Toward the end of February, a large body of combatants, attached to king Charles, from the country of Berry, assembled under the command of the count d'Aumarle", the earl of Buchan, a Scotsman, the viscounts de Narbonne, d'Annechy F, de Châtel Breton and others: they amounted to about six thousand men, and were marched to within six leagues of Meulan, where they formed themselves in battle-array; but a quarrel arose among their

Moulan.-From an original Drawing.

leaders, so that they broke up in a very disorderly manner, and departed without advancing farther. They lost great numbers of men from the sallies made by the garrisons of Chartres, and other places in the hands of the English, while retreating in such disorder. The besieged in Meulan, hearing of what had happened, were exceedingly enraged that they had failed of having the promised succour. In their rage, they tore down the banner of king Charles that had been displayed over the gate, and flung it to the ground. Many gentlemen ascended the battlements, and in sight of the English tore to pieces the crosses they had worn as badges of king Charles, and loudly abused those who had been sent to their relief for perjured traitors. The garrison was not long before they held a parley with the duke's officers; and persons were chosen on each side to conclude a treaty. On the part of the English were deputed, the earl of Salisbury, sir John Fastolfe, sir Pierre de Fontenay, sir John de Pouligny lord de la Motte, Richard Widville", Nicholas Bourdee, grand butler of Normandy, and Pierre le Werrad. The deputies from the town were, sir John de Grasville, sir Louis Martel, sir Adam de Croisincs, knights, John d'Estainbourg, Jean de Mirot, Roger de Boissie, Oudin de Boissie, and Jean Marle, esquires. These deputies having met several times, at length agreed to a treaty, the terms whereof were as follow:—

* I suspect that this ought to be Aumale. John, count + Q. Annebaut P John, lord of Annebaut, was atof Aumale, son to the count of Harcourt. He was killed tached to the person of the count of Aumale in 1421. the following year at Werneuil.



In the first place, the besieged shall surrender the bridge and fortress into the hands of my lord duke of Bedford, or to his commissaries, fully repaired, and with all its cannons, powder, cross-bows, and all other warlike stores, without fraud or deceit, and without committing any damages to these articles. The said bridge and fort shall be thus honestly surrendered three days after to-morrow, that is to say, on the fifth day of this present month of March.-Secondly, all persons now within the fort of the bridge of Meulan, whatever may be their rank, shall submit themselves, with the utmost humility, to the will of my lord the regent, who, in consideration of this their very humble obeisance, and from motives of mercy and religion, in honour of God, and with due reverence to this holy time of Lent, shall grant them their lives, excepting those who shall have formerly been subjects to the late king of England, (whose soul may God pardon 1) and such as shall have sworn to the observance of the last peace between the kingdoms of France and England; those who shall have been in any way aceomplices in the murder of duke John of Burgundy; all Welsh, Irish, and Scots, should any there be, are also excepted,—and more particularly so, John Dourdas, Savary a Bernardine monk, Olivier de Launoy, the cannoneers, and those who formed the ambuscade by which the bridge was surprised: all these last are to remain at the disposal of the lord regent. Thirdly, it is agreed that if any gentleman or others (excepting such as have been before excepted) be willing to submit themselves to the obedience of the king our sovereign lord of France and of England, and to my lord regent, as true and loyal subjects, and carry on a war against his enemies in the manner they had done against the king, my lord regent will receive them into his favour and acquit them of all imprisonment and ransom, provided they give sufficient pledges for their future good conduct.

Item, all persons now within the fort of the bridge of Meulan who may hold any towns or castles, by themselves or others, against our said king, shall deliver them up to the lord regent, or to his commissioners deputed for that purpose; and they shall exert themselves to the utmost that their relations or friends shall in like manner surrender all castles or towns they may be possessed of. And until all these things shall be done, they are to remain at the disposal of the regent, who engages, on their due accomplishment, to restore them to liberty.—Item, if any persons now within the fort of the bridge of Meulan shall detain there, or elsewhere, any prisoners, English, French, or Burgundians, or merchants, having sworn allegiance to the king of England, they shall release them without calling on them or their securities for any ransom whatever.—Item, it is agreed that the besieged shall, the day after to-morrow, either by themselves or others, carry to one or more appointed places, all their armours, without any way damaging the smallest article of them; and they will also have carried to another part all gold and silver plate, money, jewels, and every article of value within the said fortress, without concealing any part thereof or destroying it. They will deliver to the commissaries of the lord regent exact lists of the same without fraud or deception, under pain of forfeiting all benefit of this treaty, and of the grace of the lord regent.—Item, they will also deliver up their horses at an appointed place in the state they are now in, with their armours, to the said commissaries of the lord regent, on pain of forfeiture as above.—Item, under similar penalty, the besieged shall not, until the full accomplishment of the treaty, suffer any person or persons to depart from or to enter the said fortress, without the express leave of the lord regent first had and obtained.—Item, under pain of the above, they shall denounce and deliver up to the said commissioners all those who have been especially named. And in order that all these articles may fully be complied with, the commissioners and deputies of either party have thereto set their seals, this first day of March, in the year 1422. This treaty was fully completed,—and in consequence of it, the fortresses of Marcoussy, of Montlehery, and several others held by the besieged, were yielded up to the regent. On the day Meulan was surrendered, one hundred gentlemen, and two hundred others of the garrison, took the oaths before required, and swore faith and allegiance to the lord regent,even the lord de Grasville took these oaths, when they were conducted prisoners to Rouen, until all the articles of the treaty should be accomplished. The lord de Grasville certified to the regent's commissioners that king Charles was in full health when he parted from him to come to Meulan,—but that he had been hurt by the falling in of a room at la Rochelle, where he was holding a council, as has been before mentioned.

* Sir Richard Widville, seneschal of Normandy, 8 Aquitaine; 6 Edw. IV., his daughter Elizabeth being Hen. W.; constable of the tower, 3 Hen. WI. ; 15 married to the king, he was created earl Rivers, treasurer Hen. VI., married Jaqueline of Luxembourg, widow to and constable of England; and 9 Edw. IV. was beshe duke of Bedford; 26 Hen. VI., made knight of the headed, by orders of the duke of Clarence and the carl of **ter, and baron Rivers; 29 Hen. VI, seneschal of Warwick.


ON the 20th day of March in this year, the French escaladed and won the castle of Dommart in Ponthieu, Lin which were the borgne de Fosseux knight, and Jacques de Craon his son-in-law, who made their escape, with a few attendants, by a postern, on hearing the tumult and the numbers of the enemy. Sir Simon de Boulenviller, John de Douceure, and others within the castle, with the lady of de Fosseux, were detained prisoners. All the effects, which were very abundant, were seized as lawful prey and carried off. Shortly after, the lord de Crotoy, with three or four hundred combatants, fixed his quarters at a castle belonging to the bishop of Amiens, called Pernois, about a league distant from Dommart, to make head against and oppose the farther progress of the French. A treaty was concluded with the French some days after the lord de Crotoy's arrival, by which they were to return unmolested, with their plunder, on condition they surrendered Dommart. The chief of this expedition was one called Dandonet. At this period the duke of Gloucester married Jacqueline duchess of Bavaria, countess of Hainault and of Holland, who had for some time resided in England, notwithstanding that Jacqueline had been married to duke John of Brabant, then living. This marriage astonished many persons. In this same year, the king of Arragon went to Italy at the request of queen Johanna, wife to sir James de Bourbon, as her elected heir”. On his arrival, he drove the duke of Anjou, who styled himself king of Sicily, and all his people, out of that country. He then attached to his service all the great captains of the queen of Naples, namely, Sforza, Braccia-Monte, and Tartaglia, with others of the leading men in Italy, who, uniting with the king of Arragon, made the queen Johanna prisoner. Thus was she punished in the same way she had treated her former lord sir James de Bourbon. The king of Arragon by these means remained for a considerable time master of great part of Italy; even the pope joined his party, and sent the cardinal of St. Angelo to conclude a treaty of friendship with him. This cardinal, while on the journey, fell from a plank, as he entered a fort, into the ditch, and was so grievously bruised that he died soon after. News was now brought to France that the heretics at Prague were in great force, and attempting to subdue all the Christian castles and fortresses. Their heresy was more powerful and extended than it had ever been, insomuch that the emperor, unable to resist them, was returned to Hungary without effecting anything. About this time also, sir James de Harcourt's men made several secret inroads to the countries of Vimeu, Ponthieu, and Artois, and seized and carried away many ploughs from the farmers of Mont St. Eloy, near to Arras, which they sold, with other booty, in the town of Crotoy, so that the farmers were afraid of residing on or workin their lands. On the other hand, the French quartered at Guise made frequent visits to Crotoy and Rue, by which the country was sorely harassed by each party, and justice was nowhere obeyed. The burghers and commonalty of Tournay had, at this time, great dissentions, and assembled in arms under the banners of the different trades, that is to say, the great against the small. The commonalty admitted the lord de Moy into the town, who was attached to the party of king Charles as well as themselves; and they elected several men of low degree for their captains, in place of the provost and their rulers. This time, however, the quarrel was appeased without coming to blows; but similar agitations and changes frequently took place afterward within the town of Tournay. Two thousand five hundred English were now assembled in Normandy under the command of the lord de la Pole, sir Thomas Berry, and other captains, who marched them through the country of Maine, wasting every part they passed through, to Angers, where they did much damage, and made numbers of prisoners. They returned with them and their plunder to a large town, called Busignes de la Graville, where they halted many days. While these things were passing, John d'Aumarle, who had received from the country people intelligence of this expedition together with the baron de Colilouvre, the lord de Fontaines in Anjou, and sir Peter le Porc, collected a large body of men-at-arms and common people, and lay wait for the enemy in handsome array not far from La Graville. When the English perceived them, they dismounted, and posted the baggage in their rear. The French were mounted, and began the attack with great vigour, but the English defended themselves with such courage, the conflict was very severe and doubtful; but at length the English were conquered, and left full twelve hundred men on the field. The lord de la Pole was made prisoner, and thirty other gentlemen at least. Of the commonalty on the side of the French, six score persons were killed.

* Sec Giannone, lib. 25, c. 3.

chapter v11.-the DUKEs of Bedford, BURGUNDY, AND BRITTANY, MEET At AMIENs, AND FORM A TRIPLE ALLIANCE. [A. D. 1423.]

In the beginning of this year, the dukes of Bedford, Burgundy, and Brittany, met in the town of Amiens, attended each by a large company of knights and esquires. With the duke of Bedford, who styled himself regent of France, came the great council of the young king Henry of England; and with the duke of Brittany was his brother Arthur count de Richemont. These princes, on their arrival at Amiens, paid each other the utmost respect, and every outward symptom of affection; and the duke of Bedford splendidly and royally entertained them at dinner at the bishop's palace, where he lodged. When this had been done, they formed a triple alliance, in the form and manner following, signed with their hands and scaled with their seals.

“John governor and regent of the kingdom of France, Philip duke of Burgundy, and John duke of Brittany, to all to whom these presents shall come, greeting.

“Know ye, that in consideration of our friendships, and the approaching near connexion about to take place by the marriages concluded between us, John duke of Bedford, regent of France, on the one part, with our very dear and well-beloved companion and cousin Anne of Burgundy on the other part; and between our very dear and well-beloved brother Arthur count de Richemont, de Montfort and of Ivry, on one part, with our very dear and well-beloved sister and cousin, Margaret of Burgundy, on the other part; and for the general welfare of the king our lord, and of his kingdoms of France and England, for burselves and for our lordships, lands and vassals, do faithfully swear and promise to each other eternal friendship and love so long as we shall live, as affectionate brothers ought to do and we will defend the honour of each both publicly and in private, without fraud or any dissimulation, and we will mutually inform each other of whatever may be for the advantage or disadvantage, the glory or disgrace, of ourselves or of our territories and subjects. Should any persons make evil reports to us of either in his absence, we will not put any belief in such reports, but detain all those who shall make such in safe custody, and give immediate notice to him of whom such reports shall have becn made.

“Should either of us feel himself bound in honour, or for the safeguard of his innerstances, to make war, each of us binds himself to aid the other, when called upon, with five hundred men-at-arms, or with an equivalent number of archers, according to the will of the person making such demand for aid. He who shall send the succour shall be obliged to pay them for the first month, and the supplicant to pay them for so long as they shall remain with him more than the time of one month. Should a greater number of men be required by either of us, the others shall furnish him therewith to the utmost of their power, without, however, leaving their countries defenceless. “Item, we engage to exert ourselves to the very utmost to the relief of the poor of this realm, who have suffered, and are now suffering greatly from poverty,+and to the driving out all foreign bands from the kingdom, so that peace and tranquillity may be restored, that God may be properly served and honoured, and commerce and labour be renewed. “We, and each of us, do loyally promise, on the word of a prince, to fulfil all the above articles of alliance so long as we shall live, without doing any one thing to the contrary, under pain of forfeiting our honour in this world and our salvation in the next. In testimony of which, we have set our respective seals to these presents, and signed the same with our own hands, in the town of Amiens, this 27th day of April, in the year 1423.” With this treaty, the intended marriages were confirmed, between the duke of Bedford, regent, with Anne sister to the duke of Burgundy, and Arthur of Brittany with Margaret, sister also to the said duke, who had been before married to the eldest son of the late king Charles, duke of Aquitaine and dauphin of Vienne. In truth, the duke of Burgundy gave with his sister Anne, the county of Artois, with all its dependancies, to the duke of Bedford, to inherit for ever, in case he had by this marriage legal heirs. When all these things had been settled, the dukes of Bedford and Burgundy quitted Amiens, and returned together to Paris. The count de Richemont went to Arras; and the duke of Brittany, having received six thousand crowns to defray the expenses of his journey, by orders from the regent returned home with his Bretons. During the time these dukes were at Amiens, the duke of Burgundy requested of the regent, that in case the castlewicks of Peronne, Roye and Mondidier were placed under subjection to king Henry, he might have the towns of Amiens, Abbeville, Montrieul, Dourleans, Beauquesne, with all their appurtenances, given to him in exchange. The regent replied, that he would lay the matter before the grand council. The duke of Bedford, after a short stay in Paris, went to Troyes in Champagne with a very grand attendance of English,_whither was conducted, in a most honourable manner, from Burgundy, Anne sister to duke Philip, magnificently attended by the lady of Rochefort, and the lady of Salins, the lord de St. George, and many other great barons of Burgundy. With them came one John de Quielong, whom the duke had sent to the duchess dowager, to make preparations for this ceremony. The regent espoused the lady Anne on her arrival at Troyes, and the wedding was celebrated solemnly and royally. After some days the ladies who had accompanied the duchess took their leaves, but not without many tears, and returned to Burgundy. The duke and duchess of Bedford journeyed towards Paris; but on the road he attacked the town of Pont-sur-Seine with such courage that it was taken by storm, and all the French within it cruelly put to the sword. He then continued his journey, and resided a considerable time in the hôtel des Tournelles in Paris, which he had caused

to be magnificently fitted up for his reception.


IN these days, a combat at arms was performed at Arras, in the presence of the duke of Burgundy as judge of the lists, between Poton de Saintrailles and Lyonnel de Wandonne. Poton had demanded of Lyonnel to break six lances with him, and Lyonnel, in return, hat. required, afterward, a combat with battle-axes so long as they should hold out. When the preparations had been finished, and the day of combat was arrived, Poton entered the lists WOL. I. K K

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