On landing, she went to Rouen, and thence to the castle of Vincennes, to meet the king. Queen Catherine travelled in royal state, alway accompanied by the duke of Bedford and the men-at-arms. King Henry departed from Meaux with his princes to meet her, and she was received by them as if she had been an angel from heaven. Great rejoicings were made by the king and queen of France for the happy arrival of their son-in-law and their daughter; and on the 30th day of May, Whitsun-eve, the kings of France and of England, accompanied by their queens, left Vincennes, and entered Paris with much pomp. The king and queen of France were lodged at the hôtel of St. Pol, and the king of England and his company at the Louvre. In each of these places, the two kings solemnly celebrated the feast of Pentecost, which fell on the day after their arrival. On this day, the king and queen of England were seated at table gorgeously apparelled, having crowns on their heads. The English princes, dukes, knights, and prelates, were partakers of the feast, each seated according to his rank, and the tables were covered with the rarest viands and choicest wines. The king and queen this day held a grand court, which was attended by all the English at Paris; and the Parisians went to the castle of the Louvre to see the king and queen at table crowned with their most precious diadems; but as no meat or drink was offered to the populace by the attendants, they went away much discontented; for in former times, when the kings of France kept open court, meat and drink was distributed abundantly to all comers by the king's servants. King Charles had indeed been as liberal and courteous as his predecessors, but he was now seated in his hôtel of St. Pol at table with his queen, deserted by the grandees and others of his subjects, as if he had been quite forgotten. The government and power of the kingdom were now transferred from his hands into those of his son-in-law king Henry; and he had so little share, that he was managed as the king of England pleased, and no attention was paid him, which created much sorrow in the hearts of all loyal Frenchmen, and not without cause. During the king of England's residence at Paris, he ordered the tax of silver to be collected, for the coinage of new money, in the manner before described. This gave rise to great murmurings and discontent; but, from dread of king Henry, the Parisians dared not show any other signs of disobedience and rebellion than by words.


The two kings, with their queens and attendants, departed from Paris and went to Senlis, where they made some stay. As the day for the surrender of Gamaches was near at hand, the king of England sent the earl of Warwick thither with three thousand combatants; and, according to the terms of the treaty, he entered the town on the 18th of June. Having delivered back the hostages safe and well, he received the oaths of allegiancé from the inhabitants, in the name of the two kings, and then appointed sir John Felton, an Englishman, governor, with a sufficient garrison of men-at-arms and archers. Having finished this business, the earl of Warwick marched for St. Valery, which was in the possession of the Dauphinois. When he was near the town, he sent forward the van of his army to reconnoitre the place; but the garrison made a sally, of a hundred picked men-at-arms well mounted, who instantly attacked the English, and a sharp conflict ensued, in which many were killed and wounded, and some prisoners taken from the English.

While this was passing, the earl hastened the march of his army to the support of the van, which forced the Dauphinois to retreat within their town. The earl marched round part of the town with his army, and quartered some of his men in the monastery, and the rest in tents and pavilions. After this he caused his engines to play incessantly on the walls, and damaged them in many places. With regard to the frequent sallies of the garrison, I shall, for brevity' sake, pass them over; but, as the town was open to the sea,

from the besiegers want of shipping to blockade the port, the garrison and inhabitants could go whither they pleased for provisions, to Crotoy or elsewhere, to the great vexation of the earl of Warwick.

The earl sent to the ports of Normandy for vessels; and so many came that the harbour of St. Valery was shut up, to the grief of the besieged, who now lost their only hope of holding out the town. In consequence, at the end of three weeks or thereabout, they made a treaty with the earl to surrender on the fourth day of September, on condition of being allowed to depart safely with their baggage, should they not be relieved before that day by the dauphin. During this time, the besieged were to abstain from making any inroads, and from foraging the country; and to deliver sufficient good hostages to the earl for the due performance of the articles of this treaty, who, after this, returned with the English to king Henry. The king of England sent also his brother the duke of Bedford, and others of his princes, grandly accompanied, to the town of Compiègne, to receive it from the hands of the lord de Gamaches, who had promised to surrender it to the duke on the 18th day of June.

The lord de Gamaches marched from Compiègne with about twelve hundred combatants, and, under passports from the king of England, conducted them across the Seine to the dauphin. In like manner did the lord de Gamaches yield up the other forts before mentioned according to his promises. Thus were all the places which the Dauphinois had held between Paris and Boulogne-sur-Mer subjected to the obedience of the two kings, excepting the town of Crotoy and the territory of Guise. When the duke of Bedford had received oaths of allegiance from the burghers and inhabitants of Compiègne, and nominated sir Hugh de Lannoy governor thereof, he returned to his brother the king at Senlis.

At this time, ambassadors were sent by the two monarchs to sir James de Harcourt in Crotoy: they were his brother the bishop of Amiens, the bishop of Beauvais, sir Hugh de Lannoy master of the cross-bows of France, with a herald from king Henry, to summon sir James to yield up the town of Crotoy to their obedience; but, notwithstanding their diligence and earnestness, they could not prevail on him to consent, nor to enter into any sort of treaty.


At this period, the king of England went from Senlis to Compiègne to see the town. While there, he received intelligence that a plot had been formed to take the town of Paris, through the means of the wife of one of the king of France's armourers. She was discovered one morning very early by a priest who had gone to his garden without the walls, speaking earnestly with some armed men in a valley under his garden. Alarmed at what he saw, he instantly returned to the gate of Paris, told the guard what he had seen, and bade them be careful and attentive. The guard arrested the woman and carried her to prison, where she soon confessed the fact. This intelligence made king Henry return to Paris with his men-at-arms, where he had the woman drowned for her demerits, as well as some of her accomplices: he then returned to the king of France at Senlis.

About this time, sir John and sir Anthony du Vergy gained the town of St. Dizier in Pertois; but the Dauphinois garrison retired to the castle, wherein they were instantly besieged. La Hire, and some other captains, hearing of it, assembled a body of men for their relief; but the two above-mentioned lords, learning their intentions, collected as large a number of combatants as they could raise, and marched to oppose them ; when they met, they attacked them so vigorously that they were defeated, with about forty slain on the field: the rest saved themselves by flight. After this, the lords du Vergy returned to the siege of the castle of St. Dizier, which was soon surrendered to them; and they regarrisoned it with their people.


[Translated by my friend, the Rev. W. Shepherd, of Gateacre in the County of Lancaster.]

“Ah, princes, prelates, valiant lords,
Lawyers and tradesfolk, small and great
Burghers and warriors girt with swords,
Who fatten on our daily sweat
To labouring hinds some comfort give :
Whate'er betide, we needs must live.

But live we cannot long, we trow,
If God deny his powerful aid
Against the poor man's cruel foe,
Who doth our goods by force invade,
And, flouting us with pride and scorn,
Beareth away our wine and corn.

No corn is in our granary stored,
No vintage cheers our heavy hearts,
But once a week our wretched board
Scant fare of oaten bread imparts;
And when we raise the asking eye,
The rich from our distresses fly.

But fly not:—think how ye offend
Who shut your ears against our cry.
And oh! some gracious succour lend,
Or else with want we surely die.
Oh hear! and on our wasted frame
Have pity, lords ! in Jesus' name.

Pity our faces, pale and wan,
Our trembling limbs, our haggard eyes
Relieve the fainting husbandman,
And Heaven will count you truly wise.
For God declares to great and small,
Who lacketh kindness, lacketh all.

All hope is lost, all trust is gone!
For when we beg from door to door,
All cry, “God bless you !' but not one
Gives bread or meat to feed the poor.
The dogs fare better far than we,
Albeit we faithful Christians be.

Yea, Christians, sons of God we bel
Your brethren too, who trust in wealth,
And think not that at Heaven's decree
Gold disappears by force or stealth.
Rich tho' ye be, to death ye bow :
Ye little wis, or when, or how.

How dare ye say, what oftentimes
Ye utter in a thoughtless mood,
That want we suffer for our crimes,
That misery worketh for our good 2
For Chaist his sake, no more say so
But look with pity on our woe.

Our woe regard, and ne'er forget
That ye subsist upon the toil
Of weary labourers,—and yet
Their scanty goods ye daily spoil.
Yea, thus ye act, of what degree,
Estate, or rank soe'er ye be.

Be then advised, and bear in mind That perish'd are our little gains, Whilst no protecting master kind Vouchsafes to pay us for our pains. But if we longer thus are shent, Believe us, lords ye will repent.


Repent ye will, or late or soon,
lf from our plaints ye turn away :
For your tall towers will tumble down,
Your gorgeous palaces decay:
Sith true it is, ye lordly great,
We are the pillars of your state.

The pillars of your state do crack:
Your dcep foundations turn to dust:
Nor have ye prop or stay, alack
In which to put your steadfast trust.
But down ye sink without delay,
Which make us cry, 'Ah, welladay !’"

Ah, welladay! ye bishops grave,
Lords of the faith of Christian folk,
Naked and bare, your help we crave,
The wretched outcasts of your flock.
For love of God, in charity
Remonstrate with the rich and proud,
That tho' they raise their heads so high,
They are maintained by the crowd,
Whose bread perforce they take away,
And imake us cry, “Ah, welladay!”

Ah, welladay! our gracious king,
The noblest prince in Christian land,
What mischiefs do their counsels bring,
Who bade thee lay thy heavy hand
On thy poor liege men —but be wise.
God gave thee power our rights to guard t
Then listen to our doleful cries,
And deal th' oppressor's just reward;
So shall the poor no longer say,
In grief of heart, “Ah, welladay!”

Ah, welladay ! great king of France,
Remember our unhappy lot:
Long have we borne our sad mischance,
And patient are we still, God wot?
But if you do not soon apply
Choice remedies to our distress,
Eftsoons our tens of thousands fly,
In foreign lands to seek redress.
And when from hence we haste away,
'Tis you will cry, “Ah, welladay !’

Ah, welladay ! good prince, beware;
For thoughtless kings, in days of yore,
Who for their subjects did not care,
By loss of lands were punish’d sore.
Are you not sworn to work our weal?
Bid, then, our sore vexations cease :
Humble the proud with prudent zeal,
And grant us safety, grant us peace:
So shall we no more need to say,
In grief of heart, 'Ah, welladay!”

Ah, welladay! when thrice a year,
Your surly sergeants came perforce,
And, levying tallage on our gear,
Drive from our field both cow and horse.
But yet in Jesus' name, we trow,
That scant proportion of the same
Doth to the royal coffers flow.
Then our complaints no longer blame,
Nor marvel if our piteous lay

ls burdened still with ‘Welladay !'

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Your towers consumed by hostile fires; God shall direct you to your good,
For if ye slight our humble prayer, Nor will ye still our prayer refuse.
Our urgent wants and just desires, Then shall we cease to sigh and say,
Far different letters shall declare. In grief of heart, “Ah, welladay !’
But if you please, in serious mood

And kind, these presents to peruse, Amen ; so God grant of his grace l’


We must now speak of the duke of Touraine, dauphin, who had assembled from divers parts an army of twenty thousand men, the greater number of which he had marched to Sancerre, where he had fixed his residence. During his stay there, he had won the town of La Charité-sur-Loire, which he regarrisoned; and had so closely besieged Cône-sur-Loire, that the garrison were constrained to capitulate with the commissaries of the dauphin for its surrender on the 6th day of August, unless the duke of Burgundy should come or send a force sufficient to combat his enemies; and for the due performance of this they gave sufficient hostages. The two dukes of Touraine and Burgundy mutually promised each other, by their heralds, to meet on the appointed day in battle array for the combat. The duke of Burgundy had before made his arrangements to return to Artois; but in consequence of the above, he resolved to stay in Burgundy, and sent messengers to summon assistance from Flanders, Picardy, and elsewhere. He sent also to the king of England, earnestly to request the aid of a certain number of his men-at-arms and archers, with some of his princes and chief captains. The king gave for answer to the duke's messengers, that he would not only comply with the request they made, but would come to the duke's aid in person, and with his whole army. Sir Hugh de Lannoy, master of the cross-bows of France, was not idle in raising men in Flanders and in the neighbourhood of Lille, and assembled great numbers. In like manner did sir John de Luxembourg, the lord de Croy, and many other captains in Picardy, who, toward the end of July, advanced by different roads round Paris, and marched thence through Troyes in Champagne. On the other hand, the king of England, though in a very bad state of health at Senlis, ordered the army that was in and about Paris to march toward Burgundy, under the command of his brother the duke of Bedford, the earl of Warwick, and other princes and captains. He himself, notwithstanding his illness, took leave of his brother the king of France, of the queen, and of his own consort, whom he never after saw, and departed from Senlis to Melun, where he had himself placed in a litter, intending to join his army on the day appointed for the battle between the dauphin and the duke of Burgundy. But he daily grew so much weaker, that he was forced to return to the castle of Vincennes, where he took to his death-bed. In the mean time, the English army, under the duke of Bedford, advanced near to Burgundy, as did the lords of Picardy by another route. They at length came to the town of Weselay, where they found the duke of Burgundy waiting for them with a considerable army collected from all quarters. The duke received them with great joy, and feasted them grandly, more especially the duke of Bedford and the English lords, whom he gratefully thanked for the powerful succour they had brought him in his time of need. When the junction of all these reinforcements was completed, the whole advanced toward Cône-sur-Loire, having van, centre, and rear battalions, in which were intermixed English, Burgundians, and Picards, so that no jealousies might arise among them, and that none of the three parties might claim any particular honour on the day of battle. In this order they came before Cône, and there took up their quarters for the night, ready for the combat on the morrow, according to the promises of the dauphin. But the dauphir and his advisers, having heard of the immense force of the duke of Burgundy and the princes his allies, withdrew with his army to Bourges in Berry, and no person appeared for him on the appointed day. Thus the town of Cône remained in possession of the duke of Burgundy, who marched back toward Troyes. The army suffered much from want of Provision, especially bread; but when they were arrived near Troyes, they spread themselves

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