KING Henry of England marched a most powerful army, accompanied by a large train of artillery and warlike stores, in the month of June, before the noble and potent town of Rouen, to prevent the inhabitants and garrison from being supplied with new corn. The van of his army arrived there at midnight, that the garrison might not make any sally against them. The king was lodged at the Carthusian convent, the duke of Gloucester was quartered before the gate of St. Hilaire, the duke of Clarence at the gate of Caen, the earl of Warwick at that of Martinville, the duke of Exeter and earl of Dorset at that of Beauvais; in front of the gate of the castle were the lord marshal and sir John de Cornwall. At the gate leading to Normandy were posted the earls of Huntingdon, Salisbury, Kyme, and the lord Neville son to the earl of Westmoreland. On the hill fronting St. Catherine's were others of the English barons.

Before the English could fortify their quarters, many sallies were made on them, and several severe skirmishes passed on both sides. But the English, so soon as they could, dug deep ditches between the town and them, on the top of which they planted a thick hedge of thorns, so that they could not otherwise be annoyed than by cannon-shot and arrows. They also built a jetty on the banks of the Seine, about a cannon-shot distant from the town, to which they fastened their chains, one of them half a foot under the water, another level with

RouxN.—From an original drawing.

it, and a third two feet above the stream, so that no boats could bring provision to the town,

nor could any escape from it that way. They likewise dug deep galleries of communication

from one quarter to another, which completely sheltered those in them from cannon or other warlike machines. The garrison in the fort of St. Catherine, at the end of a month, surrendered it to the English from want of provision, and were allowed to depart in safety, but without baggage. The king of England had in his army numbers of Irish, the greater part of whom were on foot, having only a stocking and shoe on one leg and foot, with the other quite naked. They had targets, short javelins, and a strange sort of knives. Those who were on horseback had no saddles, but rode excellently well on small mountain horses, and were mounted on such panniers as are used by the carriers of corn in parts of France. They were, however, miserably accoutred in comparison with the English, and without any arms that could much hurt the French whenever they might meet them. These Irish made frequent excursions, during the siege, over Normandy, and did infinite mischiefs, bringing back to their camp large booties. Those on foot took men, and even children from the cradle, with beds and furniture, and, placing them on cows, drove all these things before them ; for they were often met thus by the French. By such means was the country of Normandy wasted, and its poor inhabitants ruined, by English, Irish, Burgundians, and Dauphinois. The king of England, during this siege of Rouen, had the gates and walls of the town battered by bombards and other engines to destroy them ; but to relate the whole, and the many sallies that were made, would occupy too much time. Suffice it to say, that the besieged behaved with the utmost courage. While the siege was going on, Langnon, bastard d'Arly, one of the principal captains in the town, and in whom the inhabitants placed their greatest confidence, had the charge of guarding the gate of Caux. One day, an English knight, called sir John le Blanc, governor of Harfleur under the earl of Dorset, came before this gate, ard demanded of Langnon to break three lances with him, which he granted,—and, having quickly armed himself, sallied out with about thirty companions on foot. In front of the barriers they attacked each other gallantly, but it happened that at the first thrust the English knight was run through the body and unhorsed: he was then dragged by force into the town, and soon after died. Langnon received four hundred nobles on returning the body, and was universally applauded by the townsmen for the address and valour he had shown on this occasion.



IN these days a public procession was made from all the churches in Paris, and mass was chaunted in that of Nôtre Dame. While mass was celebrating, a friar minorite, doctor in theology, preached a solemn sermon in the square before the church,-at which were present the king's ministers, such as the chancellor and others, the rector and principal heads of the university, several great lords, the provost of Paris, and some of the chief citizens. There were also present the vicars and officials of the bishop of Paris, who, having received an especial commission for the purpose from the bishop, then very ill at St. Maur des Fossés, reversed, in his name, the sentence which he and others had formerly pronounced contrary to the honour of the duke of Burgundy, and against the propositions avowed by this duke through the organ of master John Petit, as has been before related, and now made every possible reparation in regard to the honour and loyalty of the said duke, as the true champion of the crown of France. The preacher, in his sermon, compared him to the prop that supports the vine, and explained the legality of the powers granted by the bishop to his vicars to annul this sentence, at the same time making excuses for the bishop's absence on account of his illness. In short, everything was done to the satisfaction of the duke of Burgundy. and the sentence was annulled in the middle of the sermon.

At this time news was brought to the duke while at Paris, that the Dauphinois at Meauxen-Brie had taken the town of Laigny-sur-Marne, by the carelessness of the garrison, which was true; and the day they won it they committed many outrages. Some of the garrison escaped into a strong tower, and sent in haste to the duke for help, who instantly despatched thither the lord de l'Isle-Adam ; and, by means of those in the tower, he gained admittance to the town and put the greater part of the Dauphinois to the sword, when, having placed therein a strong garrison, he returned to Paris. On the morrow, the duke of Burgundy, attended by a large body of men-at-arms, went from Paris to the bridge of Charenton to meet the duke of Brittany, who was coming to negotiate a peace between him and the dauphin ; but as nothing could be agreed on, the duke of Burgundy returned to Paris, and the duke of Brittany to his own country. The reason why they met at Charenton was the epidemical disorder that then raged in, 2. Paris. Iły accounts from the rectors of the parishes, it was known that upward of fourscore thousand had died within that town. Many of the dependants of the duke of Burgundy were carried off by this pestilence, as were the prince of Orange”, the lord de Fosseux, sir Jenet de Poix, the lord d'Auxois, and numbers of other gentlemen. Shortly after, the cardinals d'Orsini and di San Marco returned to Saint Maur des Fossés, to treat of a peace between the dauphin and the duke of Burgundy; and many notable ambassadors were sent to them from the king, queen, and duke, who at length concluded a treaty by means of these cardinals with the commissioners sent from the dauphin. It seemed good, and to the mutual advantage of both parties; but when it was carried to the dauphin and his advisers, they were dissatisfied with it, so that the war continued with greater bitterness than before.


To add to the tribulations of these times, the Parisians again assembled in great numbers, as they had before done, and went to all the prisons in Paris, broke into them, and put to death full three hundred prisoners, many of whom had been confined there since the last butchery. In the number of those murdered were sir James de Mommort, and sir Louis de Corail, chamberlain to the king, with many nobles and churchmen. They then went to the lower court of the bastille of St. Anthony, and demanded that six prisoners, whom they named, should be given up to them, or they would attack the place. In fact, they began to pull down the wall of the gate, when the duke of Burgundy, who lodged near the bastille, vexed to the heart at such proceedings, to avoid worse, ordered the prisoners to be delivered to them, if any of their leaders would promise that they should be conducted to the Châtelet prison, and suffered to be punished according to their deserts by the king's court of justice. Upon this, they all departed; and, by way of glossing over their promise, they led their prisoners near to the Châtelet, when they put them to death, and stripped them naked. They then divided into several large companies, and paraded the streets of Paris, entering . the houses of many who had been Armagnacs, plundering and murdering all without mercy. In like manner as before, when they met any person they disliked, he was slain instantly; and their principal leader was Cappeluche, the hangman of the city of Paris.

The duke of Burgundy, alarmed at these insurrections, sent for some of the chief citizens, with whom he remonstrated on the consequences these disturbances might have. The citizens excused themselves from being any way concerned, and said they were much grieved to witness them: they added, they were all of the lowest rank, and had thus risen to pillage the more wealthy; and they required the duke to provide a remedy, by employing these men in his wars. It was then proclaimed, in the names of the king and the duke of Burgundy, under pain of death, that no persons should tumultuously assemble, nor any more murders or pillage take place; but that such as had of late risen in insurrection should prepare themselves to march to the sieges of Montlehery and Marcoussi, now held by the king's enemies. The commonalty made reply, that they would cheerfully do so, if they had proper captains appointed to lead them.

* John de Châlons, lord of Arlay, and prince of Orange in his office of grand-chambrier de France, by William,

in right of his wife, Mary des Baux. He was succeeded lord of Chasteauvilain. in his estates by his son Louis, surnamed The Good, and T Q. Montmaur P

Within a few days, to avoid similar tumults in Paris, six thousand of the populace were sent to Montlehery, under the command of the lord de Cohen", sir Walter de Ruppes, and sir Walter Raillart, with a certain number of men-at-arms, and store of cannon and ammunition sufficient for a siege. These knights led them to Montlehery, where they made a sharp attack on the Dauphinois within the castle. The duke of Burgundy, after their departure, arrested several of their accomplices, and the principal movers of the late insurrection; some of whom he caused to be beheaded, others to be hanged or drowned in the Seine: even their leader, Cappeluche, the hangman, was beheaded in the market-place. When news of this was carried to the Parisians who had been sent to Montlehery, they marched back to Paris to raise another rebellion; but the gates were closed against them, so that they were forced to return to the siege. Within a short time, however, they were recalled thence,—for negotiators from the two parties were busily employed to establish

eace. p The lord de Château-vilain", at this period, came to wait on the duke of Burgundy in Paris: he was preceded by a fool, who, riding some paces before him as he entered the gate of St. Anthony, shouted aloud, “Armagnac for ever!” and was instantly put to death by the guards at the gate, to the great anger of his lord, but he could not amend it. The Dauphinois, to the amount of three hundred combatants, under the command of the lord de Bocquiaux, won by storm at break of day the city of Soissons from the lord de Longueval, governor of it for the king and the duke of Burgundy. The lord de Longueval escaped with much difficulty on foot, in company with Robert de Saveuses and others, by leaping down from the walls. The city was in great part plundered of everything.


With the consent of the king and queen of France and the duke of Burgundy, the dauphiness was honourably sent to the dauphin in Anjou : she had remained in Paris at the time when it was taken ; and with her were sent all her jewels and wardrobe, that the dauphin might be the more inclined to peace and to return to the king. It was in vain; for those who governed him would not suffer it, as they knew that in that case they should be deprived of all their offices and employments. The young count d'Armagnac now joined the dauphin, magnificently accompanied by men-at-arms, and made bitter complaints concerning the murders of his father, the constable of France, and of the other great lords. The dauphin and his council replied, that speedy and substantial justice should be done, in proper time and place, on those who had committed these murders. The dauphin then marched a powerful army to lay siege to Tours in Touraine, of which place sir William de Romenil, knight, and Charles l'Abbe, were governors. They in a short time surrendered both town and castle to the dauphin ; and Charles l'Abbe even turned to his party, and took the oaths of allegiance to him. The men-at-arms that were under his command, being unwilling to follow his example, received passports to go whither they pleased. The dauphin kept his court at Tours for a considerable space of time.

The duke of Burgundy, on the other hand, who held the king and queen under his subjection, ordered the government of the kingdom according to his pleasure; and notwithstanding he had formerly abolished all subsidies and taxes, he caused the king's ministers to issue a royal edict to raise certain sums for the relief of the city of Rouen, which was hard pressed by the English. In addition to this, the Parisians were required to furnish a loan for the same purpose; and the municipality lent one hundred thousand francs, on condition that every tun of wine should pay twelve farthings when brought to Paris, until the above sum were repaid ; and the municipality were to receive this duty by their own officers. Large subsidies were likewise raised throughout those parts of the realm that were under

, " John de Berghes, lord of Cohen, grand-huntsman of f William, lord of Chasteauvilain, grand-chambrier France. de France.

the king's obedience,—namely, in the bishopric of Beauvais, in the bailiwicks of Amiens, of the Vermandois, and elsewhere. Master Robert le Jeune, advocate in the parliament, was nominated to collect these taxes; and one of the judges, with some of the king's officers, were sent to enforce payment from such as refused.


At this period, a priest, of a tolerable age and of clear understanding, was deputed, by those besieged in Rouen, to the king of France and his council. On his arrival at Paris, he caused to be explained by an Augustin doctor, named Eustace de la Paville, in presence of the king and his ministers, the miserable situation of the besieged. He took for his text, “Domine quid faciemus 7" and harangued upon it very ably and eloquently. When he had finished, the priest addressed the king, saying, “Most excellent prince and lord, I am enjoined by the inhabitants of Rouen to make loud complaints against you, and against you duke of Burgundy, who govern the king, for the oppressions they suffer from the English. . . They make known to you by me, that if, from want of being succouped by you, they are forced to become subjects to the king of England, you will not have in all the world more y bitter enemies; and if they can, they will destroy you and your whole generation." A With these, or with similar words, did this priest address the king and his council. Afte, he had been well received and entertained, and the duke of Burgundy had promised to provide succours for the town of Rouen as speedily as possible, he returned the best way he could to carry this news to the besieged. Shortly after, the king of France and the duke of Burgundy sent ambassadors to Pont de l'Arche, to treat of a peace with the king of England.' ' This embassy consisted of the bishop of Beauvais, master Philip de Morvilliers, first presi-. dent of the parliament, master Regnault de Folleville, knight, sir William de Champdivers, master Thierry le Roy, and others: they were likewise accompanied by the cardinal d'Orsini as a mediator. The king of England appointed the earl of Warwick, the lord chancellor, and the archbishop of Canterbury, to meet them at Pont de l'Arche, with others of his council. The negotiations lasted fifteen days, during which the cardinal paid a visit to the king of England at his siege of Rouen, and was handsomely received by him and the other lords. The ambassadors from the king of France had brought with them a portrait of the princess Catherine, daughter to the king, which was presented to the king of England, who liked it well; but he made too great demands for her marriage-portion, namely, that with the princess should be given him a million of crowns of gold, the duchy of Normandy, of which he had conquered a part, the duchy of Aquitaine, the county of Ponthieu, with other lordships, the whole to be held independent of the crown of France. Nothing therefore was concluded; and the English ambassadors replied to those from France, that their king was not in a situation to form any treaty with,-for the dauphin was not made a party, and it was unbecoming the duke of Burgundy to dispose by treaty of the inheritances of France. On receiving this answer, the cardinal and ambassadors returned to the king and queen of France and the duke of Burgundy, who had lately quitted Paris, and were at Pontoise. They reported to the council all that had passed at Pont de l'Arche; and soon after the cardinal went to Pope Martin at Avignon, for he saw clearly that no peace was likely to take effect between the three parties. The inhabitants of Rouen knowing well that the negotiation between the kings of France and England was broken off, and fearing that succour would be too long delayed, resolved to make a sally, and fight their way through one of the quarters of king Henry's army, to seek for succour themselves. On mustering their forces, they found they were full ten thousand combatants, leaving a sufficiency for the defence of the town. Orders were given for each man to provide himself with two days provision. When all were ready, and two thousand of them had made an attack on the king's quarters, where they had done much

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