your father, my dear brother, was living, there was no need of any barriers betwixt us: we were always on the most affectionate terms.” The duke of Burgundy replied, “My lord, it has not been my fault.” The duke of Berry then mounted his horse, and returned, with his attendants, to Bourges, and the duke of Burgundy, in like manner, to the camp. The knights of the duke of Burgundy, on their return, said, that those of the duke of Berry, in their common conversations, declared themselves no way rebellious nor disaffected to the king; that their lord had been for some time very unwell, and unable to command them; that had he been otherwise, he would not so long have left the death of his nephew unpunished; that in regard to their having burnt, taken, and destroyed several towns and castles, in different parts of the kingdom, such as St. Denis and Roye, which they had plundered, they replied, that as their lords were of the blood-royal, they had a right to lead their men-at-arms through any towns in the realm, on their personal wars, for that they had very just cause for attacking the duke of Burgundy, and that in so doing they committed no offence against the king; but, in regard to having refused to open the gates of the city of Bourges when the king came in person before it, they confessed themselves guilty of contempt, for which they humbly asked his pardon, as was stated in the treaty, and offered him the keys of the town.

On the Wednesday following, the two dukes again met, with their counsellors, at the barriers in front of the city-gate, and renewed their conference. When it was concluded, they drank wine together, and separated very joyfully. On the next day, all the nobles and knights of the army assembled before the tent of the duke of Aquitaine, who appeared in state as the representative of the king. He was attended by the dukes of Bar and Lorrain, and many others of high rank. The chancellor of Aquitaine, sir John de Neelle, knight and licentiate of law, and of great eloquence, then recited most notably all the different acts of rebellion committed by John de Berry, Charles d'Orleans, John de Bourbon, John d'Alençon, Bernard d'Armagnac, and Charles d'Albreth, and their adherents, declaring their alliance with the king of England, the king's adversary, and detailing all the destruction they had brought on the kingdom, concluding a long speech by demanding, by orders of the king and of his son the duke of Aquitaine, that every person should now promptly deliver his opinion, whether there should be peace or war. Many replied, that it were better peace should be made with the above lords, and that they should be reinstated in the king's favour, than otherwise, provided the peace were a solid one; but others were of a contrary opinion, —and thus ended this meeting, which caused much murmuring. It is true, that at this time the heat of the weather was excessive, and great sickness prevailed in the army, insomuch that very many, hearing daily of the deaths of their companions, departed without taking leave. There was a great mortality among the horses, and the stench of their carcases much infected the camp.


ON Friday the 15th day of July, when all things had been settled, the dukes of Berry and of Bourbon, the lord d'Albreth, the count d'Eu", the lord John de Bar, brother to the duke of Bar, accompanied by many knights and esquires bearing their banners, came forth of the city towards the king's army, and entered the tent of the duke of Aquitaine, who was surrounded by many nobles, such as the dukes of Burgundy and Bar, and other knights and esquires, the king being afflicted with his usual disorder. After the treaty had been read : and agreed to, each kissed the other; but when the duke of Berry kissed his nephew the duke of Aquitaine, tears ran down his cheeks.

This treaty contained, among other articles, that the treaty which had been concluded at

* Charles d'Artois, count of Eu, son to the constable mencing in Robert the good count d'Artois, who was d'Eu (who died in Turkey, 1397,) and of Mary, daughter killed in Egypt in the year 1250, when accompanying his of the dukc of Berry. He married twice, but had no brother St. Louis. issue, and in him ended the roval branch of Artois, com

Chartres by the king and his council, between Charles duke of Orleans and his brothers, respecting the death of their late father, Louis duke of Orleans, on the one part, and John duke of Burgundy on the other, for being an accomplice in the aforesaid death, should be

kept inviolable for ever; and that the marriage formerly proposed between one of the ,

brothers of the Orleans family and a daughter of the duke of Burgundy should take effect.

The other articles declared, that the duke of Berry and the lords of his party should surrender to the obedience of the king all such towns and castles as the king might demand; and the duke entreated, that the king would excuse and pardon him for not having before submitted to his obedience the city of Bourges. And also, that the aforesaid lords would renounce all confederations which had been made between them, as well as all foreign alliances against the duke of Burgundy, who in like manner was to renounce the alliances he might have formed against them. That the king would restore to them, fully and completely, all their towns, castles, and forts, which he might have taken, excepting such as had been demolished or razed, which were to remain in their present state. The articles also declared, that the officers of the aforesaid lords who had been deprived of their places, should be reinstated. When they had dined, the duke of Berry presented the keys of the city of Bourges to the duke of Aquitaine, as the representative of the king, and then returned thither with his companions. The duke of Aquitaine caused the peace to be proclaimed throughout the army and country in the king's name, acting as his lieutenant. By the same proclamation, it was most strictly ordered, that henceforth no one of either party should personally abuse another, either corporally or in his fortune, nor use any opprobrious language, nor call any one by the names of Armagnac or Burgundian. On Saturday, the 16th day of the same month, king Louis of Sicily came from his possessions in Anjou and Maine, escorted by three thousand two hundred men-at-arms, knights and esquires, and accompanied by the count de Penthievre with his Bretons, to assist the king in his siege of Bourges. The king of Sicily was very much rejoiced when he was informed of the peace that had been concluded with the princes; and on the morrow, attended by the duke of Bar and a number of other knights, he went into the city, and was there magnificently entertained at dinner by the duke and duchess of Berry. The other lords dined in the duke's palace, and were grandly and plentifully served : after dinner, they all returned to the camp. On the ensuing Wednesday, the king of France decamped from before the town, having remained there, at this second siege, forty days, at an immense expense, and with his whole army marched back, the way they had come, to la Charité-surLoire, where he was lodged. Thither came the dukes of Berry and of Bourbon, and the lord d'Albreth, with the commissioners from the duke of Orleans and his brothers, who, in the tent of the duke of Aquitaine, and in his presence and in that of the principal lords, made oath on the holy evangelists punctually and faithfully to observe the peace that had been concluded at Bourges. They promised to swear the same in the presence of the king; and as the duke of Orleans and his brothers were absent, they solemnly engaged that they would meet the king, to take this oath personally before him, on any appointed day, at Auxerre: when this was done, they returned home. The peace was again proclaimed by the king's orders; and all persons were strictly enjoined, whatever might be their rank, not to molest each other in body or estate, and not to use any defamatory language, or call any one by the name of Armagnac. After this, the king of Sicily, the dukes of Aquitaine, Burgundy, and Bar, and all the princes, counts, barons, and chivalry, departed. The king retained with him a great body of the captains of his army, and their men-at-arms, and gave permission for all the rest to return to their homes. He went thence to Auxerre, and was lodged in the episcopal palace: the king of Sicily and the duke of Aquitaine were quartered in the town, and their men in the adjacent villages. The lord Gilles de Bretagne, on his arrival at Auxerre, died of a dysentery. In like manner, the count de Mortain, brother to the king of Navarre, lost his life either at Auxerre or at Sancerre from the same disorder. His body was carried to Paris, and interred in the church of the Carthusians. Aymé de Vitry, sir John de Guistelle, John d’Icquennie, and several others, died on their road home; and this disorder was so fatal that from one thousand to twelve hundred knights and esquires, not including varlets, died of it, as it was reported to the lords in Auxerre. When the marshal de Boucicaut, the count de Foix, and the lord de St. George, who were carrying on the war against the count d'Armagnac, heard that peace was concluded between the king and his enemies, they disbanded their army, and gave permission for all to return home. During the time the king was at Auxerre, he had summoned the greater part of his nobles and prelates thither, as well as the chief citizens of the great towns, to witness the solemn swearing to the observance of the peace. But before they could arrive, other intelligence was brought, which was far from being agreeable, namely, that the English were at anchor, , , with their whole navy, before the town of la Hogue de St. Vas, in the country of Coutantin; that they had made a descent, and spread themselves over the adjacent countries, destroying or plundering everything they could find, and that their numbers amounted to about eight thousand, of whom two thousand were men-at-arms, and the rest archers or infantry, and that they were under the command of the duke of Clarence, second son to the king of England. These English had landed in consequence of the treaty between the dukes of Berry and Orleans and their allies, and the king of England, and were on their march to assist in raising the siege of Bourges. The counts of Alençon and Richemont went to meet them, and received them most joyfully, although they had come too late to do them any effectual service; but, notwithstanding this, they exerted themselves to the utmost to supply them with horses and provision. This force was much increased by the junction of six hundred Gascon helmets that had likewise been subsidized by the confederates at Bourges. When these forces were united, they overran the country, and committed great destruction. The prisoners confined at Lille, as before mentioned, consisted of the lord de Hangest, formerly master of the cross-bows of France, sir Louis de Bourdon, sir Charles de Gerammes, Enguerrand des Fontaines, and some others. They were all set at liberty by the count de la Marche, on each paying a large ransom to the person who had made him prisoner; and in like manner were all others delivered, by exchange or by ransom. About the feast of the Assumption of our Lady, those who had been summoned by the king of France arrived at Auxerre. In their number, the Parisians came in great pomp ; and the dukes of Berry and Bourbon, and the lord d'Albreth, also attended. The lord d'Albreth, soon after his arrival, wished to resume the office of constable ; but the count Waleran de St. Pol would not suffer him, and exercised it himself. Many high words passed between them; and the lord d'Albreth, having taken the oaths of peace, retired much displeased and indignant. On the ensuing Monday, the duke of Orleans and his brother, the count de Vertus, came to Auxerre, escorted by about two thousand combatants. When all the lords were arrived, they assembled on an extensive plain without the city, near to a convent of nuns, where had been erected a handsome scaffolding, richly adorned, on which was the duke of Aquitaine, as representative of his father, the king of Sicily, the dukes of Burgundy, of Bar, and others. The duke of Burgundy and his party repeated the oaths they had before taken, as also did the duke of Orleans and his friends: and the same proposal of marriage as had been made at Chartres, was again solemnly agreed to take place, between the count de Vertus and a daughter of the duke of Burgundy, on the terms before mentioned. The aforesaid lords then publicly renounced all confederations and alliances which they had formed with Henry king, of England, with his sons, or with any others of the English nation, enemies to France, the * duke of Burgundy having before declared that he had no connexion with them,-and they agreed to write such letters to the king of England as the king and his council should advise. They also promised and swore to renew their oaths respecting the observance of this peace in the king's presence, so soon as he should have recovered his health, for at that time he had had a relapse,_and to sign such papers as he would please, that they would never again form any confederations or alliances against each other; and that if either of them should attempt to infringe the articles of this peace, the others would unite against him or them to enforce their due observance, and oblige them to listen to reason. At this ceremony, by orders of the king, were some of the members of the parliament, of the chamber of accounts, and of the university of Paris, the provosts of Paris and of the merchants, the sheriffs and some of the principal citizens, to many of whom this treaty was W’t).L. I. Q

not very agreeable. There were also present, in consequence of the king's summons, very many from Rouen, Caen, Amiens, Tournay, Laon, Rheims, Troyes, Langres, Tours, and from the chief towns in the kingdom.

When this solemnity was over, all the great lords went to dine with the duke of Aquitaine at his lodgings. At this entertainment, which was most splendid and abundant, the duke of Burgundy served, and the counts de Nevers and de St. Pol, assisted by other noble knights, carried the dishes. After they had dined, the company amused themselves by playing at divers games. Th se being ended. towards dusk all retired to their lodgings. On the morrow, and for several days following, they continued feasting together, and, according to all outward appearances, were in great harmony with each other. Even the dukes of Orleans and Burgundy rode out together, both on the same horse *, in company with other lords, and showed such mutual affection as is becoming brothers and near relations. Nevertheless, some wicked tongues were not sparing of them behind their backs, but loudly spoke their minds. With regard to the people, they were in such crowds that it need not be asked if they were pleased,—for they continually shouted out, “Gloria in excelsis Deo,” as if they wished to praise the gloriousness of the heavens. It indeed seemed to them a kind of miracle that such bitter hatred as had existed between these great lords should be so specdily appeased.

When every thing was concluded, and because this epidemic disorder raged at Auxerre, the king and princes departed, and went by Sens to Melun, where great feasts and entertainments, with justings and dancings, were held by the queen and her court, for joy of the happy reconciliation that had taken place between the princes of the blood royal. In truth, while the king resided at Melun, he recovered his health, and then, at the entreaties of the queen, his daughter, the dukes of Aquitaine and Burgundy, and of the king of Sicily, he approved of and ratified the treaty of peace that had been made. In consequence, he delivered up all the castles, towns and lands, which he had seized on account of the rebellion of his nephews and other lords, as well secular as ecclesiastic, and restored them to their free possession. They thus re-entered their towns and castles, but without any restitution for the damages which had been done to them : several of them had been nearly destroyed; and the vineyards, forests and other lands, had suffered greatly, with various mischiefs that had been done to the farms. That this peace might be publicly known, and that no one might plead ignorance, but that it should remain for ever inviolate, the king issued the following edict.


“CHARLEs, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting.—Among the heavy and continued anxieties which we always feel for the preservation of our crown and kingdom, the warmest wish we have is to nourish love and affection among our subjects, and to guard them from all oppressions and other inconveniences which are consequent on civil commotions, that they may live under us in perfect tranquillity. Whereas many very serious discords and divisions have arisen within our realm between several of the princes of our royal blood, their adherents and allies, which have caused great mischiefs to ensue, to the detriment of our faithful subjects; and others still more disastrous might have followed, had we not provided a sufficient remedy. These discords have occasioned to us the utmost grief of heart; and for this reason we make known to thee, that through the grace of the sovereign King of kings, our Creator and Saviour, and the Giver of all peace; and through the diligent exertions of our very dear and well-beloved son the duke of Aquitaine, dauphin of Vienne, and others who have laboured with him, we have concluded a sound peace with the aforesaid princes, our kindred, and their confederates, in the manner and form expressed in the treaty drawn up for this purpose. By this treaty all rancour and malevolence between one party and another are extinguished, and the princes aforesaid have solemnly sworn on the holy evangelists, in the presence of our very dear son, many prelates and other persons, that they will strictly observe every article of it, and no way infringe it, according to the oaths which they had before taken on a similar occasion. “For this reason, we therefore enjoin, and most strictly command, thee to proclaim this peace in all the squares and public places of Amiens, by sound of trumpet, and then to make proclamation of the same in all the villages and other places within thy bailiwick, particularly ordering all our subjects most faithfully to keep this peace, under pain of our highest displeasure, and of being criminally guilty towards our royal person, forbidding any person, whatever may be their rank, in our name, in any wise to offend against any of its articles, on pain of being corporally punished, with confiscation of property. We, moreover, enjoin thee, that thou do punish most severely and publicly, according to the exigency of the case, any who shall be found violating this peace in any degree whatever, either by word or deed, who may be regularly accused before thee, so that it may serve as an example to all others. “Given at Melun, in the year of Grace 1412, and in the 32d of our reign.” - Signed by the king from the report made to him by the council held by my lords the dukes of Aquitaine, Perry, Burgundy, Orleans and Bourbon, the counts of Vertus and Alençon, and John de Bar, with others present at it. Countersigned, “Emau, inspector.” The English, during this time, had advanced, from the Coutantin, into the countries of Maine and Touraine, despoiling the districts they marched through with fire and sword. A grand council was held on this subject at Melun, presided by the duke of Aquitaine as the king's locum tenens, and at which were present the king of Sicily, the dukes of Berry, Burgundy, Orleans and Bourbon, the count de Vertus, the chancellors of France, Aquitaine, and of Orleans, the lords de Torsy, d'Offemont, with others, the provost of the merchants, the sheriffs and council of Paris, when it was ordered, that all persons capable of bearing arms, noble or not, should assenble properly equipped, at Chartres, on the 8th day of October ensuing ; at which time and place, they should receive pay for the defence of the realm, and to drive the ancient enemies of France out of the kindgom. This edict was copied, and sent to the principal seneschalships and bailiwicks of France sealed with the royal seal, by the aforesaid princes, that a sufficient force might be provided against the 8th day of October. The Parisians, as being more nearly affected, hastened to raise their levies of men-at-arms and archers at Paris or at Melun, -and others in the adjacent countries. Every one, on the receipt of the king's edict, assembled his quota. Had the duke of Berry and those of his party kept the engagements they had made with the English, and paid them the large sum of two hundred thousand crowns, according to their promises, they were ready to return to Fngland, either through Aquitaine or Bordeaux; but from the melancholy state of the country, they were unable to raise this sum by any means they could offer, and thus their terms not being fulfilled, the English thought they might pay themselves. The king of Sicily returned, however, to Anjou, to raise men for the defence of his territories, whither the English were fast advancing. In these days, the duke of Aquitaine reinstated the eldest son of the late grand master Montagu in his office of chamberlain, andobtained, through his entreaties with the king, that all his estates should be restored, which ought to have descended to him by right of inheritance, so that, with the exception of some trifling confiscations, he regained all the patrimony he would have inherited from his father and mother. He obtained likewise the head of his father; and one evening, about vespers, the provost of Paris, with his executioner, attended by twelve guards, or thereabout, holding lighted torches and carrying a ladder, followed by a priest dressed in his robes, came to the market-place, when the executioner mounted the ladder to where the head of the late grand-master had been fixed to the end of a lance, and, taking it off, delivered it to the priest, who received it in a handsome napkin. Thus wrapped up, he placed it on his shoulder, and carried it, attended by these lighted torches, to the hôtel of the late Montagu, grand-master of the king's household.

*This was a singular method of publicly displaying fami- poverty and humility, bore two knights on one horse as liarity. In some of the old romances we read of adventurous their device: but we have never met with anything to knights assisting the unfortunate by “giving them a lift,” show that the practice was usual.—Ep. in this manner; and the knights Templars, in token of

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