general council which was to be held at Pisa, and took up their lodgings one night at a town called Voltri, on the seacoast, about four leagues from Genoa. At this place the blacksmith of the archbishop had a quarrel with a blacksmith of the town, about the price of shoeing a horse, which proceeded from words to blows, and the archbishop's blacksmith killed the other, and fled instantly for safety to the lodgings of his master. The townsmen immediately rose,_and a great number of them came to revenge the death of their countryman. The archbishop, hearing of the cause of this tumult, left his chamber, and kindly addressed them, promising to have the injury immediately repaired, according to their wishes; and, the more to appease them, he delivered up his blacksmith into the hands of the magistrate of the place, who was a lieutenant of Boucicaut, marshal of France, then governor of Genoa. But this was of no avail,-for as the archbishop was speaking to them, without the door of his house, one of the mob thrust his javelin right through his body to the heart, so that he dropped down dead without uttering another word. It was a great pity, for he was a religious prelate, a d of a noble family. This deed, however, did not satisfy them; for instantly after they murdered the magistrate and the aforesaid blacksmith, and also endeavoured to force their way into the house, whither the cardinal de Bar and the greater part of the others had retired, in order to put them likewise to death. They were, however, at length appeased by the principal inhabitants, and it was concluded that the cardinal should grant them his pardon for what they had done against him, to which, indeed, he was induced by his attendants, from their fears of being all destroyed. They never told him of the murder of the archbishop until he was gone two leagues from the town: on the hearing of it, he was so troubled, and sick at heart, that he was near falling off his mule. His attendants, notwithstanding, made him hasten his pace as much as they could; for they were alarmed for their lives, after the instances they had seen, and from the numbers of people they perceived descending the hills, and the accustomed signs they saw when a town is under any apprehension of danger, and the ringing of bells in the manner usual on these occasions. These signals were sounded throughout the country, and the peasants were seen running down the hills to overtake them ; but when they were arrived within a league of Genoa, the marshal Boucicaut * came out with a handsome company to meet him. The cardinal made loud complaints to him of the outrages that had been committed on his people at the town of Voltri, and demanded that he would judicially inquire into it. The marshal replied that he would make so severe an example of that town that all others should take warning from it. The cardinal was then conducted into the city of Genoa, where he was made welcome by the churchmen and other inhabitants; and this same day the body of the archbishop of Rheims was brought thither, and honourably interred,—and his obsequies were performed in the Principal church of Genoa. Shortly after, the marshal Boucicaut punished most severely all whom he could apprehend that had committed these outrages, with their accomplices: they were put to death in various ways, and their houses also were razed to the ground, that these “xecutions might serve for warnings to others never to commit such cruel murders.

* Q. Who was this?

* John le Maingre, second of the name, count of Beau- 1391, having been knighted, nine years before, at the battle fort and viscount of Turenne. He was the son of mareschal of Rosebec in Flanders. He went into Hungary and was Boucicaut the elder, mentioned by Froissart, who died in present at the battle of Nicopolis, and made prisoner with 137 l. He was himself made a mareschal of France in John count of Nevers. He was again appointed to the relief of the emperor of Constantinople in 1399. In 1401, was a poet as well as warrior, and composed many rondeaux he was made governor of Genoa, and he took the city of and virelays. In his epitaph, he is called Constable to the Famagousta, in Cyprus, for the Genoese. IIe was made emperor of Constantinople. prisoner at Agincourt, and died in England 1421. IIc

Pisa.-From an old print in the King's Library.

The cardinal de Bar, with his companions, now set out from Genoa, and travelled, by easy day's journeys, to Pisa, where were assembled a prodigious number of cardinals, doctors in theology, and graduates in civil law and other sciences, ambassadors and prelates, in obedience to the two popes, from different kingdoms, and from all parts of Christendom. After many councils had been held on the schism in the church, they came at last to this conclusion : they unanimously condemned the two rival popes as heretics, schismatics, obstinate in evil, and perturbators of the peace of our holy mother the church. This sentence was passed in the presence of twenty-four cardinals, at the gates of Pisa, before all the people, the 15th day of June, in the year aforesaid.

The same cardinals, after invoking the grace and assistance of the holy Spirit, entered into conclave, where they remained until the 16th day of the same month, when they finished their election. They chose Peter of Candia, so named from being a native of that island: he was of the order of Friars Minors, created a doctor in theology at Paris, archbishop of Milan and cardinal; and, when consecrated sovereign of the true and holy catholic church, he took the name of Pope Alexander W. O, most powerful God! how great was the joy thus caused, through thy never-failing grace; for it is impossible to relate the shoutings and acclamations that resounded for more than a league round the city of Pisa. But what shall we say of the

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