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lord de Chateau-morant, and sir Charles de Saint Saulieu, with a certain number of men-atarms attached to the party of the Armagnacs; but they were forced to surrender it by le Begue de Groches and the commonalty of the town, on condition of their lives and fortunes being spared, and le Begue de Groches remained governor of the castle and town for a long time. I must not forget to say something of Perrinet le Clerc and his companions, who had delivered up the city of Paris to the Burgundians. They were at first in great authority, and lived in high state; but in the end they became as poor and as wicked as they had been before.
When the inhabitants of Peronne, who had been strongly attached to the king, the dauphin, and the count d'Armagnac, heard of the capture of Paris, and of the surrender of so many towns and castles, they were much astonished and alarmed, considering that they were so near to the territories of the duke of Burgundy, lest they should have their town taken by storm, or besieged. They therefore resolved to send a deputation to the count de Charolois, to propose submitting themselves to the obedience of the king and the duke. They in consequence sent ambassadors for this purpose, although sir Thomas de Lersies, bailiff of the Vermandois, exhorted them to keep steady to the dauphin. These ambassadors, namely, master Oudard Cuperel, a canon of St. Foursy, and others, treated so successfully with the count de Charolois and his ministers that the town was surrendered to the duke. Notwithstanding the magistrates and inhabitants had promised not to conclude any treaty that should be prejudicial to sir Thomas de Lersies, he was arrested, carried to Laon, and beheaded. In like manner were executed John de Bervenucourt, his lieutenant, and Alard de Vercuigneul.
CHAPTER CLXXXIX.--THE comMonALTY OF PARIS ASSEMBLE IN GREAT NUMBERs, AND CruelLY Put to DEATH THEIR PRISONERS.
About four o'clock on the 12th day of June, the populace of Paris rose to the amount of about sixty thousand, fearing (as they said) that the prisoners would be set at liberty, although the new provost of Paris, and other lords, assured them to the contrary. They were armed with old mallets, hatchets, staves, and other disorderly weapons, and paraded through the streets, shouting, “Long live the king and the duke of Burgundy 1" towards the different prisons in Paris, namely, the Palace, St. Magloire, St. Martin des Champs, the Châtelet, the Temple, and to other places wherein any prisoners were confined. They forced open all their doors and killed Chepier and Chepiere", with the whole of the prisoners, to the amount of sixteen hundred, or thereabout ; the principal of whom were the count d'Armagnac constable of France, master Henry de Marle chancellor to the king, the bishops of Coutances, of Bayeux, of Evreux, of Senlis, of Saintes, the count de Grand Pré, Raymonnet de la Guerre, the abbot de St. Conille de Compiegne, sir Hector de Chartres, sir Enguerrand de Marcoignet, Charlot Poupart, master of the king's wardrobe, the members of the courts of justice and of the treasury, and in general all they could find : among the number were several even of the Burgundian party confined for debt.
In this massacre several women were killed, and left on the spot where they had been put to death. This cruel butchery lasted till ten o'clock in the morning of the following day. Those confined in the grand Châtelet, having arms, defended themselves valiantly, and slew many of the populace; but on the morrow, by means of fire and smoke, they were conquered, and the mob made many of them leap from the battlements of the towers, when they were received on the points of the spears of those in the streets and cruelly mangled. At this dreadful business were present, the new provost of Paris, sir John de Luxembourg, the lord de Fosseux, the lord de l'Isle-Adam, the vidame of Amiens, the lord de Chevreuse, the lord de Chastellus, the lord de Cohen, sir James de Harcourt, sir Emond de Lombers, the lord d'Auxois, and others, to the amount of upward of a thousand combatants armed and on horseback, ready to defend the murderers should there be any necessity.
Many were shocked and astonished at such cruel conduct; but they dared not say anything, except “Well done, my boys!” The bodies of the constable, the chancellor, and of Raymonnet de la Guerre, were stripped naked, tied together with a cord, and dragged for three days by the blackguards of Paris through the streets. The body of the constable had the breadth of two fingers of his skin cut off crosswise, like to a bend in heraldry, by way of derision; and they were thus publicly exposed quite naked to the sight of all; on the fourth day, they were dragged out of Paris on a hurdle, and buried with the others in a ditch called la Louviere. Notwithstanding the great lords after this took much pains to pacify the populace, and remonstrated with them that they ought to allow the king's justice to take its regular course against offenders, they would not desist, but went in great crowds to the houses of such as had favoured the Armagnacs, or of those whom they disliked, and killed them without mercy, carrying away all they could find. In these times it was enough if one man hated another at Paris, of whatever rank he might be, Burgundian or not, to say, “There goes an Armagnac,” and he was instantly put to death without further inquiry being made.
* These were probably the jailer and his wife.
cHAPTER cxc.—THE DUKE of BURGUNDY, on HEARING what HAD PASSED AT PARIs, CARRIES THE QUEEN THITHER.—THE DEATH OF JEAN BERTRAND.
When news of the capture of Paris, and of the submission of so many towns and castles, was carried to the duke of Burgundy in Dijon, he was greatly rejoiced, and collecting in haste a body of men, went to the queen at Troyes, where he was magnificently received. He gave orders for preparations to be instantly made for the queen's journey to Paris, and summoned men-at-arms from all quarters to attend her. Sir John de Luxembourg, the lord de Fosseux, with other captains from Picardy, and about a thousand combatants, went to meet him so far as Troyes. The duke first heard when at Troyes of the massacre of the count d'Armagnac and the other prisoners at Paris, which angered him greatly; for he had planned by their means, and by offering them their liberty, to gain possession of the person of the dauphin, and of all the towns and castles held by the Armagnacs.
On the 2nd day of July, the queen and the duke of Burgundy set out from Troyes for Paris in grand array, - the Picards, under the command of John de Luxembourg, forming the vanguard. The duke, with his battalion, conducted the queen, taking their road through Nogent-sur Seine and Provins. On the 14th day of the same month they entered Paris, attended by an immense crowd of armed men and displayed banners. Six hundred of the Parisians went out to meet the queen and the duke, dressed in blue jackets, having thereon a St. Andrew's cross, which they had worn for some time. They presented the duke and his nephew the young count de St. Pol with two robes of blue velvet, which they put on, and thus made their entry through the gate of St. Anthony. They were received in Paris with the greatest joy: carols were sung in all quarters, and flowers were thrown in abundance on the carriage of the queen, and on the lords who accompanied her, from all the upper windows in the streets they passed through. The duke of Burgundy escorted the queen to the hotel de St. Pol, where the king resided, who gave to both of them a most welcome reception.
Shortly after, many great councils were holden by the duke and other lords, on the present state of the kingdom and on its government. At their conclusion, the king, to please the duke of Burgundy, created several new officers: the lords de l'Isle-Adam" and de Chastellust were made marshals of France, sir Robinet de Maillyf grand butler, sir Charles de Lens S admiral of France, although the king had a little before nominated sir Jenet de Poix to that office, and he for a short time bore the title of admiral: master Eustace de Lactre was appointed chancellor of France, and master Philip de Morvillers first president of the parliament. The duke of Burgundy was made governor of Paris, and chose sir Charles de Lens as his lieutenant. Many great changes were made, with which the king seemed satisfied, and granted everything that was asked by those who had the government of him.
* John de Williers, lord of l'Isle-Adam. grand butlers; but John de Neufchastel, lord of Mon+ Claud de Beauvoir, lord de Chastellus, bro her of tagu, seems to have enjoyed the office from this year, George de Chastellus, admiral in 1420. 14 l8.
: I do not find the name of Mailly in the catalogue of § Charles de Récourt, lood of Lens, admiral in 1418.
In these days (as it was commonly believed by orders of sir John de Luxembourg), Jean Bertrand, governor of St. Dennis, was put to death at La Chapelle, between Paris and St. l)ennis. He had been one of the leaders of the companies with sir Gastelin Was, Jean de Guigny, and Jean de Clau, and was a butcher. The Parisians were greatly exasperated at his death, and issued out in crowds to find and punish his murderers, but in vain, for, having performed the deed, they hastened to escape. They made loud complaints of it to the duke of Burgundy, who demanded of sir John de Luxembourg if he had been the author of this murder; and he replied that he was not. It was afterwards known, that the perpetrators of it were principally Lyonnet de Vendôme, and the bastard de Robais, with about twelve other wicked fellows as their accomplices.
CIIAPTER CXCI.-POPE MARTIN ADJOURNS THE COUNCIL OF CONSTANCE.--THE KING OF ENGLAND CONQUERS PONT DE L'ARCHE.-0THER MATTERs.
At this period, pope Martin, with the consent of the holy council of Constance, adjourned that council to the month of April in the year 1423, to be held in a convenient city, which should be named by him or his successor in proper time. The pope then departed from Constance, and was conducted from the palace of the bishop by Sigismund emperor of Germany and king of Bohemia, walking on foot, and holding the bridle of his mule. When he was without the town, the pope mounted his horse and went to Geneva, where he held his court for three months.
At this same time, king Henry of England advanced to Louviers in Normandy, which had submitted to his obedience, and thence went to quarter himself at the abbey of Bomport, of the order of Cisteaux *, very near to Pont de l'Arche, of which place sir John de Graville was governor for the king of France. King Henry sent sir John de Cornwall to summon him to surrender it, but the lord de Graville replied that he would not: upon which Cornwall said, “Graville, I pledge my word, that in spite of you or of your men I will cross the Seine. Should I do so, you shall give me the best courser you have; and if I fail, I will present you with my helmet of steel, which I will prove to be worth five hundred nobles.” After this conversation and engagement, they parted mutually pleased with each other. Sir John de Graville sent in haste to all parts for reinforcements of menat-arms to guard the fords of the river, and among them came sir James de Harcourt, who happened at that time to be at Estampigny. Several other gentlemen and many lords came to his aid, to the amount of eight hundred combatants, and full twelve thousand of the common people. On the morrow, as Cornwall had promised, he came to the banks of the Seine, and embarked on board eight small boats, attended by his son, fifteen years of age, sixty combatants, one single horse, some small cannons, and military stores: he made for a little island that was in the middle of the stream, whence he could fire at the enemy who guarded the opposite shore. But although the French were so many as I have said, they did not even attempt to make any defence, but instantly fled in the utmost disorder, every man escaping as well as he could.
Sir John de Graville returned to Pont de l'Arche, sir James de Harcourt to Estampigny, and the commonalty fled to the woods. Sir John de Cornwall and his men seeing all this from the island re-embarked in their boats, and landed without opposition. He immediately created his son a knight; and shortly after, others of the English crossed also in these boats, to the number of about a thousand combatants, part of whom followed sir John de Cornwall, to skirmish before Pont de l'Arche, and the rest scoured the country round. Sir John de Cornwall addressed sir John de Graville, and said, that he and his countrymen had badly acquitted themselves, to suffer him and his small company to cross the river, when they were so very numerous, declaring, that if he had been in his situation with only his sixty English, he would have defended the landing against the united forces of the kings of France and of England. When the English who had passed the river were re-assembled, they
* Cisteaux,−an order of white friars, (instituted in the year 1090,) who under their uppermost white habit wear a black one and red shoes.—Cotgrave.
fixed their quarters in the abbey of Mortemer, in the forest of Lyons. The whole of the country of Caux were much alarmed, and not without cause, when they learnt that the English had passed the Seine. The next day the king of England ordered his brother the duke of Clarence to cross the river with four thousand combatants, and to invest the town and castle of Pont de l'Arche on all sides. He had also a bridge thrown over the Seine, on the side leading toward Rouen, that he might cross whenever he pleased; and this bridge was called the Bridge of Saint George.
After three weeks' siege, sir John de Graville surrendered the town and castle to the king of England, on condition that he and his men might depart in safety with their baggage. Thus king Henry was master, to pass the Seine at his pleasure; and he placed a strong garrison in Pont de l'Arche, in dread of whom the greater part of the peasantry fied the country with all their effects.
Ch.APTER CXCII. — THE DUKE OF TOURAINE CONTINUES THE WAR.—THE TOWN or COMPIEGNE WON BY THE LORD DE BOCQUIAUX.—THE MARRIAGE OF THE DURE OF BRABANT, ANd oth ER MATTERs.
TRUE it is, that at this time sir Tanneguy du Châtel, the viscount de Narbonne, Jean Louvet president of Provence, master Robert Masson, and the other ministers of the duke of Touraine, dauphin of the Viennois, who had escaped from Paris, as you have heard, exerted themselves as much as possible to induce him to continue the war against the duke of Burgundy and his partisans. The dauphin had been several times summoned and required to return to Paris by the king, the queen and the duke of Burgundy, who offered to pay him every respect and deference. He would not, however, listen to them, but began to make preparations in all quarters to renew the war, styling himself regent of the kingdom of France. At this time also, about eight of his men, secretly armed, came to the gate of Compiegne that leads to Pierrefons, with a small cart laden with wood. When on the drawbridge, they stabbed one of the cart-horses, so that the bridge could not be raised, and killing some of the guards at the gate, instantly made a signal which had been agreed on, and the lord de Bocquiaux, who was lying in ambush in the forest, suddenly appeared with five hundred men, and entered the town without opposition, shouting, “Long live the king and the dauphin'" On their arrival, they slew one named Boutry, who had been left there by Hector de Saveuses to manage his household. The lord de Crevecoeur, who was lieutenant to Hector, hearing the noise, retreated to the tower of St. Cornille, and with him the lord de Chievres, Robinet Ogier, and others; but it was in vain, for they were soon forced to surrender themselves. The Dauphinois lost no time in plundering the town, and took everything they could lay hands on, not only from those of the Burgundian party, but even from such of the inhabitants as had shown any partiality to them. Thus did the lord de Bocquiaux and his companions regain the town of Compiegne, in the name of the dauphin. He kept up, in his name also, a heavy warfare on the adjoining country, and sent the lords de Chievres and de Crevecoeur prisoners to the castle of Pierrefons, whence they meditated an escape by means of a brother of the lord de Chievres, who was attached to and had long served the lord de Bocquiaux; but it was discovered, and the lord de Bocquiaux caused him to be beheaded. However, some time afterwards, they obtained their liberty by paying a sum of money. A strong garrison was placed in Compiegne, and the lord de Gamaches came thither; and by their means, those attached to the party of the king and the duke of Burgundy were sorely oppressed. At this time, duke John of Brabant espoused his cousin-german Jacquelina of Bavaria, countess of Hainault, Holland, Zealand, and Ostrevant: she was his godmother. This marriage had been managed by his mother Margaret of Burgundy, with the three estates of those countries, in the good intention and hope that, as these countries joined those of the duke of Brabant, greater concord and peace would subsist between them. Notwithstanding WOL. I. D D
the countess had given her consent, she was not very well satisfied with the match ; for she knew the duke to be weak in body and mind, and unfit for the government of her country or person, which was handsome and well-made; and she herself was well informed in various matters. On the accomplishment of this marriage, the war between the countess and her uncle John of Bavaria was put an end to by means of a negotiation that took place on that subject.
It happened, that while the duke and duchess were at Mons in Hainault, and whilst he was gone to hunt and amuse himself without the town, sir Everard, bastard of Hainault, and brother to the duchess, with some others, came purposely to the hôtel de Nactre, the residence of William le Begue, the confidential adviser of the duke, and put him to death when lying ill in bed. Sir William de Sars, bailiff of Hainault, was present when this murder was committed ; but they forbade him to stir; and when it was accomplished, they departed without any hindrance, and left Mons. When the duke heard of this murder, he was much troubled ; for he loved him in preference to all his other counsellors; but in the end, his duchess pacified him, for, according to the reports of the time, she was not averse to the above deed being done.
Cih APTER CXCIII.-The KING AND THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY SEND CAPTAINS FOIt The IdEFENCE OF ROUEN.—OF A ROBBER CALLED TABARY.
IN these days several captains were ordered by the king and the duke of Burgundy to Rouen, to aid the inhabitants in the defence of their town against the king of England, by whom they daily expected to be besieged. In their number were the lord de Gapennes, sir John de Neufchâtel lord de Montagu, sir Anthony de Toulongeon, sir Andrew des Roches, Henry de Chaufour, the bastard de Thian, le Grand Jacques, a native of Lombardy, Guerard bastard de Brimeu, and many others renowned in arms. Sir Guy le Bouteiller, a Norman, was captain-general of the town, having under him Langnon, bastard of Arly. The whole of the men-at-arms were selected for their courage, and amounted to about four thousand ; and the citizens, well armed and clothed suitably to their degree, were full fifteen thousand, ready and eager to defend themselves against all who might wish to injure them. They united cheerfully with the men-at-arms in making every preparation of defence, in strengthening the gates, bulwarks, walls and ditches of their town, as well withinside as without. They also made many regulations, distributing to each captain of men-at-arms certain portions of the town to defend. The citizens were likewise divided into constablewicks; and it was proclaimed by sound of trumpet, that all persons, whatever might be their rank, who intended to remain in the place, must provide themselves with provision for ten months; and those who were unable to do this must quit the town and go whither they pleased. In consequence of this proclamation numbers of poor people departed, as did several ladies, damsels, and citizens' wives, with churchmen and others, who could not be of any assistance. After this, the garrison made frequent sallies on the English, who were hard by, and killed many, and made prisoners, at other times they were unfortunate. There was living in that part of the country near to Pontoise, l'Isle-Adam, Gisors, and on the borders of Normandy, a captain of a gang of thieves called Tabary, who had taken part with the Burgundians. He was of small stature, and lame; but he often collected bodies of forty or fifty peasants, sometimes more, sometimes less, armed and dressed in old jackets and haubergeons, with decayed battle-axes, half lances with mallets at their end, and other poor armour. Some were mounted on miserable horses, while others on foot formed ambuscades in the woods near to the English quarters. Whenever Tabary could lay hands on any of them he cut their throats, as indeed he did to all the dauphin's friends. This conduct made him greatly feared by both these parties.