city of Paris? Why, when this joyful news was brought thither, on the 8th of July, they incessantly shouted, night and day, “Long live Alexander V. our pope 1" in all the squares and streets, and entertained all passengers with meat and drink, from their heartfelt happiness. When the ceremony of consecrating the pope was over, letters were sent to different persons, the more fully to explain the proceedings of the council. I shall insert the one written by the abbot of Saint Maixence to the bishop of Poitiers, the tenor of which was as follows. “Reverend father, and my redoubted lord, after my humble respects being accepted, I know that your reverence would gladly be informed of the proceedings of the council, which has been held in the city of Pisa, and any intelligence concerning it; and it is for this reason I have indited the following lines to your reverence. First, then, on the 25th day of March, all the cardinals, who had been created by both popes, and all the prelates then in Pisa, assembled in the church of St. Martin, which is situated beyond the river, on the road leading to Florence, and thence, being dressed in their robes with mitres on their heads, they made a grand procession to the cathedral church, which is as distant from that of Saint Martin as our church of Nôtre Dame at Paris is from that of St. Martin des Champs. There the council always afterwards assembled; and on this first day, mass was celebrated with great solemnity: the sermon was preached by my lord cardinal of Milan, of the order of Friars Minors, a great theologian. When the service was over, the morrow was fixed on to open the council, and the two popes were summoned to attend on that day at the gates of the church, by two cardinals; but neither of them appeared, nor any one for them. “The council continued to sit till the latter end of March, when the popes were again summoned to appear, but neither of them obeyed. The council therefore having required the two rival popes to come before them, on account of the schism that has reigned in the church, and neither of them appearing, or sending any one to make satisfactory answers for them, and the term allotted for their appearing being elapsed, declared them both guilty of the schism that distresses the church, and of contumacy, by their conduct, toward the council. The council ordered prosecutions to be carried on against both of the popes, on the Monday after Quasimodo-Sunday, the 15th of April, when my lords cardinals celebrated together the service of the holy week. On Good Friday, my lord cardinal d'Orsini celebrated divine service in Saint Martin's church ; and a secular doctor of divinity, from Bologna la Grassa, preached an excellent sermon. Mylords cardinals were all present at the ceremonies of Easter Sunday. During the ensuing week they assembled in council, sometimes alone, at others they called in the prelates, to deliberate on the state of affairs, and what line of conduct should be pursued; and everything was carried on with mutual good will on all sides. This week the ambassadors from the king of the Romans arrived at Pisa. “On the Sunday of Quasimodo, an Italian bishop said mass before the cardinals; and a Cordelier from Languedoc, a doctor in divinity, preached the sermon, in which he greatly praised my lords cardinals from France, and such as were seeking to restore peace to the church,--but very harshly treated the two contending popes, calling them schismatics, heretics, and traitorous enemies to God and to his church. He chose for his text, “Jesus dixit, Pax vobis,' which he handled extraordinarily well. The following Monday, the cardinals, prelates, ambassadors, and procurators then present, made oath to obey the decisions of the council. Mass was then chaunted, and succeeded by many prayers; then the litany was sung, at which all the cardinals and prelates, dressed in their robes and mitres, attended, and so continued as long as the sittings of the council lasted, which made it a handsome sight to see. This same day, the council gave audience to the ambassadors from Robert king of the Romans; and the bishop of Verdun, on the part of Robert, who favoured pope Gregory as much as he could, began his harangue, taking for his theme, “Pax vobis.’ He made many mischievous propositions, to divide and distract the council, in obedience to his master, and to serve the false pope Gregory. There were with this bishop an archbishop of a foreign order, and a numerous body of attendants. When the bishop had made his propositions, the ambassadors were required to deliver the same in writing, and to show their procurations from their lord. A day was then fixed to hear the answer of the council to their propositions; but before this day arrived, the ambassadors went away without taking leave of their host. “This week of Quasimodo, the lord Malatesta came to Pisa in great state: he had given to pope Gregory one of his castles called Rimini*, and made the following request to the cardinals assembled, as well on the part of pope Gregory as on his own, namely, that it would please the members of the council to adjourn its sittings, and change the place of its meeting; that if they would so do, pope Gregory would attend personally, provided the situation were in a place of safety, and that he might have security for his coming to and going from it. In consequence of this request, the cardinals summoned the prelates to notify it to them; but they unanimously declared, they would neither consent that the place of holding the council should be changed nor that the meetings of it should be adjourned. This answer was very agreeable to the cardinals. The lord Malatesta, therefore, returned without having succeeded in his object; but his anger was appeased by some of the cardinals, his friends and acquaintance. “From the 15th of April, the council continued sitting to the 23d of the said month,when, after the solemnity of the mass, the advocate. fiscal demanded, that the council should declare, that the conjunction of the two colleges of cardinals of the holy church of Rome had been, and was, lawful and canonical at the time it was formed.—Item, that it should declare, that this holy council is duly canonical, by the cardinals of both colleges assembling for so excellent a purpose.—Item, that this holy council has been called together by the cardinals of both colleges with a good intent.—Item, that it has been assembled at a convenient opportunity.—Item, that it should declare, that this holy council, as representing the universal church of God, has a right to take cognizance of the merits of the two competitors for the papacy.—Item, that a narrative should this day be read of the introduction and commencement of the schism that took place from the time of the death of pope Gregory X. until the convention of this holy general council.—In this narrative were displayed all the tricks and deceits that had been made use of, either individually or conjunctively by the two rival popes. “After it had been read, the advocate-fiscal drew several conclusions against the said rivals and their pretensions to the papacy, and ended his harangue by demanding that they should be deposed and punished corporally, and that the council should proceed to the election of a true and holy pope. The sittings were prolonged to Saturday the 27th day of the same month, when the ambassadors from the king of England entered the council with a most magnificent state.—The bishop of Salisbury†, in the diocese of Canterbury, made a handsome speech, urging the necessity of peace and union in the church. When he had finished, the advocate-fiscal made an interesting oration, and concluded by demanding, through the procurator of the holy council, that it would please to appoint a commission of certain wise, discreet, and experienced persons to examine witnesses as to the notorious sins charged on the two competitors for the papacy, and his request was granted. “The second Sunday after Easter, mass was celebrated before the cardinals, and the sermon was preached by the bishop of Digne in Provence: he was of the order of Friars Minors, a learned doctor in divinity, and had ever been a great friend to Pietro della Luna, and was well acquainted with the tricks and cavils of both popes. This bishop delivered a good sermon from his text of ‘Mercenarius fugit, in which he discovered many deceptions of the two rivals, in descanting on the words of his text. The sittings were continued from this Sunday to the 2d day of May, when mass was said before the cardinals; and the sermon was preached by the cardinal Prenestin, more commonly called the cardinal of Poitiers.— He delivered a good discourse, and chose for his text, “Libera Deus Israel ex omnibus tribulationibus suis.’ He urged in his sermon eleven conclusive arguments against the two popes, for refusing to give peace to the church; and ended by requiring the council, in consideration of their obstinate contumacy, to proceed against them and provide a pastor for the flock of God. “On the 2d day of May, there was a general meeting of the council, when, after the usual solemnities, a very renowned doctor of Bologna made a reply to the insidious propositions of the bishop of Verdun, on the part of the emperor Robert. He condemned, by arguments drawn from divine, canon, and civil law, all that had been advanced by the bishop; and his reasoning was so just and clear that the council were much satisfied and comforted. The ensuing Sunday, mass was said before the cardinals, and the sermon was preached by the general of the order of Augustins. He was a great doctor in divinity, and a native of Italy. He chose for his text, “Cum venerit ille arguet mundum de peccato, et de justitia, et de judicio.' He discussed this subject very well, and with a good intent. The sittings were prolonged from this 2d of May to the 10th.-The patriarch of Alexandria celebrated mass before the cardinals on the feast of the revelation of St. Michael, the 8th of May; and he likewise preached a sermon, taking for his text. “Congregata est ecclesia ex filiis Israel et omnes qui fugiebant a malis additi sunt, et facti sunt illis ad firmamentum.” These words are written in the 2d and 5th chapters of the first book of Maccabees. In the course of this sermon, he pressed six arguments against the two rival popes. “On Friday, the 10th of May, the council, after the usual solemnities, resumed its sittings, when the advocate-fiscal made the following requisitions: that the holy council would be pleased to confirm and approve the demands he had before made, namely, that it should declare that the union of the two colleges of cardinals has been and is legal; and that the council should pronounce definitively on the other demands he had made. The procuratorfiscal made a request to the council, that eight days should be allowed for the production of witnesses; and the council was adjourned to the 16th of May. On the Sunday preceding that day, mass was said before the cardinals by the bishop of Faenza; and the sermon preached by a native of Arragon, a learned doctor in divinity, who had always been of the party of Pietro della Luna. He chose his text from one of St. Paul's epistles, ‘Expurgate vetus fermentum ut sitis nova conspersio.' He expatiated on this with such ability that all the doctors wondered. Drawing from it certain conclusions, he said that the two rivals were as much popes as his old shoes, calling them worse than Annas and Caiaphas, and comparing them to the devils in hell. “Such things passed in the council to the 23d day of this present month, as I have briefly related, on which day the ambassadors from the king of Spain were to come to Pisa. The number of prelates that were present cannot be estimated, for they were daily increased by new ones, who came from all parts of Christendom. I should suppose that at the last sitting of the council there were present of cardinals, bishops, archbishops, and abbots, wearing mitres, one hundred and forty, without counting the non-mitred members. There were also ambassadors from the kings of France, England, Jerusalem, Sicily, Cyprus, and Poland; from the dukes of Brabant, Austria, Stephen of Bavaria, William of Bavaria; from the counts of Cleves and of Brandac *; from the marquis of Brandenbourg and de Morainef; from the archbishops of Cologne, Mentz, and Saltzbourg, and from the bishop of Maestricht; from the grand master of the Teutonic order; from the patriarch of Aquileia, and from many princes in Italy. Numbers of doctors in divinity, and in the canon and civil law, were present, as well from France as from other countries, and very many procurators from divers parts of the world, who, by the grace of God, have held instructive and charitable conversations together from the commencement of the council until this moment. “In the city of Pisa are abundance of all sorts of provisions, which are sold at reasonable prices; but they would be much cheaper, were it not for the gabelles and taxes that are levied in these countries. In my mind, Pisa is one of the handsomest cities existing; it has a navigable river, within a league distant, running into the sea, and which river brings large vessels, laden with different merchandise, to the town. Around the city are vineyards of white grapes and many fine meadows. We are very well lodged, considering the great number of men-at-arms quartered in it for its guard. The town has been conquered by the Florentines, who have banished many of the Pisans to prevent any treasons, and sent them to Florence, to the amount of two thousand; and they are obliged to show themselves twice every day to the governor at an appointed place, under pain of death. Four or five thousand of the Pisans went to ask succour from king Lanceloti, who, in compliance with their request, advanced within five leagues of Pisa, with a force of twenty-three thousand combatants, as well horse as foot; but the Florentines, through the grace of God, are well able to resist all his power, and guard us. True it is, that this king Lancelot ran a risk of losing his kingdom by the union of the holy church, for he had tyrannically seized on a large part of the patrimony of St. Peter. “It was said that there were certain ambassadors from Pietro della Luna at the council, not with the intent of forwarding the union, but of throwing every obstacle in its way. There were nineteen cardinals of both colleges, at this council at Pisa, including the cardinal de Challan, whose attendants were arrived.—and the cardinal was to follow with the ambassadors from Savoy. My lords the cardinals are much displeased with those bishops, abbots, and chapters of cathedral churches, who have neglected to send procurators to this general council. I have nothing more to send to you at present.—Written at Pisa the 15th day of May, by your humble monk and servant, the abbot of St. Maxence.” The direction was, “To the reverend father in Jesus Christ, and by the grace of God, lord bishop of Poitiers, and chancellor to my lord the duke of Berry.”

* See Shepherd's Life of Poggio, p. 42. f Robert Hallam, cardinal, and chancellor of the university of Oxford.

* Brandac. Q. Brunswic? † Ladislaus, or Lancelot, son of Charles of Durazzo, + Marquis of Brandenbourg and Moravia. See ante, and brother to Joan II. who succeeded to the crown of p. 18. Naples on his death in 1412. He took up arms on behalf of Gregory, and invaded the Florentine territorics in the vested in his competitor, the duke of Anjou. He had year 1409, at the head of a large body of forces. The also seized many towns in the patrimony of St. Peter, and procecdings of the council were in fact detrimental to him, among the rest on Rome itself.—See Poggio Hist. as by its decree he was deposed, and the Neapolitan crown Florent, p. 178, et seq.


I small now transcribe the letters written by the ambassadors from the university of Paris to the council at Pisa, the contents of which are as follows: “Reverend fathers, lords, and masters, after offering you our humble recommendation, may it please you to know, that we write to inform you of the conclusions entered into by the council-general, which has held thirteen sittings. The two rival popes, having for some time been waited for in vain, notwithstanding the summons sent them, have been declared contumacious in respect to schism and the faith. Many decrees were passed against them for their contumacy, and commissioners were appointed to examine witnesses against them. “Item, the council-general approved of the union of the colleges of cardinals, the citations served on the contending popes, and the place of meeting of the council, as being perfectly convenient and secure. The council declared, that it was supreme on earth to take cognizance and judge of the charges brought against the contenders for the papacy. It was also declared by the council, that it had been lawful for any one to quit his obedience to either of the popes, from the moment they had promised to abdicate the papacy; and that all suits and processes, carried on against such as had quitted their obedience to either, were annulled and of no weight. Public charges were then made against them, and an interlocutory sentence passed on the notorious sins of the two competitors. This day, doctor Peter Paoul declared, in full council, your opinions, and took for his text, “Congregabuntur filii Judae et filii Israel et facient sibimet caput unum.' That is to say, Those who are come to this council, and such as shall hereafter come, will choose from among themselves a head to the church. A little before this, doctor Dominic le Petit had made a solemn harangue before all the cardinals, taking for his text, “Principes populorum congregati sunt cum Deo Abraham.’ The cardinals and prelates of the holy church are styled princes of the people. On this day also, the theologians, to the number of six score and three, delivered their opinions, and eighty of them are your friends and supporters. “Item, this day it has been ordered that the two rival popes be summoned to appear at the doors of the church on Wednesday the 5th of July, to hear their definitive sentence. Gregory has sent a bull to the English to entreat they would be of his party, with Robert king of the Romans, to change the place of holding the council, and that they would please to be of his council; but he labours in vain, for the English, Germans, Bohemians, Polanders, French, those from Cyprus, Rhodes, and Italy, are all unanimous, excepting Robert, whose ambassadors have gone away. Few prelates have come to this council from the kingdom of Hungary. King Ladislaus wrote that he intended being here in person, but he is fully occupied in his war against the infidels. “Pietro Mastin, called della Luna, has issued a most thundering bull, in which he admonishes the cardinals to return to their duty towards him; and should they refuse, he prohibits them from attempting to make another election, menacing them, in case of disobedience, with excommunication and other penalties against them and their supporters. Reverend fathers, and redoubted masters, we have nothing more for the present to write to you, except that all nations seem inclined to a reformation in the church, which the new pope, whom it shall please God to elect, will be forced to comply with. Should you have any orders to send us, we are ready to obey them to the utmost of our power. Beseeching you humbly to keep all our concerns in your consideration, may the Sovereign Lord have you under his guard | *Won at Pisa the 29th day of May.” Underneath were signed the names of Dominic le Petit, Pierre Paoul de Quesnoy, Jean Pere Ponce, Vincent, Eustace de Faquemberge, Arnoul Vibrant, Jean Bourlet, dit François.—Master Pierre de Poingny and master Guillaume le Charpentier did not sign the above, because they were absent. Here follows the sentence on the two contending popes. “This present holy council, assembled in the name of Jesus CHRIST, withdraws itself from the obedience to Pietro della Luna, called Pope Benedict XIII., and from Angelo Corrario, called Pope Gregory XII. ; and the holy council decrees and declares, that all true Catholics ought to do the same.—Item, the same holy synod, as representative and judge of the universal church, after mature consideration and examination of witnesses concerning the horrible sins of the two contending popes, pronounces, in the church of Pisa, this its definitive sentence, that both popes be deprived of every honour and dignity, especially that of the papacy. It also pronounces, that they be separated from the holy church, in conformity to the sacred canons, and by the above sentence, forbidding all persons to have the boldness ever to defend or obey either of them as pope. “The council forbids any Christians from obeying or showing favour to either, notwithstanding any oath or promise they may have made or entered into, under pain of excommunication,-and decrees, that whoever shall disobey this sentence shall be delivered into the hands of secular justice, and condemned as one who favours heretics, and that he shall be punished according to the divine commandments, and the decrees of the holy canons. The council also declares and pronounces, that all promotions of cardinals made by the two rival popes, namely, those made by Angelo Corrario since the third day of May, and by Pietro della Luna since the 15th day of June, of the year 1408, have been and are of no effect, and are annulled by this definitive sentence. It also declares, that every judgment given by the aforesaid competitors for the papacy, to the prejudice of the holy church, against any kings, princes, lords, patriarchs, archbishops, bishops, prelates of the church, or other private persons, are of no effect; and the holy synod has ordained that proceedings to the contrary, and to the welfare of the holy church, shall commence on the ensuing Monday, the 10th day of June.” The above sentences and declarations were passed in the general council of Pisa, the 5th day of June, in the year 1409. The 26th day of June, in the year 1409, Peter of Candia, a Cordelier, and native of Greece, doctor of divinity, and usually called the cardinal of Milan, was unanimously chosen pope by the cardinals at Pisa, with the approbation of the general council, and called Alexander V., who, immediately after his election, published the following bull. “Alexander, bishop and servant to the servants of God, to the bishop of Paris, health and apostolical benediction. Praise and glory be to the God of heaven for having instilled into the minds of men a desire of peace on earth, and who, through his benign grace and mercy,

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