having fully considered all these matters, and how nearly we are by blood connected with my lord the king, being his cousin-german, and holding from him the duchy of Burgundy and counties of Flanders and Artois, and that we are in a double degree father and dean of the peers of France, and that our various and great obligations to him and to his crown are well known, have determined to provide a sufficient remedy for the above evils, and that restitution be made to the public treasury to the utmost of our power. “We have had the above facts demonstrated by our ambassadors, in the presence of the grand council at the Louvre in Paris, presided by our very dear lord and son, the duke of Aquitaine, lately deceased, whose soul may God pardon requesting at the same time, that from his good sense, and for the acquittal of his conscience, he would check these said abuses, and atteml to the better government of the state. In this matter we were joined by the members of the university of Paris, who sent us letters to that effect, and which were publicly read in the church of St. Genevieve at Paris; and at that time there were appearances that our remonstrances would be listened to. But their real intentions were otherwise; for it is notorious that we have met with nothing but tricks and dissimulations of all sorts, and perseverance in their evil government, whence have proceeded these intestine wars; although we have never ceased to urge our remonstrances against the present ministers, by able clerks, as well of the parliament and university as otherwise, by prudent knights, and other wise citizens, in whose presence ordinances were published by our said lord the king, and sworn to in his court of justice without any novelties being introduced or exception of persons made. “Nevertheless, grievous as it may be to relate, the contrary to these ordinances has been done; and it is a well-known fact, that the wretches have found means to keep me from the presence of our said lord the king. Soon after these edicts were annulled, and every sort of disorder was committed, taxes upon taxes were laid, loans on loans, reductions of offices, banishments, beheadings, and innumerable despotic acts done, to the very great dissatisfaction of my said well-beloved lord and son, lately deceased, and to which he had resolved to put an end, by ordering us to come to him with a competent number of men-at-arms, notwithstanding any orders we might receive to the contrary; and, as proofs thereof, I have in my possession three letters written and signed with his own hand, containing the above commands. In obedience to these orders, we came to St. Denis, and advanced toward the town of Paris, but could not gain admittance to his person; for the affair was become known to the aforesaid evil advisers, who instantly laid hands on our very redoubted lord and his son, confining them in the castle of the Louvre for a considerable time, with the drawbridges raised and gates closed. They also imprisoned the greater part of the king's servants, thus illegally depriving them of their liberties, although they had certain intelligence upwards of a year prior to this, that the enemies of the kingdom were preparing to invade it; but through their damnable avarice and concupiscence of wealth, they made no provision whatever to resist them. Hence it happened that our said lord and king has lost one of the finest seaports in his realm, the key to his country, and has suffered the almost total destruction of his chivalry; and none can foresee the infinite misfortunes that may now ensue, but which God avert. We also, bound by our royal duty toward our sovereign, have assembled for his service the greatest possible force we could to defend his kingdom, as we are bounden to do by every tie. But the aforesaid evil advisers have ordered several cities and towns not to permit us to enter them, and have forbidden them to supply our men with provision, as if we had been public enemies; but, notwithstanding such atrocious conduct, our vassals and subjects have been, and still are, strongly attached to his majesty's person. “They have likewise, heaping grievance on grievance, imprisoned a great number of notable inhabitants of many towns well affected to the king, but who saw with displeasure the miserable state the nation was reduced to by their wicked measures. But the worst part of their conduct has been the poisoning of the said deceased well-beloved lord and son (as the manner of his death plainly showed,) the moment he was made acquainted with their wickedness, and testified a resolution to remedy the various evils they had caused; and this was done to increase and strengthen their authority. “When we witnessed their fury, to avoid all manner of quarrel as much as in us lay, we retired to our countries of Flanders and Artois, and to our very dear brother the count of Hainault, to explain to our well-beloved nephew, my lord the dauphin, lately deceased, whose soul may God receive 1 the honesty of our intentions, and the bad consequences that would infallibly ensue if the present public measures were continued. We did not expect to have done this immediately, because our foresaid lord and nephew was in Holland, and could not instantly come to us in Hainault, from the dangers of the sea: nevertheless, on his arrival at Valenciennes we waited on him, and explained fully many matters, and our desire for a general peace with all so inclined, excepting king Louis of Sicily, with whom we had cause for quarrel that greatly affected our honour and estate : with these explanations he was very well satisfied, as was our aforesaid brother. For the more effectually accomplishing this peace, and for the better considering of other public affairs, they went from Valenciennes to St. Quentin, in the Vermandois, and thence to Compiegne; but these wicked ministers, by their deceits, attempted to detain our brother in Paris, when he was about to proceed on his journey toward Compiegne, with an earnest desire of attending to the before-mentioned business, not supposing that any attempt would be made against his person while he was endeavouring to conclude measures of such interesting importance. They would, however, have succeeded in their attempt, had not his good sense provided a timely remedy, by hastily leaving Paris with few attendants. He arrived at Compiegne early in the day, although the distance from Paris is twenty leagues. Soon after his arrival, a grievous misfortune befel us; for about vespers of that same day, our very dear lord and nephew was taken so dangerously ill that he shortly after expired, having his cheeks, tongue, and lips greatly swelled, and his eyes starting out of his head, in such wise that it was a most melancholy sight, considering that such are the usual appearances of those who die by poison. These aforesaid rapacious ministers poisoned him, as they had done our very redoubted lord and son his brother, which we now relate with grief, believing firmly that all the honest and good men of the kingdom will be sorely displeased when they shall hear of these deaths. “In this state remained public affairs while these infamous poisoners, who governed the realin, would not listen to our terms of peace, nor take pity on the poor people of France, destroyed through their quarrels. In truth, the tempers of these men must be wretched, who are only desirous of evil, and who have broken or infringed six treaties, solemnly sworn to, namely, those of Chartres, Bicêtre, Auxerre, Pontoise, Paris, and of Rouvres in Burgundy. We shall not detail, at this moment, how these treaties have been broken, for it would take too much time, and it is notorious to every one. We only mention the circumstance, that you may be thoroughly acquainted with the wickedness of these false, disloyal and perjured traitors, who add murder, rapine and poison to their crimes, who are without faith, and made up of treasons and cruelty. We also make known to you, that we, in former times, bore patiently, as became us, all the insults and persecutions that were heaped on our person, having in our memory, what is to be found in history both sacred and profane, that it was usual for the friends of God and of the public good to be bitterly persecuted for their virtuous actions. “Nevertheless, it is our fixed intention to follow up our measures, with the aid of our Creator, and our whole force, with that of our relations, friends, vassals, and well-wishers to the king and crown of France; and to prosecute to conviction those who are guilty of these poisonings, their accomplices and adherents, so long as God shall grant us life. At the same time also, we shall urge on those reforms of grievances already begun by us, that press so heavily on the poor people under the names of gabelles, tithes and other exactions; and we have determined to employ every force we can collect to obtain so desirable an object. “To this end, we entreat and summon you, on the faith and obedience you owe to my aforesaid lord, and on your love of the public weal, to eschew the crime of high treason,and require that you, and each of you, do aid, counsel and assist in the punishment of these destroyers of the noble house of France, who are guilty of murders, treasons and poisonings, as you are bounden to do by every law natural and divine. By your conduct, we shall know whether you possess charity, loyalty, virtue, and the fear of God, and whether you be desirous of repressing cruelty, disloyalty, vanity and avarice. This can alone save the kingdom of France from ruin. By this alone, my lord the king will recover his power, and be obeyed and honoured, which is the utmost extent of our wishes in this world, and which it seems to us you should be most desirous of also. Thus the kingdom will be at peace, the churches supported, the wicked punished, and the injuries done to the people will cease. Surely these are objects more worthy and fit to occupy your attention than seeking the favour of these false and infamous traitors, in contempt of the grace of God.

“Doubt not of our intention to revenge the insults that have been shown us; for we promise, on the faith and loyalty we owe to God, to our aforesaid lord, and to the public welfare of his realm, that our sole bent and will is to prevent, to the utmost of our power, my aforesaid lord and his kingdom from being completely destroyed, which these disloyal traitors are compassing to accomplish,_and that satisfactory justice be done on them, according to the advice and opinions of those who shall assist us in these our intentions. For this end, we offer peace to all who shall be inclined to accept of it from us, excepting Louis, king of Sicily, for the better prosecution of our intentions to support the king and his realm, being resolved to persist in these loyal measures until death, without offering any conciliatory terms to these profligate traitors and poisoners. This business has been too long delayed; for it may be clearly seen that the aforesaid traitors are determined on the total ruin of the royal house of France and the whole of the nobility, and that they are resolved to deliver up the kingdom to foreigners; but we have firm reliance and hope in God, who knows the secrets of every heart! that we shall obtain a happy issue to our enterprise by means of the good and faithful subjects of the realm, whom in this case we will support to the utmost of our power, and maintain for ever in the fullest enjoyment of their liberties and franchises. We will also exert ourselves that in future no taxes, impositions and gabelles, may be ever again paid in France; and we will proceed against all who shall say or act to the contrary by fire and sword, whether they be universities, corporations, chapters, colleges, nobles, or any others, of whatever condition they may be.

“In testimony whereof, we have signed these presents with our own hand and our privy seal. in the absence of the great seal, in our castle of Hesdin, the 24th day of April, 1417, after Easter.”

These letters were sent to the towns of Montreuil, St. Riquier, Abbeville, Dourlens, Amiens, Corbie, St. Quentin, Roye, Mondidier, Beauvais, and to many other places; and by their means several principal towns and corporations were strongly excited against those who then governed the king.


About this time, while the queen of France resided with her court at the castle of Vincennes, she was visited by the king her lord. On his return to Paris in the evening, he met sir Louis Bourdon, knight, coming thence, and going to Vincennes, who, on passing very near the king, made a slight inclination of his head as he rode by, and gaily pursued his road. The king instantly ordered the provost of Paris to follow and arrest him, and to take especial care to give a good account of him. The provost performed his duty in obeying this command, and confined sir Louis in the Châtelet of Paris, where he was, by command of the king, very severely tortured, and then drowned in the Seine."

Some few days after, by orders from the king, the dauphin, and those who governed in Paris, the queen, accompanied by her sister-in-law the duchess of Bavaria, was banished to Blois, and thence to reside at Tours in Touraine, with a very private establishment. She was placed under the guard of master William Torel, master John Picard, and master Laurence la Puys, without whose consent she could not do anything, not even write a letter, however pressing the occasion. She thus lived a considerable time very unpleasantly. expecting, however, daily to receive worse treatment. The dauphin, by the advice of his ministers, took possession of the immense sums of money the queen had placed in different hands in Paris. The three above-mentioned warders of the queen had been appointed by those who governed the king and the dauphin, to prevent her from intriguing or plotting anything to their prejudice.

* The count of Armagnac had persuaded the king to tainly laid her open to suspicion. From this moment she believe that Sir Louis de Bourdon had been guilty of did not hesitate to intrigue with the duke of Burgundy, certain gallantries with the queen. It is uncertain whether even against the dauphin, being willing to sacrifice her there was any foundation for the report, but the former own son, to revenge herself "pon her enemies. behaviour of Isab, lla towards the duke of Orleans cer


In these days, by the instigation of the partisans of the duke of Burgundy, some wicked & persons of the lower ranks in the town of Rouen rose in rebellion. The leader was one Alain Blanchart, who was afterward governor of the town. They first went armed, and with staves, to the house of the king's bailiff, sir Raoul de Gaucourt*, knight, at whose door they knocked loudly, and said to those within (although it was about ten o'clock at night), “We want to speak to my lord the bailiff, to deliver up to him a traitor whom we have just arrested in the town;" the servants bade them detain their prisoner in safe custody until the morrow; however, in consequence of their importunity and violence, the door was opened to them. The bailiff instantly arose from his bed, and, having wrapped himself up in a large cloak, came to speak to them; but he had no sooner made his appearance, than some of the party, who had disguised their faces, cruelly murdered him. They then left the house, and went to that of his lieutenant, John Leger, whom they also put to death, and thence to different parts of the town, and killed ten other persons; but many of the municipal officers, such as the viscount and receiver-general, having had information of what was passing, fled to the castle, into which they were admitted by sir James de Bourbon the overnor. g On the morrow morning, the commonalty again assembled in great numbers, and marched in arms to the castle, with the intent of forcing an entrance, but were prevented by the governor, who had under his command one hundred of the king's troops to defend it. At length, after many parleys, it was agreed that sixteen of the most notable citizens should be admitted, to remonstrate with the governor on some matters that much concerned him. Upon their admittance, they offered many excuses for the murder of the bailiff and of the others, declaring that the whole commonalty of the town would be rejoiced if the perpetrators could be discovered and punished. They were greatly alarmed as to the conduct of the king and the dauphin when they should hear of these deaths, and requested the governor would permit them to have the guard of the castle, but it was refused. They then required that the gate which led to the country should be shut up, which was also refused. Upon this they declared, that should the king and the dauphin attempt to enter their town with an army, admittance should be denied,—at the same time beseeching the governor to apologise for them to the king and the dauphin. The governor replied, that he would make excuses for them in proper time and place, provided they did not refuse to admit them into the town should they come thither. After this conversation, the citizens returned home; and, a few days after, what they dreaded came to pass, for the dauphin marched two thousand men out of Paris to Pont-del'Arche, whence he sent the archbishop of Rouen, brother to the count de Harcourt, to that town, to exhort the inhabitants to a due sense of obedience. On the archbishop's arrival at Rouen, he found several of the canons of the cathedral church under arms, and intermixed with the citizens, to whom he displayed the proclamation of the dauphin. They, in answer said, that it had been unanimously decreed that he should not enter the town with his army; but that if he would come with few attendants, and engage to pay his expenses, they would agree to it, but not otherwise. The archbishop, seeing he could not conclude anything satisfactory, returned to the dauphin, and related all he had seen and heard. Upon this the dauphin sent for sir James de Bourbon, and fixed his quarters at St. Catherine's on the hill. On the arrival on sir James he said, “Cousin return to your castle, and admit by the gate leading to the country two hundred men at arms, and as many archers whom we will send thither.” The townsmen were greatly

* Raoul W., lord de Gaucourt. His son, Raoul VI., was grand-master of France.

Carasonal or Notas-Dame, Rouen.—Murder of the Bailiff.-From an original drawing.

enraged on hearing of this reinforcement being admitted into the castle; however, within three days, the dauphin, by negotiation, entered Rouen with his whole army; he rode straight to the cathedral to offer up his prayers, and thence to the castle, where he was lodged.

#. the course of eight days, a treaty was made with the townsmen, which confirmed them in their obedience,—for all that had passed was pardoned, with the exception of the actual murderers of the bailiff. The dauphin, having paid his expenses, departed for Paris with his army, where he appointed the lord de Gamaches *, bailiff of Rouen, with orders to inflict exemplary punishment on such of the murderers as should be duly convicted. Some of them were punished; but Alain Blanchart absented himself for some time; and when he returned to the town he enjoyed great authority and power, as shall hereafter be related.

• John de Roualt, lord of Gamache and Boismenard.

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