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Navarre;—and thence the duke went to Arras and Flanders, accompanied by sir Peter des Essars, late provost of Paris, and his most confidential adviser; and he always gave him the title of provost of Paris, as though he had still retained the office. Conformably to the treaty, all the men-at-arms on each side returned to the places whence they had come, but plundering the poor people on their march. A number of Lombards and Gascons had formed part of the army of the duke of Orleans, who were mounted on terrible horses, that were taught to wheel round when on full gallop, which seemed very astonishing to the French, Flemings, Picards, and Brabanters, who had not been accustomed to such movements. Because the count d'Armagnac had joined the duke of Orleans with a large body, his men were called Armagnacs : and in consequence, the whole of that faction were called Armagnacs. Although there were many princes of much higher rank in either party than the count d'Armagnac, they were not pleased if they were not called by this name, which lasted a very considerable time. As the treaty before mentioned had been concluded at the hôtel de Winchester, where the dukes of Berry and Orleans, with others of their party were amusing themselves, it was
called “The Peace of Winchester.” All who had come to these meetings at Paris, now
departed, and those to whom the government had been intrusted, remained near the person of the king and the duke of Aquitaine. The people expected, that by this means they should enjoy more peaceable times; but it happened just the contrary, as you shall shortly hear.
CHAPTER LXVII.-A MEETING OF THE UNIVERSITY AND CLERGY IS HELD ON THE xxIII. of November, IN THE CHURCH of ST. BERNARD AT PARIs, on THE STATE of THE CHURCH.
WHEN peace had been established, a large congregation was held, by order of the university, on the 23d of November, in the church of the Bernardins in Paris, -to which were called, the bishop of Puy in Auvergne, many other prelates, and in general all bachelors and licentiates in canon and civil law, although in former times doctors only had been summoned. This assembly was holden at the request of the archbishop of Pisa, and other legates from the pope, on the subject of tithes, the vacant benefices, and the effects of the dead. But it was opened by the adoption of a solemn ordinance, which had been ordained during the papacy of Pietro della Luna, respecting the liberties of the French church, in the year 1406, and since confirmed by the king, his great council, the parliament, namely, that the said church shall be maintained in all its ancient privileges. It was thus freed from all tithes, procurations, and subsidies, or taxes whatever. And as the object of these legates was to establish the above impositions, it was resolved that the aforesaid ordinance should be strictly conformed to ; and the more effectually to have it observed, they sent deputations to the king, to his council, and to the parliament, to whom the guard of this ordinance belonged, to obviate the inconveniences that might follow should any article of it be infringed.
It was also concluded, that should the legates attempt, by menaces of ecclesiastical censures or otherwise, to compel payment of any tribute, an appeal should be made from them to a general council of the church. Item, should any collectors or sub-collectors exact subsidies to the church, they shall be arrested, and punished by confiscation of property, and when they have no property, by imprisonment. It was also concluded, that to settle this matter, the king's attorney, and other lords, should be requested to join the university. But it was at last resolved, that should the pope plead an evident want of means to support the church, a council should be called, and a charitable subsidy granted, the which should be collected by certain discreet persons selected by the council, and the amount distributed according to the directions of the said council.
On the ensuing Monday was held a royal sessions, at which the duke of Aquitaine, the archbishop of Pisa, and the other legates from the pope, the rector and the members of the university, were present. In this meeting, the archbishop declared, that what he demanded was due to the apostolic chamber, by every right, divine, canon, civil and natural, and that it was sacred and simple justice,—adding, that whoever should deny this right was scarcely a Christian. The university was greatly displeased, and said, that such expressions were derogatory to the king's honour, to that of the university, and consequently of the whole kingdom. From what had passed, another general assembly was holden on Sunday the 30th of November, in the place where it had been held on the preceding Sunday; and it was then determined that the university should send a deputation to the king, to lay before him the words uttered by the legates, and to demand that they should be publicly recanted by them. It was proposed, that in case they should refuse so to do, the faculty of theologians should bring accusations against them, on the articles of faith, and they should be punished according to the exigence of the case. It was also resolved, that the university of Paris should write letters to all the other universities in the realm, and to the prelates and clergy, to invite them to unite in their opposition to such tenets. Many other things were agitated in this meeting, which I pass over for the sake of brevity. It was, however, finally concluded to send an answer to the pope, that he could not have any subsidy granted him in the way which had been proposed. The meeting came to the resolution, that the university of Paris should require from the archbishop of Rheims, and those of the members of the king's government who, as members, had given their oaths to the university, to join in the measures they had adopted, otherwise they should be expelled the university. It should be known, that while these things were passing, the legates, fearful of the consequences, hastily left Paris, without taking leave, as is usually done. The holy father, however, sent ambassadors to the king, to demand payment of the tenth imposed on the French church. When they declared the object of their mission to the council of state, and in the presence of the duke of Aquitaine, they said, that not only was the French church bound to pay this subsidy to the pope, but all other churches which were under his obedience, —first, from the divine law in Leviticus, which declares that all deacons shall pay to the high priest a tenth of their possessions,—and, 2dly, by natural and positive law. Whilst these things were passing, the university came to the council, and on the morrow a congregation was held in the monastery of the Bernardins. It was then resolved that the manner of demanding this subsidy should be reprobated, for that it was iniquitous, and contrary to the decree of the king and his council in the year 1406, for the preservation of the franchises of the French church. The university insisted on this decree being preserved inviolate, and declared, that if the pope or his legates attempted to constrain any person to pay this subsidy by censures of the church, it would appeal to a general council on this subject. Should any of the new ministers attempt anything against this decree, the university would appeal to the king and the whole council of state; and should any members of the university urge the payment of this tenth, they should be expelled; and if any persons, guilty of the above offence, should have any property of their own, the university would require that the said property should be confiscated to the king's use; otherwise they should be imprisoned. Should the holy father adopt the manner of raising this subsidy by way of charity, it would be agreeable to the university that the king should call together the prelates of his realm, first, to consider what subjects should be discussed in the general council of the church to be holden on this occasion; secondly, to deliberate on the demands made by the ambassadors respecting the tenth. Should it be determined for the pope to receive this subsidy, the university expressed its wish that some sufficient person should be deputed from this kingdom to receive the amount of the same, for the peace and union of the Greek and Latin churches, and from England for aid of the holy land, and the preaching the gospel to all the world; for such were the purposes for which the legates declared the holy father raised this subsidy. The university solicited the members of the parliament to unite themselves with them, for it was in support of their decree, made on the demand of the king's attorney-general. Juvenal des Ursins” was deputed by the university to reply to what the pope's ambassadors had advanced before the council; but at length the archbishop of Pisa, perceiving he could not otherwise gain his object, humbled himself much before the university, and spoke * I hardly know whether this can be the celebrated Treynel, chancellor of France in 1445, and again in 1464, archbishop of Rheims, and historian of the reign of Charles —and James Juvenal des Ursins, who was archbishop of VI., who was one of the most learned men of his time, Rheims before him. The history written by Juvenal des rivately to some of the principal members to prevail on them to assist him. However, on the 28th day of January, it was declared, that no subsidy whatever should be granted to the pope, without the previous consent of the French church; and the deliberation on this matter was deferred to the 10th of February, when many prelates were summoned to give their opinions thereon. Through the active diligence of the university, the legates could not obtain consent that a subsidy in any shape should be granted to the pope, although the greater part of the lords, and in particular the princes, were very agreeable to it. While these matters were transacting at Paris, the holy father sent letters to the king of France and to the university, to say that the Florentines refused any longer to obey him, from fear of king Ladislaus; that this king Ladislaus was assembling an immense army, as the pope wrote word, to conquer Rome and the adjacent country, that he might place in the chair of St. Peter a pope according to his pleasure. Should this happen, a more ruinous schism might befal the church than the former one,—to obviate which, he requested from the king, the princes, and university, aid and support. This was, through the intercession of the archbishop of Pisa, complied with, and in the manner that shall be hereafter related.
and died at an advanced age, in 1474. He had two bro- Ursins occupies the space from 1380 to 1422, and throws hers older than himself, William des Ursins, baron of great light, by comparison, on Froissart and Monstrelet,
CHAPTER LXVIII.--THE LORD DE CROY IS MADE PRISONER WHEN GOING ON AN EMBASSY FROM THE DUKE of BURGUNDY To THE DUKE OF BERRY, To The GREAT DISPLEASURE of the LATTER.
The duke of Burgundy, shortly after he had left Paris, sent three of his counsellors, namely, the lords de Croy and de Dours, knights, and master Raoul, head canon of Tournay and of Amiens, licentiate of law, as ambassadors to the king at Paris, and to his uncle and godfather, the duke of Berry, at Bourges. But when they were travelling between Orleans and Bourges, the lord de Croy was arrested by the officers of the duke of Orleans on the last day but one of January, without any molestation being given to the other two ambassadors or their attendants. He was carried to a castle within three leagues of Blois; and, on the morrow, strictly interrogated respecting the murder of the late duke of Orleans, and put to the torture to confess if he had been any way consenting to it, or an accomplice in it; but they could not discover anything to his prejudice. On the following Sunday, he was carried to Blois, and confined in the dungeons of a prison.
The other ambassadors continued their route to Bourges, where, having explained to the duke of Berry the object of their mission, they humbly entreated that he would exert himself with the duke of Orleans that the lord de Croy might obtain his liberty. When they related to him the manner of the lord de Croy being arrested, the duke was filled with indignation, and instantly sent letters signed with his hand to the duke of Orleans, to say that he must immediately give up his prisoner, whom he had illegally arrested when coming to him; and that if he did not do it, he would have him for his enemy. The duke of Orleans, on the receipt of this letter, considered it well, and replied at length most courteously to the duke of Berry, excusing himself for what he had done, but putting off the setting the lord de Croy at liberty. The king and the duke of Aquitaine were soon made acquainted with this arrest; and they sent letters to the duke of Orleans, commanding him instantly to deliver the lord de Croy from his imprisonment, on pain of incurring their indignation. Notwithstanding these letters, the duke of Orleans would not give him his liberty, but kept him in close confinement, where he was very often most rigorously treated, and at times examined and put to the torture.
In the mean time, the other ambassadors sent messengers to the duke of Burgundy, to notify to him this conduct, and the means they had taken in vain for the deliverance of the lord de Croy. The duke was much surprised and vexed at this news, for he greatly loved the lord de Croy. Having considered this insult, and others that had been offered to his friends, he thought it time to take effectual measures for his security, and in consequence amassed as large a sum as he could: to this end, he sold his right to all confiscations within the town of Ghent to the townsmen, and yielded for money several other privileges to the Flemings. He likewise carried his son, the count de Charolois, to show him to many of the
principal towns as their future lord, who, on this occasion, made him considerable &R NYX- He afterward held a grand council on his affairs, in the town of Tournay, which was attended TT
by his brothers-in-law, duke William and the bishop of Liege. The count de Namur was
Bourbon, and hastened to the countries of the Soissonnois and Valois, to the territory of Coucy, which belonged to his brother, and there placed a good garrison. True it is, that when the duke of Burgundy heard this, he was much troubled, and, as speedily as he could, ordered his men-at-arms to meet him at Château-Cambresis the last day but one of April. But when these transactions came to the knowledge of the king and council, he sent able ambassadors to each of these dukes, to forbid them, under pain of having all their lands confiscated, and being declared enemies to their king and country, to attempt any expeditions against each other; and commanded them instantly to disband their forces. For this time, they very humbly obeyed his orders, and deferred proceeding further for a considerable space.
chapter Lxix. —the DUKE of orleANs seNDs AMBAssadors to THE KING OF FRANCE, With LETTERS OF ACCUSATION AGAINST The DUKE OF BURGUNDY AND THOSE OF HIS pArt Y. [A. D. 1411.] At the commencement of this year, the duke of Orleans was displeased that those ministers who had been nominated by the duke of Burgundy had greater influence than any of the others, and that they daily deprived such as had been attached to the late duke of Orleans, and were now his friends, of their offices. In consequence, he sent ambassadors to the king to complain of this conduct, and to require that the murderers of his father should be punished conformably to the articles of the treaty, but who were now residents within the kingdom. To these ambassadors promises were made, on the part of the king, that proper remedies should be applied to give them satisfaction. On their departure, the king sent to his uncle, the duke of Berry, at Bourges, to require that he would interfere between his two nephews of Orleans and Burgundy, and make peace between them, which he engaged to do; and in
X consequence he sent his chancellor, the archbishop of Bourges, to Paris, well instructed by
the duke how he was to act. Shortly after, this chancellor, the marshal Boucicaut, with others, were despatched to the duke of Burgundy, then at St. Omer, who, having heard all they had to say, replied, that it was no fault of his, nor should it ever be so, that any articles of the late treaties were infringed; for that in this, and in everything else, he was very desirous of obeying the king. And this his answer they laid before the king and council. But as the proceedings against the murderers of the late duke of Orleans did not seem to his son, and his advisers, to be carried on with sufficient vigour, he wrote letters, signed with his own hand, to complain of this and other matters to the king, the contents of which were as follows: “Most redoubted lord, after offering my humble recommendation,-lately, very redoubted lord, two of your counsellors came to me, namely, sir Collart de Charleville, knight, and sir Simon de Nanterre, president of your parliament, whom you had been pleased to send me to signify and explain your good will and pleasure touching certain points, which they have clearly and distinctly declared, according to the terms of their commission.—First, they require and entreat of me, in your name, who may command me as your loyal subject and humble servant, that I should submit the quarrel that subsists between me and the duke of Burgundy, for the inhuman and cruel murder of my very redoubted lord and father, and your own brother, on whose soul may God have mercy! to my lady the queen, and to my lord and uncle the duke of Berry, who has been in like manner solicited by your ambassadors to labour diligently to establish a firm peace, for the general good of the kingdom. They have informed me, that you have also made a similar proposal to the duke of Burgundy, —and that, to effectuate so desirable an object as peace, I should send four of my friends to my said uncle of Berry, who will there meet the same number from the duke of Burgundy. —The second point mentioned by them is, that you entreat I would desist trom assembling men-at-arms.-Thirdly, that I would accept of letters from you similar to those which had been formerly sent me at my request, respecting the murderers, and their accomplices, of my late father and your brother. “Having very maturely weighed and considered the above points, I reply, that I most