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lens, through fear of the duke of Burgundy, dared only to proclaim it once, and in their own courts, when few people were present. Soon after, Remonnet de la Guerre was ordered by the king and constable to Noyon and Nesle, to aid sir Thomas de Lersies, bailiff of the Vermandois, in defending the country against the Burgundians. War was now openly declared between the contending factions in that and divers other places of the realm. In truth, wherever any of the king's officers could lay hands on the partisans of the duke of Burgundy, none escaped, whether nobles or not, from being sentenced to death; and more especially all who fell into the hands of the governor of Noyon and the parts adjacent were put to death without mercy, insomuch that many trees near to that town were marvellously laden with such fruits.
CHAPTER CLVIII.--THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY INCREASES HIS MEN-AT-ARMS.–THE MARRIAGE OF THE LORD DE LA TREMOUILLE--THE DUKE OF CLARENCE EMBARKS A LARGE ARMY FOR HARFLEUR.
The duke of Burgundy, when he heard of this edict, so prejudicial and disgraceful to himself and his friends, was more than ever indignant and irritated against those who governed the king. He very much increased the number of his men-at-arms, and even consented to their quartering themselves on his own territories in the Cambresis, Tierrache, Vermandois, Santerre, and the whole country from the Somme to the sea-coast, toward Montreuil and Crotoy. Justice was now no longer attended to or maintained in those parts; and the powerful nobles cruelly treated churchmen and the poorer ranks. With regard to the provosts and others of the king's officers of justice, few, if any of them, dared to do their duty. The tradesmen could not venture abroad with their goods out of the fortified towns without paying tribute for passports, under risk of being robbed and murdered.
At this time the widowed duchess of Berry espoused the lord de la Trémouille,” who was not beloved by the duke of Burgundy; and because this duchess was in her own right countess of the Boulonois, the duke sent the lord de Fosseux, then governor of Artois, to take possession of the town of Boulogne. This was done, but the lord de Moruelt remained governor of it in the king's name, against the English. At this same period, the duke of Clarence, brother to the king of England, sailed from the port of Sandwich with three hundred vessels full of English, whom he led to Harfleur, and destroyed the French navy under the command of the constable of France, who had for some time besieged that town. Many were killed on board the fleet; but when the duke of Clarence had revictualled it, and supplied his losses, he sailed back to England much rejoiced at his good success.
CHAPTER CLIX. —THE EMPEROR OF GERMANY AND THE RING OF ENGLAND COME TO CALAIS.–DUKE JOHN OF BURGUNDY MEETS THEM THERE.--THE MATTERS THAT WERE THEN TRANSACTED.
About the feast of St. Remy, in this year, the emperor of Germany and the king of England came to Calais, attended by numbers of nobles. The duke of Burgundy there met them, and was most honourably received; and the duke of Gloucester, brother to king Henry, went to St. Omer as hostage for the duke of Burgundy, where he was nobly entertained by the count de Charolois, and by other great lords appointed for that purpose. IIowever, when the count de Charolois visited the duke of Gloucester the day after his arrival, attended by some of the lords of his council, to do him honour and keep him company, the duke had his back turned towards him as the count entered the apartment, and was so engaged in talking to some of his attendants that he forgot to make the usual salutations to the count, but said, shortly enough, “You are welcome, fair cousin,” but without advancing to meet him, and continued his conversation with the English. The count de Charolois, notwithstanding his youth, was much hurt and displeased at this conduct, although at the moment he showed no signs of it. In the conferences held at Calais, the king of England earnestly requested the duke of Burgundy not to assist the king of France against him, in which case he would divide some of his future conquests with him ; promising at the same time not to attack any of his territories, or those of his allies or well-wishers. The duke refused to agree to this; but the truce that existed between them was prolonged until Michaelmas-day in the year 1419. At that time, as I was informed, the duke of Burgundy did homage to the emperor for his counties of Burgundy and Alost. When he had remained in Calais nine days, and finished the business on which he had come, he took leave of the king and returned to St. Omer, whence the duke of Gloucester came to Calais. The king of France and his ministers were much astonished at this visit of the duke of Burgundy, and believed for certain that he had allied himself with king Henry, to the prejudice of the king and kingdom of France.
* George, lord of la Trémouille, Sully, Craon, Jonvelle, &c. by descent; count of Boulogne, Auvergne, and Guisnes, by marriage with Jane, heiress of those counties, and widow of the duke of Berry. Moreri says he was made prisoner at Azincourt, though not mentioned in the list of prisoners by Monstrelet. He was successively conservator of waters and forests, grand-chamberlain of France, and lieutenant-general of the duchy of Burgundy. His wife, the duchess of Berry, brought him no issue; but
on her death in 1423, he married the heiress of l'Isle
chapTER CLX. —The DUKE of BURGUNDY Goes To VALENCIENNES, IN obedience to A SUMMONS WHICH HE RECEIVES FROM THE DAUPHIN.—THEY MUTUALLY SWEAR FRIENDship to each other.
On the return of the duke of Burgundy from Calais. duke William count of Hainault sent ambassadors to him, to request that he would meet the dauphin his son-in-law, which he refused, because he had frequently sent to his brother-in-law, duke William in Holland, to desire he would bring the dauphin into those parts, and it had not been complied with. The dauphin, nevertheless, wrote letters with his own hand to the duke of Burgundy, to come to him at Valenciennes, who promised the messengers that he would be there, and indeed he went thither on the 12th day of November.
Duke William went out of Valenciennes the length of a league to meet him, carrying with him the dauphin. On the morrow such matters were discusses, and agreed on as shall be hereafter mentioned, in the presence of the countess of Hainault, the count de Charolois, the count de Conversan, and many other able knights and esquires, and the ministers of the three parties, namely sir Jean de Luxembourg, sir Jacques de Harcourt, the chancellor to the dauphin, Baudouin de Fresnes, treasurer of Hainault, Robert de Vandegrès, Jean bastard of Blois, master Eustace de Lactre, the lord d'Antoing, the vidame of Amiens, the lord de Fosseux, the lord d'Ancre, the lord de Robais, the lord de Humbercourt, sir Hue de Launoy, sir Guillaume Bouvier, governor of Arras, sir Athis de Brimeu, sir Andrieu de Valines, master Philippe de Morvillers, and many more.
First, the duke of Burgundy offered himself and his services to the dauphin, and promised on his oath to serve the king his father and himself to the utmost of his power, against all their enemies. This promise the dauphin received with pleasure, and, in return, made oath that he would aid and defend the duke of Burgundy against his enemies and all ill-wishers to him or to his subjects. The dauphin then affectionately requested the duke to join the king in the defence of his realm against the attacks of the English, which he promised and swore me would. He next required of the duke that he would keep the peace that had been concluded at Auxerre. The duke replied that he would most willingly do so, for he was very desirous of maintaining that peace, and that he wished ill to no one but to the king of Sicily. The dauphin was satisfied with this auswer, and made offer to the duke that if there were any articles in the peace which he wished to have altered, or if he desired others to be added, as well in regard to what had passed then as since, it should be done. All present then made oath to the duke of Burgundy for the observance of what had been said,
and duke William and the duke of Burgundy mutually swore to maintain brotherly affection, and that they would endeavour to establish a good government for the king of France and the dauphin, that they would mutually support each other, as well when absent as present, by risking their persons in maintaining whatever they should have agreed upon. Duke William added, that in respect to the war between France and England, his predecessors had no way interfered, and that he intended in this matter to follow their example, lest his countries should suffer for it. Duke William afterward promised the duke of Burgundy, that he would not intrust the dauphin to the hands of any person of whom he was not sure, for the better security of the engagements just entered into; and that within fifteen days he would visit the queen of France, and would arrange matters with her so that he should regain her friendship and support for the good of the king and realm. When all these matters had been concluded, the duke of Burgundy and his people returned to Douay.
CHAPTER CLXI.-DUKE WILLIAM COUNT OF HAINAULT CARRIES HIS SON-IN-LAW THE DAUPHIN TO ST. QUENTIN, AND THENCE TO COMPIEGNE, where HE DIES.–THE CONDUCT OBSERVED ON THIS JOURNEY.
On the 14th day of November, duke William carried back the dauphin to his castle of Quesnoy, whither ambassadors of different ranks were sent by the king and queen to recal the dauphin to the presence of the king in Paris; but, notwithstanding their remonstrances, he remained at Quesnoy until after Christmas. Duke William then conducted him to St. Quentin in the Vermandois, where they waited for the queen until the Epiphany; and because the queen would not come to St. Quentin, the duke carried the dauphin to Compiegne, where he was lodged in the king's palace. Shortly after, the countess of Hainault came thither with her daughter the dauphiness, and a large company.
The queen came in great state from Paris to Senlis, accompanied by her son the duke of Touraine and her son-in-law the duke of Brittany, and the great council of the king. At the same time, the young duke d'Alençon, and other lords of his age, went to Compiegne to pay their court to the dauphin. Negotiations now took place between Senlis and Compiegne. The countess of Hainault carried the dauphiness to visit the queen at Senlis, when, after spending some time together in much cheerfulness, they went back to Compiegne, and the queen returned to Paris, whither the negociations were transferred between duke William, the ministers of the dauphin, and ambassadors from the duke of Burgundy. True it is, that at this time the dauphin sent letters, sealed with his great seal, to the bailiffs of Vermandois and Amiens, and other places, commanding them to proclaim a cessation of warfare on all sides, on pain of corporal punishment and confiscation of effects; but they were of little service to the poor people, for the men-at-arms did not the less overrun and oppress the country.
On the last day but one in March, duke William declared in the full audience of the king's council at Paris, that he would unite the dauphin with the duke of Burgundy, or carry the dauphin back to Hainault, if measures were not instantly taken for restoring peace to the kingdom. The ministers, hearing this, resolved that the duke should be arrested and confined until he had given up the dauphin to the king his father. The duke was secretly informed of this by a friend, and on the morrow very early, under pretext of performing a pilgrimage to St. Maur-des-Fosses, and returning to Paris in the evening, he hastened with only two attendants to Compiegne. He found the dauphin most dangerously ill, insomuch that he died on Palm Sunday: his disorder was an imposthume in the ear, which burst and suffocated him. When dead, he was put into a leaden coffin and buried at St. Corneille", in the presence of duke William, his lady, and the dauphiness, who gave large sums for masses to be said for the welfare of his soul. The duke and his family returned in great grief to Hainault.
It was commonly reported that the dauphin had been poisoned by some of those who governed the king, because he and his elder brother had been too much attached to the duke of [Suround v.
*- - * St. Corneille de Complegne, -an abbey near that town.
cuAPTER CLXII. *—THE NEAPolitans REBEL AGAINST THEIR KING, JACQUES DE LA MARCHE, AND MAKE WAR ON HIM.–THEY TAKE THE QUEEN PRISONER.—THE CONSEQUENCES THAT FOLLOW.
This year the Neapolitans rebelled against king James count de la Marche, and would have made him prisoner had he not been informed in time of their intentions. They confined the queen, and made a bitter war against him and his supporters. The constable and the lord de St. Maurice, his father-in-law, were imprisoned. The king, for his greater security, embarked on board a brigantine for the castle del Ovo, leaving a good garrison in Castel Nuovo. This war lasted until the 27th day of October in the same year, when peace was made on condition that all the French who held any offices in the kingdom should depart and return to their own country, excepting the very few employed personally to serve the king.
à the conclusion of the peace, the king and queen returned to Castel Nuovo, when all persons renewed their oaths of allegiance, promising to consider him as their king during his life, but that he was no way to interfere in the government of the kingdom. His establishment of guards, attendants, and horses, were all arranged according to the pleasure of the Neapolitans. On the day the king returned to Castel Nuovo, there were great rejoicings throughout the town, with bonfires, and illuminations on the terraces of the houses, and on the morrow there was a grand ball at the castle. But on the third day, the king was so strictly watched that none were allowed to speak to him but in the presence of those who had seized the government, and the French gentlemen were not permitted to take leave of him on their departure. The rulers of the kingdom soon after obliged the queen to join their party, lest the two when united might be over much for them: however, in conformity to their oaths, they showed the king and queen all outward respect, but governed the country as they willed. The chief of these usurpers was of one of the greatest and richest families, called Hanequin Mournil, one in whom the king had placed most confidence of all the Italians. The king was for a long time kept under this restraint: at length he escaped, and fled by sea to Tarentum, which had been given to him as a principality,+but he was, soon after, driven out of the kingdom. The duke of Anjou, son to king Louis, went thither on his expulsion, and was well received in the city of Aversa; but it was not long before he was forced out of the realm by the king of Arragon.
In regard to king James, besides the rebellion of his subjects, the queen likewise, old and capricious, was much displeased and jealous of his being a lover to young ladies of the country and neglecting her. This was also the cause why the nobles whom he had brought from France with him were generally hated.
CHAPTER CLXIII.--THE EARL of DoRSET, Governor of HARFLEUR, MAKES AN INCURsion INTO THE country of CAUx, AND is combatED BY THE FRENch.—THE EMPEROR CREATES THE COUNT OF SAVOY A DUKE.
At this same time, the earl of Dorset, who commanded in Harfleur, one day marched three thousand English combatants toward Rouen, and thence made a circuit through the country of Caux, where he remained three days doing great mischief with fire and sword In the mean time the garrisons and nobles of those parts collected together under the lord de Villequier to the amount of three thousand men also, and met the English near to Valmont, who instantly attacked them ; but the French defended themselves so valiantly, the English were defeated, and eight hundred left on the field of battle. The remainder retreated with the earl into a garden surrounded by a strong hedge of thorns, and therein continued the rest of the day without the French being able to gain further advantage over them, although they took much pains. In the evening the French retired to a village hard by to refresh themselves; but the earl of Dorset, doubtful of the event, on the morrow marched out of the garden with his men about day-break, and pushed forward to Ilarfleur. The French, perceiving this, pursued them, and overtook them in the marshes, about two leagues from that town, when they renewed the battle; but, as the French were not all come up, they were defeated, and two hundred slain,_among whom was their commander, the lord de Villequier, and other nobles of that country.
* See Giannone, lib. 25, cap. 1 and 2, for an account of these events, which are not very accurately related by Monsti, let.
The emperor of Germany, on his return home, passed through Lyons, where he was desirous of creating Amadeus count of Savoy a duke, but the king of France's officers would not permit it. He was very indignant at this, and went to a small castle called Moulnet that belongs to the empire, and he there created him a duke. On his coming to France, through the interference of duke Louis of Bavaria, brother to the queen of France, and others of the Orleans faction, he had been of the opposite party to the duke of Burgundy, but on his return he had changed his sentiments, and liked better the Burgundy faction than that of Orleans.
cii APTER ci.xiv.–DUKE willi AM, COUNT OF HAINAULT, DIES At Bouch AIN.—Joni N of BAvARIA DEcLARES w AR AGAINST HIS NIECE, DAUGHTER TO THE LATE DUKL. WILLIAM. [A. D. 1417.]
At the commencement of this year, duke William and his duchess, after their return from Compiegne, went to visit the duke of Burgundy at Douay, when many conferences were holden on the state of public affairs, and on the answers duke William had received from the queen of France and the king's ministers. When these were ended, duke William returned to his castle of Bouchain, where he was seized with a violent illness that put an end to his life in a few days. His body was carried to Valenciennes, and buried in the church of the Minorite friars. He left one only daughter by the duchess, called Jacquelina of Bavaria, who, as his legal heiress, took possession of all his inheritances, which fell to her on the decease of the duke. Nevertheless, John of Bavaria, her uncle on her father's side, inade opposition to this, on pretence that the succession of the late duke Albert, his father, had not been fairly divided in regard to him ; adding, that Jacquelina could not lawfully succeed to the country of Holland; and, with the consent of the inhabitants, he gained possession of Dordrecht and some other towns, which acknowledged him for their lord. He soon after declared open war against her, and resigned into the hands of the pope his bishopric of Liege, which bishopric was put into commission. He made this resignation to strengthen his claims against his niece,—and shortly married the duchess of Luxembourg, the widow of duke Anthony of Brabant, brother to the duke of Burgundy.
CHAPTER CLXV.—THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY SENDS LETTERS TO MANY OF THE PRINCIPAL Towns IN FRANCE, DESCRIBING THE STATE of those who gover N The KINGdom.
In these days, the duke of Burgundy sent letters, open and closed, to many of the chief towns in France, to stir them to rebellion, and to join his faction,--which letters were of the following tenor:
“John duke of Burgundy, count of Flanders and Artois, palatine of Burgundy, lord of %alines and Mechlin, to all to whom these presents shall come, health and peace.
“Whereas, by divine grace, we had in former times the government of the kingdom of France; but since we have withdrawn ourselves therefrom, persons of low degree, and of doubtful birth, have seized the management of public affairs, with the sole intent of appropriating to themselves, by open or secret means, the treasure of the realm; and so outrageous has been their conduct, that my lord the king, his family, and officers, were kept in the utmost penury. They neither paid nor suffered to be paid the usual royal charities, nor did they see to the repairs and maintenance of the various garrisons, with things absolutely necessary for them ; for notwithstanding the immense sums yearly raised by taxes and loans, scarcely any part of them were applied to public uses, or for the welfare of the kingdom. We therefore,