daily, without regard to sex, drowned in the Seine, or miserably put to death, without any form of law or justice.

On the 26th day of May, the king went to the parliament, and, at the instance of the duke of Burgundy and the Parisians, held a royal sitting, and caused several edicts to be published respecting the reformation of abuses. These, and other regulations for the government of the kingdom, were sent to the different bailiwicks, and other usual places, for proclamation. One of them was directed against sir Clugnet de Brabant, who in company with other captains had assembled in great force on the river Loire, to be ready to march to Paris,the tenor of which was as follows.

“ Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting.- Whereas it has come to our knowledge, that not withstanding the very great oppressions which our subjects have suffered in various parts of our realm from thie assembling of large bodies of men-at-arms, which the princes of our blood, and other barons, have thought proper, at different periods, to raise on their own authority,—there are still several who now continue such practices, to the great grievance of our faithful subjects. We have caused to be published and proclaimed throughout our realm, as well by messages as by sealed letters, our strict prohibition of such acts, under very heavy penalties; and we have ordered, that none, of whatever rank he may be, subject or foreigner, shall have the boldness to raise any men in future on their own sole authority, whether by way of companies or otherwise, without our special orders, or in obedience to our summons to come to serve us.

“ Several of our kindred, however, contrary to these our orders, and in opposition to the treaty of peace lately concluded at Auxerre by us, to put an end to dissentions which had arisen in our family, and which the solemnly swore to observe, are now preparing to assemble large bodies of men-at-arms without any authority or licence from us, and to unite them with a numerous army of English and foreigners, to carry into effect their damnable purposes, which they have plotted against us and our government, according to the information we have received.

“We have been repeatedly assured that they are favoured and supported by many in an underhand manner; and to force others to join them, they harass and despoil all who have served us, more especially those who assisted us in our late expedition to Bourges, when we considered them as enemies of the state, and marched thither with the intent of correcting them sufficiently for their outrageous conduct. They at this moment, as we have had sufficient information, commit every sort of violence, by killing our subjects, violating damsels, setting fire to houses and villages, and despoiling churches, and many other atrocious crimes, such as the bitterest enemies of the country would commit, and which are such bad examples that they must not longer be suffered.

In consequence, therefore, of the lamentations and heavy complaints that have been made to us, we are resolved to remedy these grievances, which are so highly displeasing to us, in the most effectual manner: we therefore most expressly enjoin and command you, by these presents, that you instantly make public proclamation, by sound of trumpet, of this our prohibition, for any knight, esquire, or others accustomed to bear arms, of whatever rank they may be, -and we order them, on pain of our severest anger, and on the loyalty they owe us, not to arm themselves, nor to join any bodies that may have assembled in arms within our kingdom without our special authority, nor to obey the summons of any one related to our person or not, on any occasion whatever, unless they be particularly ordered by us to join them for the good of our service.

“All whom you shall hear of having such intentions, you will command, in our name, to desist, and peaceably to return to their dwellings, or whither else they may please, without doing any harm to our subjects. Should they refuse to obey your orders, and persist in their wicked intentions, you will instantly take possession, in our name, of all their castles, dwellings, and possessions, causing an exact inventory to be made out, of th real and annual value, which you will place in the hands of safe persons to administer such estates, to render us an exact account of their amount, and to relinquish them whenever we may see good. You will also proceed against them as rebels; for we abandon them to you to imprison and punish according as you shall judge expedient. You will likewise, should they have quitted


their dweilings, pursue them by every means in your power, shutting them out from all towns, and depriving them of provisions, and harassing them in every way deserving of their disobedience, and to serve as an example to others.

“ It is not, however, our intention that such of the princes of our blood as are now near our person, and in our service, should be prevented from ordering their vassals to come to them, or from employing them for our welfare, as they shall specify in their summons; but they must not, on their march, live on the country, or despoil the inhabitants. Should any of them do the contrary, we command you to proceed against them as against the aforesaid ; and you will inflict on them such punishments as their demerits require, without paying regard to any letters of protection they may show to you.

" To enable you to execute these our orders, we give you full authority to call upon assemble all our vassals and subjects to your aid, and as many as you shall think necessary for the occasion, and to lead them to any parts of your bailiwick where you shall hear of any robberies or other rebellious acts being done. And we strictly enjoin, by these presents, all our vassals and subjects, on the faith and loyalty they owe us, and under pain of corporal punishment and confiscation of goods, to obey your orders, and to assist you heartily to accomplish the above commands. That no one may pretend ignorance of them, you will cause these presents to be proclaimed in all the different parts of your bailiwick, or wherever else you shall judge proper. We also command all our officers of justice, and others having authority under us, and we entreat all our friends and wellwishers, to aid and support you on this service, and diligently to keep up a good understanding with you thereon, and to show you every favour, even allowing their dwellings to be turned into prisons, should the exigency of any case require it,-for we delegate to you full and complete authority, notwithstanding any opposition or appeal made to the contrary. Given at Paris the 6th day of June, in the year of Grace 1413, and of our reign the 33d."

Then signed by the king, on the report of his council, – at which were present my lords of Berry, Burgundy, the constable, the chancellor of Burgundy, Charles de Savoisy, Anthony de Craon, the lords de Viefville, de Montberon, Cambrilach, d’Allegrez, and many others. -“P. NAUCRON.”

This edict was gent to the different bailiwicks and seneschalships in the kingdom of France, and proclaimed in the usual places.








This year, Ladislaus king of Naples and Sicily, at the instigation of some false and disloyal traitors, marched a very large army to Rome, which he entered without resistance, and began to pillage the whole of it,-at the same time making prisoners the most powerful and rich citizens, who were forced to ransom themselves by paying heavy sums of money. Pope John and his cardinals witnessing these transactions, took flight in the utmost fear, and escaped from castle to castle, until they at length reached Bologna, where the pope fixed his court. The greater part of their estates were despoiled by this army of Ladislaus, who for a long time reigned in Rome ; and when, in consequence of certain accommodations he departed, he carried away many precious jewels from the churches and palaces.

Sir James de la Riviere, brother to the count de Dampmartin, was taken prisoner with the duke of Bar, in the hôtel of the duke of Aquitaine, and carried to the palace-prison, where it was reported, that from indignation at this treatment, he had struck himself so roughly with a pewter-pot on the head as to beat his brains out. His body was thence carried in a cart to the market place of Paris, and beheaded. But the truth was otherwise; for sir Elion de Jacqueville, knight to the duke of Burgundy, visiting him in prison, high words passed between them, and he called him a false traitor. Sir James replied, that he lied, for that he was none such,—when Jacqueville, enraged, struck him so severe a blow on the head with a light battle-axe which he had in his hand, that he killed him. He the:

made upon


spread abroad this rumour of his having put an end to his life himself by means of a pewter pot, which was propagated by others through the town, and believed by very many.

Shortly after this event, Mesnil Berry, carver to the duke of Aquitaine, and a native of Normandy, was led to the market-place, and there beheaded. His head and that of sir James de la Riviere were affixed to two lances, and their bodies hung by the shoulders on the gibbet of Montfaucon. On the Thursday in Whitsun-week, Thomelin de Brie, who had been page to the king, was, with two others, taken from the prison of the Châtelet to the market-place, and beheaded : their leads were fixed on three spears, and their bodies hung at Montfaucon by the shoulders. These executions took place at the request of the Parisians. And because sir Reginald * de Corbie, a native of Beauvais, though an old and discreet man, was not agreeable to them, he was dismissed from his office of Chancellor of France, and sir Eustache de Lactret, at the solicitation of the duke of Burgundy, appointed to succeed liim.

On Tuesday, the 20th of June, Philip count de Nevers espoused, at the castle of Beaumont, the sister of the count d'Eu, in the presence of the duchess of Bourbon, her mother, and the damsel of Dreux, who had been principally instrumental in forming this marriage.

After the festivities of the wedding, the new-married couple were conducted by the duchess of Bourbon and the damsel of Dreux to Maizieres, on the Meuse, which belonged to the count de Nevers. The count d'Eu, who had been of the party, soon after returned to his country, where he collected a large body of men-at-arms, to the amount of two thousand combatants, under the pretext of making war on the lord de Croy, in revenge for an attack

him some time since, as has been mentioned, by his eldest son sir John de Croy; but it was not so, for he marched his army across the Seine, at Pont-de-l'Arche, and thence Verneuil in Perche, where were assembled king Louis of Sicily, the dukes of Orleans, Brittany,

and Bourbon, the counts de Vertus and d'Alençon, with many other great barons, lords, and DA knights, not only on account of the imprisonment of the dukes of Bar and Bavaria, or of the

other prisoners, but for the deliverance of the duke of Aquitaine, who had informed them by letters, which had been confirmed by the count de Vertus, that he himself, the king, and the queen, were kept as prisoners under the control of the Parisians, and that they were not allowed any liberty, which was highly displeasing to them, and disgraceful to royalty. This had caused so large an assembly of these great lords, who, after mature consideration, wrote letters to the king, to his great council, and to the Parisians, desiring them to allow the duke of Aquitaine to go whithersoever he pleased, and to set at liberty the dukes of Bar and of Bavaria, and all other prisoners. Should they refuse to comply, they declared war against the town of Paris, which they would destroy to the utmost of their power, and all within it, except the king and such of his royal blood as may have therein remained. With regard to those that had been murdered, they said nothing of them ; for as they were dead, they could not have them back. These letters were laid before the king in council, where it was determined to send ambassadors to these lords to negotiate a peace, who were kindly receivod by them.

On Saturday, the first day of July, after his trial had been concluded, sir Peter des Essars, lately provost of Paris, and son to the late Philippe des Essars, a citizen of that town, was beheaded in the market-place, his head fixed on the market-house, and his body bung at Montfaucon in the usual manner. His brother, sir Anthony, was in great danger of being also executed ; but through the activity of some friends, a delay of his trial was procured, and he afterwards obtained his full liberty.

In these days, as the king was in good health, he went to the cathedral of Paris to say his prayers and hear mass. When it was over, he visited the holy relics : he departed and returned to his hotel, accompanied by the duke of Burgundy and the constable of France,

and followed by crowds of people who had assembled to see him. On the morrow, the 6th Lot of July, it was ordered in the king's council, presided by the duke of Aquitaine, that John

de Moreul, knight to the duke of Burgundy, should be the bearer of letters and royal summons to the two bailiwicks of Amiens and of Vermandois, and to all the provostships within

Called “ Ernault” a little after, which agrees with de Corbie in 1413, and is succeeded by Eustache de Moreri's Arnold.-See ante, p. 208, note.

Laitre in 1418. t In Morcri's list, Henry de Marle succeeds Arnauld

them. He was commanded to assemble all the prelates, counsellors, and magistrates of these districts, and then, in full meeting, to read aloud these letters from the king, sealed with his great seal, and dated this 6th day of July. Countersigned “ John Millet,” according to the resolution of council, at which had been present the duke of Burgundy, the constable of France, the chancellor of Aquitaine, the chancellor of Burgundy, and several others.

These letters contained, in substance, an exhortation that they would remain steady and loyal in their duty to the king, and be ready to serve him or the dauphin whenever and wherever they should be summoned to march against the enemies of the kingdom and the public weal; that they should place confidence in his knight, counsellor and chamberlain, sir John de Moreul, according to the instructions given him under the king's privy seal, which he was to show and give them to read. When he had visited many towns and provostships in these bailiwicks, he came on Monday the 16th day of July, from Dourlens to Amiens, and there, in the presence of the nobles, prelates, and principal inhabitants of the great towns within the district, he read his letters and instructions with a clear and loud voice, for he was a man of great eloquence. He explained how much the peace and union of the kingdom had been and was troubled; how the trials of those who had been beheaded at Paris were carried on before a sufficient number of able and honest men, as well knights as advocates of the parliament, and other lords and discreet men, who had been nominated for this purpose by the king; and how sir James de la Riviere, in despair, had killed himself with a pewter pot in which he had had wine, as well as the manner in which he had done it.

The charges which were brought against those who had been beheaded occupied each sixty sheets of paper,—and he assured them, that good and impartial justice had been administered to all who had been executed, without favour or hatred having any concern in their just sentences. He asserted, that the duke of Aquitaine had never written such letters | to the princes of the Orleans party as they had published; and he concluded,—“Know then, all ye present, that what I have just being saying are notorious truths." After this, he asked whether they were loyal and obedient to the king, and desired they would tell him their intentions. The nobles and prelates, and the rest of the assembly, instantly replied, that they had always been obedient to the king, and were ready to serve him, believing that he had told them the truth. In confirmation of this, he required letters from the provost, with which he returned to Paris. In like manner were other kniglits sent, in the king's naine, with similar letters and instructions to the different bailiwicks and seneschalships within the realm, who, being equally successful, returned with letters of the same import.

While these things were passing, the English appeared off the coast of Normandy with a large fleet of ships, and landed at the town of Treport, where having plundered all they could find, and made some prisoners, they set fire to it, and burnt the town and monastery, and also some of the adjoining villagts. When they had remained about twenty-two hours on shore, they re-embarked and made sail for England with their booty,



On Wednesday, the 12th day of July, the ambassadors whom the king and the dukes of Aquitaine, Berry, and Burgundy, had sent to the princes of the blood, namely, the bishop of Tournay, the grand-master of Rhodes, the lords d'Offemont, and de la Viefville, master Peter de Marigny, and some others, returned from their embassy. The answer they had brought having been soon after considered in council, the king ordered the dukes of Berry and Burgundy to go with the aforesaid ambassadors to Puntoise, when the king of Sicily, the dukes of Orleans and of Bourbon, the counts d’Alençon and d'Eu, came to Vernon, and thence sent their ambassadors to Pontoise, to explain to the dukes of Berry and Burgundy, and the other ambassadors, the causes of their griefs, and the great miseries that must ensue should the war take place that was on the point of breaking ont.

One of their ambassadors harangued well in clear and good French on the above subjects : the substance of what he said was as follows. “ To explain what has been intrusted to its by our lords, namely, the king of Sicily, the dukes of Orleans and of Bourbon, the counts

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Pontoise, as it appeared in the Sixteenth Century.-From a print in Chastillion's Topograpina lor..çoise.

d'Alençon and d'Eu, to you, my very redoubted lords of Berry and Burgundy, and to the gentlemen of the great council of the king and of my lord of Aquitaine, now in their company, since it becomes me to speak the words of peace, trusting in Him who is the sole author of peace, and in the good will of my hearers, I shall take my text from the 33d Psalm, 'Oculi mei semper ad Dominum ; that is to say, My eyes are always turned to the Lord; and continue my discourse from what the wise Plato says, among other notable things, that all princes or others intrusted with the affairs of government should obey the commands of their sovereign in all they shall do for the public welfare, laying aside every private consideration for their own advantage, and regard themselves as part of a whole, the smallest member of which being wounded, the effect is felt by the head or chief lord.

“I consider, therefore, the kingdom of France as a body, of which our sovereign lord the king is the head, and his subjects the members. But in what degree shall I place my lords the princes who have sent us hither, or you, my lords, who hear me? for we know of no other head but our sovereign lord.— I can neither liken you to the head nor to the aforesaid members, on account of your rank ; but I think I may compare you to the members nearest to the head, for among them may be counted the eyes, which are of the greatest use

I shall consequently compare you to the eyes, and for three singularly good reasons. “ First, the eyes ought to be well placed and formed alike; for should one be placed differently from the other, half closed or awry, the whole person is disgraced and acquires the name of Blind or Squinter. Now, it seems to me, that as my lords who have sent us, and you, my lords, who hear me, have persons handsomely made, you ought to be of one mind, and tending towards good; for you have eyes of a clear understanding, and of real affection, Oculi sapientis in capite ejus.' --Secondly, the eyes are the most striking parts of the Juman body, and have a full view over every part of it, as the prophet Ezekiel says, in his 33d chapter, “Speculatorem dedi te domui Israel. Just so are our princes of the blood, for from their singular and strong affection to their sovereign lord and his kingdom, they constantly watch over and guard him.--Thirdly, from the nobleness of the eye, which is of a circular form, and of such sensibility that when any other member of the body is hurt, or

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