damage, they began their march out of the town; but it happened that the props which bore the drawbridge had been wickedly and secretly sawed nearly through, so that when their first ranks advanced thereon it broke, and very many fell into the ditch and were killed or wounded. They hastened to another gate to support their men that were engaged with the English, and ordered them to retreat; but they could not regain their town without great loss, although they had made their enemies suffer also. There were now many murmurings against the honour of sir Guy le Bouteiller, who was believed to have caused the supporters of the drawbridge to be sawed. Not long after this sally, Langnon bastard d'Arly died of sickness, to the great sorrow of the commonalty, who, as I have before said, had greater confidence in him than in any of the other captains.

At this time sir John de Luxembourg took to wife Joan of Bethune, daughter and heiress to the viscount de Meaux, who had before espoused Robert de Bar, count de Marle and de Soissons. She had a young daughter, two years old or thereabout, the heiress of these counties. This marriage was concluded through favour of the duke of Burgundy and the count de Charolois; and by it sir John de Luxembourg had the management of extensive territories. Within a year, the lady brought him a son, who died young. The duke of Burgundy gave up to him many lordships, such as Dunkirk, Varmeston and others, which he had holden as being confiscated,—for the late sir Robert de Bar, during his lifetime, had been of the opposite party.


We must now return to the situation of the king of France, and of the duke of Burgundy's government. It is true that large bodies of men-at-arms had been summoned in the king's name for the relief of the town of Rouen, from different parts of the kingdom, and ordered to rendezvous at and near Beauvais. A great many of the lords from Picardy, with a numerous body of their men accustomed to bear arms, came thither; and the country suffered much from them wherever they passed. The king, queen and duke of Burgundy, with their households, came from Pontoise to Beauvais, to have provisions in greater plenty, and held there many private councils on the best means to relieve the town of Rouen. They could not devise any mode that would be successful, on account of the quarrel between the dauphin and the duke of Burgundy, and because the king of England had too powerful an army. Notwithstanding this, they daily summoned more men-at-arms and cross-bows from the towns under their obedience.

While the court resided at Beauvais, four gentlemen and four citizens of Rouen, were sent to lay before the king and council their miserable state: they told them, that thousands of persons were already dead of hunger within their town; and that, from the beginning of October, they had been forced to live on horses, dogs, cats, mice and rats, and other things unfit for human creatures. They had nevertheless drivers full twelve thousand poor people, men, women and children, out of the place, the greater part of whom had perished wretchedly in the ditches of the town. That it had been frequently necessary to draw up in baskets new-born children from mothers who had been brought to bed in these ditches to have them baptised, and they were afterwards returned to their mothers: many however had perished without christening, --all which things were grievous and pitiful to be related. They then added, “To you our lord and king, and to you noble duke of Burgundy, the loyal inhabitants of Rouen have before made known their distress: they now again inform you how much they are suffering for you, to which you have not yet provided any remedy according to your promises. We are sent to you for the last time, to announce to you on the part of the besieged, that if within a few days they are not relieved, they shall surrender themselves and their town to the English king, and thenceforward renounce all allegiance, faith and service, which they have sworn to you.” The king, duke and council courteously replied, that the king's forces were not as yet adequate to raise the siege, which they were exceedingly sorry for ; but with God's pleasure, they should very soon be relieved. The deputies asked by what time: the duke answered, before the fourth day after Christmas. They then returned to their town with difficulty, from the great danger of being taken by the besiegers, and related all that had passed.

The besieged now suffered the greatest distress; and it is impossible to recount the miseries of the common people from famine: it was afterwards known, that upwards of fifty thousand had perished of hunger. Some, when they saw meat carried through the street, in despair, ran to seize it, and so doing, allowed themselves to be severely beaten, and even wounded. During the space of three months no provisions were seen in the markets, but every thing was sold secretly: and what before the siege was worth a farthing was sold for twenty, thirty, or even forty; but these prices were too high for the common people, and hence the great mortality I have mentioned. December was about half over when these last ambassadors returned to Rouen; and during this tempestuous season, sir James de Harcourt and the lord de Moreul assembled about two thousand combatants, whom they led to within two leagues of the English quarters, with the hope of plunder. They posted their men in two ambuscades near to each other, to fall on the enemy should he pass that way, and then ordered about six score of their men-at-arms to attack a village near the town, in which were a party of English. These were either taken or killed, except a few, who, by having good horses, escaped to their main army, crying out that they had seen the French in great force.

The English were instantly in motion, and under arms; and the king of England ordered sir John de Cornwall to mount his horse, and take six hundred men to see what truth was in this report. Sir John de Cornwall, without delay, marched off his men, taking with him some of those who had seen the French, and soon came up with the enemy; but the French, seeing the English were too numerous, hastily returned to their ambuscades, to whom they told that the enemy were coming. Sir John de Cornwall followed them in good array, and so closely that he could plainly distinguish their numbers, when the French that were in one ambush advanced in order of battle to combat them, but the greater part of the others turned their backs and fled. The English, noticing this, made a vigorous charge, and put the whole to the rout, with a very trifling loss on their side,-and to the great confusion of the French, for on this day were twelve score men-at-arms killed or made prisoners: among the last was the lord de Moreul, Butor bastard de Croy, and many noble gentlemen of high rank. Sir James de Harcourt and others saved themselves by the fleetness of their horses. Sir John de Cornwall returned with his prisoners to the camp, very much rejoiced at his victory.


The king and queen of France, and the duke of Burgundy held very many councils, while at Beauvais, on the most effectual means to relieve Rouen; but as it was found that at the moment the royal forces were insufficient to combat the army of England, and to raise the siege, the greater part of the men-at-arms that had been assembled were disbanded, excepting some from the principal towns, who were sent to garrison the frontiers, as well against the English as the Dauphinois. When this was done, the king, queen, and duke of Burgundy, escorted by his Burgundians and a considerable body of men-at-arms, departed from Beauvais, and passing through Creil and Laigny sur Marne, went to Provins. Many were astonished at this measure.

News of it was carried to Rouen, and the duke of Burgundy privately advised the besieged to treat with the king of England on the best terms they could. When this was made public, there was a universal grief throughout the town, for the inhabitants were sorrowful at heart: however, some of the captains and principal citizens comforted them as well as they were able, and afterwards assembled in the town-hall to consider on their future conduct towards the king of England. They resolved, since they had now lost all hope of relief, and that their provisions were nearly exhausted, to treat with their adversaries, for that purpose they sent a herald to the king of England, to require a passport for six persons, which was granted. They nominated, as their ambassadors, two churchmen, two gentlemen, and 'wo citizens, who were wise, prudent, and well spoken. They went straight to the tent of the king, and were conducted to the lodgings of the archbishop of Canterbury, who, with the earl of Warwick, had been appointed to treat with them. When they were met, they opened the business, to discover on what terms they would be received, but could obtain no other answer than that the whole of the inhabitants must submit unconditionally to the king. On this they returned to their town without saying more, and again assembled the principal burghers and many of the commonalty, to whom they related the answer they had received, which appeared to those who heard it uncommonly harsh. They declared it would be far preferable to die combating the enemy, than to be reduced to subjection by this king. The assembly now broke up, but met again on the morrow more numerous than before. After much conversation, it was resolved unanimously to undermine part of their wall, and support it on props withinside the town, to which they would set fire, and when the wall should fall down, having completely armed themselves, they would then sally forth through the breach, with their wives and children, and march whither God might please to lead them. They separated with the intention of putting their plan into execution on the night of the morrow; but the king of England, having had information of it, and being desirous of gaining the whole town and its inhabitants, had the late ambassadors privately summoned to come again to the camp, by the archbishop of Canterbury, who, with others delegated to this purpose, concluded a treaty on the following terms. In the first place, the king of England was to receive from the inhabitants of Rouen the sum of three hundred and sixty-five crowns of gold, of the coin of France, and three men to deal with as he might please, first, master Robertde Iinet, vicar-general to the archbishop of Rouen, who, during the siege, had conducted himself most imprudently; the second was a citizen named Jean Jourdain, who had had the command of the cannoneers; the third was Alain Blanchart, leader of the common people, and the principal of those who had formerly murdered sir Raoul de Gaucourt, bailiff of Rouen, as has been before mentioned. The whole of the inhabitants were to swear faith and loyalty to the king of England and to his successors, he and they promising in return to guard and defend them against all who might attempt to injure them,-and also to maintain them in their liberties, privileges, and franchises, of which they had been in possession since the reign of St. Louis. It was likewise ordained, that all who chose to quit the town might freely depart, having only their usual clothes on, leaving the rest behind, as confiscated to the king; and also that the whole of the men-at-arms should deposit their armour and effects at a specified place; when, after they had sworn not to bear arms for one whole year against king Henry, passports would be granted them, and they would be escorted in safety beyond the king's outposts, but dressed in their usual clothing, with staves in their hands. When this treaty had been concluded, and sufficient pledges given to the king for its due observance, a certain number of the townsmen were permitted to enter the English camp at their pleasure to seek for provisons, of which there was such abundance that the whole carcass of a sheep was not worth more than six sols parisis. This treaty was concluded on the 16th day of January, in the year 1419; and on the following Thursday, the 19th of the same month, the king of England made his public entry into the town of Rouen with great pomp, attended by the princes of his blood and numbers of his nobles. He was followed by a page mounted on a beautiful horse, bearing a lance, at the end of which, near the point, was fastened a fox's brush, by way of streamer, which afforded great matter of remark among the wise-heads. On his entrance, which was about two o'clock in the afternoon, the bells of all the churches were rung, and the mitred abbots, and all others of the clergy, went out in procession to meet him, dressed in their sacred robes bearing many relics, who, with chaunting, conducted the king to the cathedral of Our Lady. When he was coine to the great gate, he dismounted, and, bare-headed, reverently entered the church, and returned his thanksgivings to God at the high altar: thence he went to the castle, where he was lodged, and the others wherever they could in the town. This city of Rouen, now conquered by the king of England, had,

with all Normandy, appertained to France, and been under the obedience of her kings for

215 years from the time when king Philip, grandfather to St. Louis, acquired it from king

John of England, by judgment of the peers of France, in right of confiscation.
King Henry, the day after his entry, had Alain Blanchart, who had been the leader of

Castle and Fontifications ERECTED BY HENRY W. In Rouen.—From Millin's Antiquités Nationales.

the populace, beheaded: the two others escaped punishment by dint of money. The garrison were ordered to march out by the gate leading toward the Seine, and were escorted by the English as far as the bridge of St. George, where they were searched by commissaries from the king, who took from them all their money, with everything valuable, giving them in return only two sols. Some of the gentlemen were even stripped of their handsome robes, made of martin-skins, or embroidered with gold, and others of less value given them in return. This conduct was noticed by those of the garrison who were in the rear; and foreseeing the same would be done to them, they quietly, and unobserved, threw into the Seine many purses full of gold, silver, and jewels. Others, to avoid being plundered, had sewed up their money within the waistbands of their breeches. When they had all passed the bridge of St. George, they kept together until they came to Pontoise, where they separated, and went to different parts, excepting the nobles, who joined the king of France and the duke of Burgundy at Provins. Sir Guy le Bouteiller, who had been governor of Rouen, turned to the English, with several of his men, and took the oaths of allegiance to the king of England, deserting his own natural lord the king of France, for which he was much blamed by the French, and even by the English. Sir Guy was a native of Normandy, and not only had his estates restored to him, but was appointed deputy to the duke of Gloucester, the new governor of Rouen. The surrender of this town spread such an alarm and fear of the king of England throughout the whole of Normandy and the adjacent countries, as far as Pontoise, Beauvais, and Abbeville, that the greater part of the chief towns and castles submitted to him without offering any resistance, or even striking a blow; such as Caudebec, Montivilliers, Dieppe, Fécamp, Arques, Neuf-Châtel, Denicourt, Eu, Monchaulx"; and on the other side of the Seine, Vernon, Mantes, Gournay, Honfleur, Pont-Audemer, Château Molineaux, le Treict, Tancarville, Abrechieri, Maulevrier, Walmont, Neufville, Bellaucombre, Fontaines le Bourg, Preaulx, Nogondouvillet, Logempré $, St. Germain sur Cailly, Baudemont, Bray, Villeterre, Charles-Maisnil, les Boules Guillencourt, Ferifontaines, le Becq Crepin, Bacqueville, and many more, in which the king of England placed his own garrisons.


From that time the inhabitants of these countries wore a red cross as a badge, and several bore arms for the English; not indeed those of great authority, for it was not then become the custom for gentlemen or nobles to join the English. The inhabitants of Rouen in general took the oath of fidelity before the commissioners, at least all who intended to reside there; and they individually gave security to pay whatever they should be assessed to make up the sum of three hundred and sixty-five golden crowns before mentioned. None were permitted to go out of the town without a billet from the king; and the same was practised in all the other towns under his obedience. These billets cost four sols each, French money; and by this means large sums were raised, to the advantage of the king and his ministers.


About Candlemas in this same year, Peter de Saint Treille, governor of the castle of Coucy for the duke of Orleans, prisoner in England, was betrayed by some of his servants, namely, his tailor and marshal. They had entered into a conspiracy with the Burgundians, numbers of whom were confined in this castle, and had suffered many to escape: they went with others secretly by night to knock at the window of the governor's apartment in the great tower. A varlet who slept in the apartment arose, and, opening the window, demanded what they wanted: upon this, the tailor replied, that he had within his room a piece of his master's robe, which he had just cut out. On the door being opened, six persons with stout staves burst into the apartment, and murdered the governor and his servant. They went thence to another tower, wherein were confined the lord de Maucourt en Santerre, Lyonnet de Bournouville, and other gentlemen, from whom having obtained certain promises, they set them at liberty. After this, with one common accord, they seized and killed the watch porters, and all who were not of their party, shouting with a loud voice, “Burgundy for ever:”

A gentleman, named Brutel de Humerculles, was confined with his servant in the great tower; but hearing this cry, they burst open the doors of the dungeon, and got upon the drawbridge. While this was passing, La Hire ||, who was in the town with a body of menat-arms, being told what had happened by some of the garrison who had escaped over the walls, and also by a trumpeter that was posted on the leads of the castle, sounding to arms, marched his men to the bridge, thinking to reconquer it: but Brutel found means to ascend to the leads, and flung down on them stones so fast, and the others who had been prisoners made so vigorous a defence, that La Hire and those with him, seeing their attempt was now fruitless, retired with his men within the town until it should be day. They then armed themselves again, packed up their baggage, and mounted their horses; and after they had cruelly put to death sixty prisoners who were under confinement in the town, they departed for Guise.

This very much rejoiced those who had won the castle, and they instantly examined into its strength and the great wealth it contained. They despatched messengers to sir John de Luxembourg to come to their aid, who, without delay, collected as many men-at-arms as he could, and set out for Coucy. In the mean time, those who had sent for him resolved, nevertheless, not to let him enter the castle until he should promise that all the riches it contained should belong to them; and for this purpose, they sent the lord de Maucourt to

* Q. Chaumont ? + Q. Evreux P | Stephen Vignole, called La Hire, a distinguished $ Q. Nonancourt P § Q. Louviers? partisan of the dauphin, and a soldier of fortune.

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