« 前へ次へ »
wholly reinstated in that power which is your right. To this, most redoubted lord, are we bound, as well in regard to what we have already said, as from fear, honour, and reverence to our Creator, from whom originates your royal authority, and also to satisfy justice, and then yourself, who are sovereign king on earth, and our sole lord. To your support we are urged by our kindred and by our love to your person ; for in truth, most redoubted sovereign, there is nothing we dread so much as having offended God, yourself, and wounded our own honour, by leaving for so long time unnoticed the aforesaid grievances, which are notorious to every one. In like manner as we signify the above to you, we shall do the same to all prelates, lords, un'versities, cities, and principal towns of your realm, and in general to all your wellwishers. Most redoubted lord, we humbly supplicate that you will deign to hear us, and consider of what we have written,—for the sole object we aim at personally affects yourself and your government; and we earnestly beg that you will speedily adopt the most effectual measures for the enjoyment of your own freedom of action, and that your government may be carried on to the praise of God first, and your own glory, and to the advantage of all your good subjects who are anxious for your welfare.
“We have written this, that you may know our intentions, and the cause of our assembling, which is solely for the preservation of the personal liberty of our lord and king, and the affranchisement of his government from any hands but his own. For this object we have sought the advice of the most prudent men, and shall follow their counsels, with all the means God has put in our power, to obtain so desirable an end, for the general welfare of the realm; and we intend so to act toward our lord the king that God and the world shall be satisfied with us. And we most earnestly entreat, that for so praiseworthy an object you will join us, and exert yourselves in the same cause; for it is not properly us but the king your lord that you
will serve, whom by your oaths you are bounden to assist, —and know that for so doing you will be commended by all men of understanding and prudence. Given at Chartres, the 2d day of December, 1410."
This letter, when received by the council of the town of Amiens, produced very little sensation,—for all, or the greater part of the inhabitants, were inclined to the duke of Burgundy. When a similar one was read in the council of state, it did not make any impression on the king, nor did it seem advisable that the dukes should have an audience; but, on the contrary, orders were sent to them to disband their forces without delay, on pain of incurring the royal indignation. They refused to obey this order, and bade the messenger tell the king, that they would not cease assembling until he should grant them an audience, and hear their complaints. At this period, the dukes of Aquitaine and Burgundy paid a visit to the queen of France at her residence in the castle of Melun, and left there a garrison, having brought back with them the queen and her children to the castle of Vincennes. The duke of Brabant at this time left Paris, to go to his country, and assemble his Brabanters to serve the king. Many able ambassadors were sent, in the king's name, to the lords assembled at Chartres; and among them was the grand-master of Rhodes, to signify to them that they must disband their army, and that, if they pleased to wait on the king in their private capacity, he would see them. This they refused; and as they continued disobedient, the king took possession of the counties of Boulogne *, Estampes, Valois, Beaumont, Clermont, and other lands belonging to the said dukes, counts, and their adherents, of whatever rank they might be. The king's officers appointed governors to the castles and fortresses within these countries, whom they ordered to govern them at the expense of the aforesaid lords. So very numerous were the forces that assembled near Paris, in obedience to the summons from the king and the duke of Burgundy, that the oldest persons had not for a long time seen so many men-at-arms together.
Among the number was the duke of Brabant, with a great force. He was quartered in the town of St. Denis, where he lived at the expense of the greater part of the inhabitants, as if he had been in the open country. The count de Penthievre, son-in-law to the duke of Burgundy, was there with him, accompanied by a large body of Bretons. Two thousand
* Boulogne, the property of the duke of Berry, by mar I believe, to the count d'Alençon ; Beaumont to the duke riage with Jane, heiress of Auvergne and Boulogne. The of Orleans;-and Clermont to tho duke of Bor county of Estampes belonged to the duke of Berry; Valois,
men belonging to the count Waleran de St. Pol were quartered at Menil-Aubry, and the adjacent villages.-Because the count hiinself resided in Paris, he one day ordered his troops to be assembled under the lord de Chin, for him to march them to Paris to be mustered and enrolled for pay; but it happened, as they were marching through St. Denis to obey the arder, that a dispute arose between them and the Brabanters, on account of some enterprise which the last had made against the lord de Carlian, a native of the Boulonois, so that the two parties armed and drew up in battle array to decide matters by combat. The duke of Brabant was soon informed of this tumult, and hastened from Paris to check his own men, and acted so prudently with both parties that an end was put to it ; but he was very wroth with the first promoters of it, for he was married to the daughter and heiress of the count de St. Pol.
When they had marched through Saint Denis, they came before their lord, the count de St. Pol, in Paris, who having reviewed them, and paid many compliments to their captains, dismissed them to the quarters whence they had come. In order to pay these troops which had been levied, as has been said, by orders from the king and the duke of Burgundy, and which amounted, by the muster-rolls, to fifteen thousand men with helmets, seventeen thousand cross-bows and archers, very heavy taxes were levied throughout the realm, and particularly on the city of Paris. It will be impossible to relate one half of the mischiefs the armies of both parties committed : suffice it to say, that churches, churchmen, and the poor people were very great sufferers.
The Orleans party, shortly after this, marched from Chartres to Montlehery, seven leagues from Paris, and there, and in the neighbouring villages, quartered their army, ruining the whole country on their line of march. The lords and adherents of this faction, as well clergy as seculars, wore, as their badge, a narrow band of white linen on their shoulders, hanging over their left arm, like to a deacon when celebrating dirine service. When the king of France and his council learnt that they had approached so near the capital, they hastily despatched to the leaders the count de la Marche, the archbishop of Rheims, the bishop of Beauvais, and the grand master of Rhodes, with some others, to persuade them to disband their army, and come before him at Paris, in consequence
of his former orders, without arms, in the manner in which vassals should wait on their lords, and that he would do them justice in regard to their demands; but that, should they refuse, he would instantly march his forces against them.— The princes made answer, that they would not act otherwise than they had said in their letter to the king; and the ambassadors, seeing they could not gain anything, returned to Paris. In like manner, the university sent to them an embassy of learned men, headed by Noeétz, abbot of Povegny and doctor in divinity, who harangued them very ably and gravely. They were very handsomely received by the princes, especially by the duke of Berry, who, among other grievances, complained much that his nephew, the king, should be counselled by such fellows as the provost of Paris, and others of the same sort, who now ruled the realm, which was most miserably governed, as he was ready to explain, article by article, when they should be admitted to an audience. They could obtain no other reply than that, with God's pleasure, they would accomplish, to the ntmost of their power, the matters contained in their circular letters to the university and principal towns.
On this repeated ill success, the king, by the advice of his council, sent another embassy, composed of the queen, the cardinal de Bar, the count de St. Pul, and others. The count de St. Pol had lately accepted, with the king's approbation, the office of grand butler of France which the provo:t of Paris had held, through the interest of the count de Tancarville, by a gift from the king. Notwithstanding the queen and her companions were received with every honour, she did not remain with their army, but went to the castle of Marcoussi, which is not far distant from Montlehery, with her attendants, and remained there some time negotiating with them, and some of the princes daily visited her. Although she acted wit!ı much perseverance, she failed in her objcct,—for the princes were firm in their resolution of marching with their army to the king, and requiring that he would execute justice and attend to the affairs of government, and choose another set of ministers than those now in power. Finding she was labouring in vain, she returned with her companions to Paris, and
related to the king all that had passed. He was very indignant, and much troubled thereat ; and on the morrow, the 230 September, he ordered all the men-at-arms that were come to serve him to be drawn out, and the baggage and artillery waggons to be made ready instantly to march against the Orleans party, to give them battle.
When all were ready, and he was going to attend mass and afterward to mount his horse, he was met by the rector of the university, magnificently accompanied by all the members and supporters of it, who remonstrated with him, that his daughter, the university of Paris, was preparing to leave that city, from the great want of provisions, which the men-at-arms of the two parties prevented coming to Paris,--for no one could venture on the high roads without being robbed and insulted ; and, likewise that all the low countries round Paris were despoiled by these men-at-arms. They most humbly requested, that he would provide a remedy, and give them such answer as might seem to him good. The chancellor, namely, master Arnauld de Corbie, instantly replied, “The king will assemble his council after dinner, and you
shall have an answer. The king of Navarre, being present, entreated the king that he would fix an hour for hearing them again after dinner; and the king, complying with his request, appointed an hour for the rector to return. When the king had dined, he entered the chambre derte, attended by the following princes : the dukes of Aquitaine, Burgundy, and Brabant, the Marquis du Pont, the duke of Lorrain, the counts de Mortain, de Nevers, and de Vaudemont, with many other great lords, as well ecclesiastical as secular. The king of Navarre made four requests to the king : first, that all the princes of the blood, as well on the one side as on the other, should retire to their principalities, and never more interfere in the king's government; and likewise that henceforth they should not receive any profits or pensions, as well from the subsidies arising from their lands as from other exactions, but live on their own proper revenues until the public treasury should be in a better state than it was at that moment: however, should the king be inclined to make them presents of anything, or call them near his person, they should be always ready to obey him. His second request was, that some diminution should take place in those taxes that most aggrieved the people. The third, that as some of the citizens of Paris had lent different sums of money to the king, of which repayment had been promised, but not made, sufficient assignments on the treasury should be given to them. The fourth, that the affairs of the king and realm should be governed by prudent men, taken from the three estates of the kingdom. When the king of Navarre had ended, the king himself replied, and said he would take advice on what he had proposed, and then give him such answers as ought to satisfy him and every one else.
When this was over, the king showed the same determination as before to march, on the morrow morning, against the rebellious lords; but he was overruled, and the queen, with the former ambassadors, were again sent to negotiate a peace. On their arrival at the army of the princes, she exerted herself, as it was said, very much and loyally ; for it was commonly reported that she was in her heart inclined to the Orleans faction. During the time of this embassy, the count Amé de Savoye, who had been sent for by the king, arrived at Paris with five hundred men-at-arms. His brothers-in-law the dukes of Burgundy and Brabant, and the count de Nevers, attended by many other lords, went out to meet him beyond the gate of St. Anthony, and thence conducted him to the palace to the king, who very kindly received him. Some days after, the queen, not having more success than before, returned to the king, and told him that she could not any way bring them to terms, for they were obstinate in their original intentions. She then hastened to the castle of Vincennes as speedily as she could.
On the ensuing morning, the aforesaid lords quitted Montlehery; and the duke of Berry came to his hotel of Vinchestre *, which he had rebuilt, and was there lodged. The duke of Orleans fixed his quarters at Gentilly, in the palace of the bishop, and the count d'Armagnac at Vitry; the rest as near to each other as they could ; and at vespers, they had advanced as far as the suburb of St. Marcel and the gate de Bordelles. The king, the duke of Burgundy, and the other princes, were greatly surprised at this boldness; and the
* Vinchestre, or rather Winchester, - now called For further particulars, see "Sanval, Antiquités de Paria," Bicêtre, was a palace built by a bishop of Winchester, 1290. vol. ii. book rii.
Parisians, at their own expense, collected a body of a thousand men armed with belmets to serve as a guard during the night, and they also made great fires in very many of the streets. To prevent them from crossing the Seine at Charenton, they sent two hundred men-at-arms to defend that pass.
The third day, Arthur count de Richemont, brother to the duke of Brittany, joined the dukes of Berry and Orleans, with six thousand Breton horse, to the great displeasure of the king, and especially of the duke of Burgundy; for the duke of Brittany had lately been summoned by the king to attend him with his Bretons, and had, for this purpose, received a very large sum of money. The duke, in consequence, having other business in hand, sent his brother to serve the king in his room. It was also said, that the lord d'Albreth, constable of France, had disposed of the money sent him in the same manner, and had employed it in the service of the duke of Berry. The army of the princes marched to Saint Cloud, and to the adjoining towns, which they plundered, taking by force whatever they were in need of. Some of the worst of them ravished and robbed many women, who fled to Paris, and made clamorous outeries against their ravishers, requiring vengeance from the king, and restitution, were it possible, of what they had been plundered of. The king, moved with pity, and by the importunity of his ministers, ordered a decree to be drawn out, which condemned the whole of the Orleans party to death and confiscation of goods. While this was doing, the duke of Berry, uncle to the king, hastily sent ambassadors to Paris to prevent it from taking effect, and in the name of their lord requested that the decree might be a little delayed, when other means of accommodation, through God's grace, would be found.
This request was granted, and the proclamation of the decree put off : a negotiation was entered into warmly by both parties, although the king was very much displeased that the princes of his blood were thus quarrelling with each other, so that he should be forced to proceed with rigour against them. To prevent the effusion of blood, the king desired his chancellor and others of his privy council to exert themselves diligently that peace might be established ; and he likewise spoke to the same purpose to the duke of Burgundy, the count de St. Pol, and other princes, who promised faithfully that an accommodation should take place. While these matters were going on, the lord de Dampierre, the bishop of Noyon, the lord de Tignonville, master Gautier de Col, and others, ambassadors from the king of France, were sent from Paris to Boulogne, to meet an embassy from the king of England, consisting of the lord Beaumont, the bishop of St. David's, and others, who had arrived at Calais to treat of a truce. It was prolonged from All-saints-day, when the former one expired, to the feast of Easter ensuing.
CHAPTER LXVI.-IN CONSEQUENCE OF THE NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN THE TWO PARTIES OF
BURGUNDY AND OF ORLEANS, PEACE IS MADE BETWEEN THEM, AND CALLED THE
PEACE OF WINCHESTER,” WHICH WAS THE SECOND PEACE. AFTER the ambassadors from both parties, namely those of the king and duke of Burgundy on the one hand, and those of the dukes of Berry, of Orleans, and of Bourbon, on the other, had held several conferences, the following treaty was at length concluded, on the 2d of November. The princes of the blood on each side, with the exception of the count de Mortain, were to retire to their principalities, and lead back their forces, committing as little damage as possible to the countries they should pass through, without fraud or deception. The duke of Berry had liberty, if he pleased, to reside at Gieng-sur-Loire, and the count d'Armagnac might stay there with him for fifteen days. The king of Navarre was to depart for his duchy of Nemours. The duke of Brabant might, if he so pleased, visit his sister, the duchess of Burgundy, in that country. The aforesaid princes were to conduct their men-at-arms so that all trespassing might be mutually avoided on each other's lands,nor should they suffer any of their adherents to commit waste or damage, so that all inconvenience or source of quarrel might be avoided.
Item, in whatever garrisons there shall be more men than are usually kept, the same shall
be reduced to the accustomed number of men retained therein for its defence, without any fraud or deception. And that these terms may be faithfully observed, the aforesaid lords shall promise, on their oaths, made before such princes as the king may nominate, that they will punctually and loyally keep every article. Item, the captains of their troops shall make oath also to the due observance of this treaty; and if it be the good pleasure of the king he may appoint some of his knights as conductors to the men-at-arms, and superintendants on their leaders, to prevent them and their men from delaying their march, and also from committing waste in the countries through which they shall pass.—Item, the aforesaid lords will not return near the person of the king, unless they be sent for by him, by letters patent under the great seal, confirmed by his council, or on urgent business, --nor shall any of the aforesaid lords intrigue to obtain orders for their return; and this they shall especially swear to before commissioners nominated for the purpose. The king shall make the terms of this treaty public, and all the articles they shall swear to observe.
Should the king think it necessary to send for the duke of Berry, he shall, at the same time, summon the duke of Burgundy, and vice versa ; and this he will observe, in order that they may both meet at the same time on the appointed day, which will hold good until the ensuing Easter in the year 1411 ; and from that day until the following Easter in 1412, no one of the aforesaid shall proceed against another by acts of violence or by words.—Every article of this treaty to be properly drawn out and signed by the king and his council, with certain penalties to be incurred on the infringement of any of them.-Item, the king shall select certain able and discreet persons, of unblemished characters, and no way pensioners, but such as have solely given their oaths of allegiance to the king, to form the royal council; and when such persons have been chosen, a list of their names shall be shown to the princes on each side. Item, the dukes of Berry and Burgundy, having the wardship of the duke of Aquitaine, shall agree together as to the person who shall be their substitute in that ottice during their absence; and powers for so doing shall be sent to the duke of Berry, as he is at present without them.-Item, the provost of Paris shall be dismissed from all offices which he holds under the king, and another shall be appointed according to the king's pleasure, and as he may judge expedient.— Item, it was ordained, that no knight, or his heirs, should in future suffer any molestation because he had not obeyed the summons sent him by either of the parties; and should they be any way molested, the king would punish the offender by confiscation of his property. Letters, confirming this last article, shall be given by the king and the aforesaid lords to whoever may require thein.
This treaty was concluded on All-saints day, and on the ensuing Monday confirmed ; and four days after, the greater part of the articles were fulfilled. Sir John de Neele, chancellor to the duke of Aquitaine, was, by the king's command, appointed to receive the oaths of the lords on each side.
The king dismissed his provost of Paris, sir Peter des Essars, knight, from all his offices, and nominated sir Brunelet de Sainct-Cler, one of his masters of the household, to the provostship. He also sent letters, sealed with his geat seal, to the duke of Berry, appointing him to the guardianship of his son, the duke of Aquitaine. In consequence of one of the articles above recited, twelve knights, four bishops, and four lords of the parliament, were appointed to govern the kingdom,-namely, the archbishop of Rheims, the bishops of Noyon and St. Flour, master John de Torcy, lately one of the parliament, but now bishop of Tournay, the grand-master of the king's household sir Guichart Daulphin, the grandmaster of Rhodes, the lords de Montenay, de Toursy, de Rambures, d'Offemont, de Rouvroy, de Rumacourt, Saquet de Toursy, le vidame d'Amiens, sir John de Toursy, knight to the duke of Berry, and grand-master of his household, and the lord de St. George. The two last were nominated, by the dukes of Berry and Burgundy, guardians to the duke of Aquitaine during their absence.
The two parties now left Paris and the adjoining fortresses and castles; but on the following Saturday, the king was again strongly seized with bis usual malady, and confined in his hôtel of St. Pol. The queen and her attendants, then at Vincennes, returned to Paris with her son, the duke of Aquitaine, and fixed their residence, with her lord, in the hôtel de St. Pol. The duke of Burgundy went to Meaux, where he was met by the king of