IN the beginning of this year, copies of a letter, in the manner of a bull, from pope Martin to duke John of Brabant, were published throughout the duke's dominions, the tenor of which was as follows:

“Martin, bishop, and servant to the servants of God, to our dear son John duke of Brabant health and benediction. Whereas there has lately come to our knowledge from persons worthy of belief what is very displeasing to us, namely, that certain papers have been divulged and publicly read, as coming from us, and in our name, by way of bull, in divers parts of Hainault, and in the bishoprics of Utrecht, Liege and Cambray, purporting (as it has been affirmed to us), that we have confirmed the marriage-contract between our dear son Humphrey duke of Gloucester, and our dear daughter in Jesus Christ Jacqueline, a noble lady and duchess of Bavaria; and that we have reprobated your marriage with the said duchess, having judged it invalid. Now although such writings have never been issued by us, and have been published to our great scandal and dishonour, we will that the suit respecting this said marriage shall be determined according to the decision of common law.

“And we notify to you, by these presents, that you bear not any malice nor sorrow in your mind, but firmly hold that the papers thus scandalously published do not come from us, but from wicked men not having the fear of God before their eyes, who delight in novelties, falsehoods and dissentions. We will also, that the movers and promoters of such scandal shall, for the honour of us and of the apostolical chair, be punished in a manner adequate to the heinousness of the crime they have committed. For this reason, we have written to our venerable brethren the bishops of Utrecht, Liege and Cambray, and to each of them, apostolical mandates, directing them to read this our letter publicly from their pulpits to the people, to undeceive them relative to the aforesaid scandalous papers, to excommunicate all who shall henceforth read them in their presence, or promulgate them, and also to confine them in their persons until they shall receive further orders on this subject from us.

“Given at Rome, at the church of the Holy Apostles, on the ides of February, in the 8th year of our papacy.”


Not long after the duke of Gloucester had left Hainault, the men-at-arms of duke John of Brabant and the Picards began an open and severe warfare against the towns in that country under obedience to the duke of Gloucester, as well as on those belonging to the lords of his party, by which the inhabitants were sorely oppressed and the country ruined. To remedy these evils, the countess dowager of Hainault had many conferences with the duke of Burgundy, her nephew, and with the ambassadors from the duke of Brabant at Douay, Lille and Oudenarde, when it was concluded that Hainault should be restored to the government of the duke of Brabant, who was to promise a general amnesty to the inhabitants. The duchess Jacqueline was also to be put under the wardship of the duke of Burgundy, who was to receive a certain sum of money for her establishment, and she was to remain under his guard until the suit pending at the court of Rome should be determined.

While this treaty was negotiating, many of the principal towns revolted from their lady, and placed themselves under the obedience of the dukes of Burgundy and of Brabant, namely, Valenciennes, Condé, Bouchain and some others, so that there remained to her scarcely more than the bare town of Mons, which was nearly blockaded by her enemies, and very small quantities of provision permitted to be carried into the town. The inhabitants, seeing themselves in great danger, were much exasperated against their lady, and told her plainly, that if she did not make peace, they would deliver her into the hands of the duke of Brabant: at the same time, they imprisoned many of her attendants. some of whom they judicially put to death, as shall be hereafter told. The duchess Jacqueline, greatly alarmed at this sudden change, and fearing the worst, from what she had witnessed, and from what she had heard from her lady mother, namely, that she was to be put under the wardship of the duke of Burgundy, and carried to Flanders, sent letters in haste, describing her situation, to the duke of Gloucester; but these letters were intercepted, and carried to the duke of Burgundy. Their contents were as follow. “My very dear and redoubted lord and father, in the most humble of manners in this world, I recommend myself to your kind favour. May it please you to know, my very redoubted lord and father, that I address myself to your glorious power, as the most doleful, most ruined, and most treacherously-deceived woman living ; for, my very dear lord, on Sunday the 13th of this present month of June, the deputies of your town of Mons returned, and brought with them a treaty that had been agreed on between our fair cousin of Burgundy and our fair cousin of Brabant, which treaty had been made in the absence and without the knowledge of my mother, as she herself signifies to me, and confirmed by her chaplain master Gerard le Grand. My mother, most redoubted lord, has written to me letters, certifying the above treaty having been made ; but that, in regard to it, she knew not how to advise me, for that she was herself doubtful how to act. She desired me, however, to call an assembly of the principal burghers of Mons, and learn from them what aid and advice they were willing to give me. “Upon this, my sweet lord and father, I went on the morrow to the town-house, and remonstrated with them, that it had been at their request and earnest entreaties that you had left me under their safeguard, and on their oaths that they would be true and loyal subjects, and take especial care of me, so that they should be enabled to give you good accounts on your return,-and these oaths had been taken on the holy sacrament at the altar, and on the sacred evangelists. “To this my harangue, my dear and honoured lord, they simply replied, that they were not sufficiently strong within the town to defend and guard me; and instantaneously they rose in tumult, saying that my people wanted to murder them; and, my sweet lord, they carried matters so far that, in despite of me, they arrested one of your sergeants, called Maquart, whom they immediately beheaded, and hanged very many who were of your party, and strongly attached to your interest, such as Bardoul de la Porte, his brother Colart, Gilet de la Porte, Jean du Bois, Guillaume de Leur, Sanson your sergeant, Pierre, Baron, Sandart, Dandre and others, to the number of two hundred and fifty of your adherents. They also wished to seize sir Baldwin the treasurer, sir Louis de Montfort, Haulnere, Jean Fresne and Estienne d'Estre; but though they did not succeed, I know not what they intend doing, for, my very dear lord, they plainly told me, that unless I make peace, they will deliver me into the hands of the duke of Brabant, and that I shall only remain eight days longer in their town, when I shall be forced to go into Flanders, which will be to me the most painful of events; for I very much fear that unless you shall hasten to free me from the hands I am now in, I shall never see you more. “Alas! my most dear and redoubted father, my whole hope is in your power, seeing, my sweet lord and only delight, that all my sufferings arise from my love to you. I therefore entreat, in the most humble manner possible, and for the love of God, that you would be pleased to have compassion on me and on my affairs; for you must hasten to succour your most doleful creature, if you do not wish to lose her for ever. I have hopes that you will do as I beg, for, dear father, I have never behaved ill to you in my whole life, and so long as I shall live I will never do anything to displease you, but I am ready to die for love of you and your noble person. “Your government pleases me much, and by my faith, my very redoubted lord and prince, my sole consolation and hope, I beg you will consider, by the love of God and of my lord St. George, the melancholy situation of myself and my affairs more maturely than you have hitherto done, for you seem entirely to have forgotten me. Nothing more do I know at present than that I ought sooner have sent sir Louis de Montfort to you; for he cannot longer remain here, although he attended me when all the rest deserted me; and he will tell you more particularly all that has happened than I can do in a letter. I entreat, therefore, that you will be a kind lord to him, and send me your good pleasure and commands, which I will most heartily obey. This is known to the blessed Son of God, whom I pray to grant you a long and happy life, and that I may have the great joy of seeing you soon. “Written in the false and traitorous town of Mons, with a doleful heart, the 6th day of June." The signature below was, “Your sorrowful and well-beloved daughter, suffering great grief by your commands,-your daughter de Quienebourg.” With the above was found another of the following tenor: “Very dear and well-beloved cousin, I commend myself to you. May it please you to know, that at this present moment, I am grieved at heart from having been wickedly and falsely betrayed, and am so overwhelmed that I cannot write particulars; but if you will have the goodness to make enquiries from our very dear and redoubted lord, he will tell you more than you may wish to hear. I have nothing more to say, but that you retain in hand what you are possessed of, in case my dear lord should come. With regard to what you advise for me to cross the sea, it is now too late. Hasten as fast as you can, with the greatest force you can raise, to deliver me from the hands of the Flemings, for within eight days I shall be given up into their power. “Very dear and beloved cousin, I pray God to give you a long and happy life. Written in this false and traitorous town of Mons, the 6th day of June. Jacqueline de Quienebourg.” It appears by the above letters, that the duchess was much afraid of going to Flanders. When the deputies of Mons were returned from their conference with the dukes of Burgundy and of Brabant, it was known that many things had been agreed on contrary to the interest of the countess-dowager of Hainault, and of the duchess Jacqueline her daughter. And on the 13th day of June, Jacqueline, having no means of resistance, departed from the town of Mons, accompanied by the prince of Orange, and other lords commissioned for this purpose by the duke of Burgundy, who conducted her to the town of Ghent, where she was lodged in the ducal palace, and had an establishment suitable to her rank. Duke John of Brabant, according to the treaty, took on him the government of Hainault, whence he ordered all the men-at-arms, and published a general amnesty for all that had passed. Thus did the inhabitants of Mons deliver their lady and legal princess into the hands of the duke of Burgundy against her will, although they had, a short time before, promised and sworn to the duke of Gloucester that they would guard and defend her against all who should attempt any way to hurt her.


ON the vigil of the feast of St. Peter and St. Paul, the duke of Bedford, the regent, accompanied by his duchess, arrived in the town of Corbie, escorted by about eight laundred horsemen. There were with him the bishop of Therouenne, chancellor of France for king Henry, the president of the parliament, and many other noblemen members of the council. Two days after, the duke of Burgundy came thither to see the regent and his sister, when they gave each other a hearty welcome, particularly on the part of the duke of Burgundy. Soon after, this duke went to Luchen, where his cousin-german the count de St. Pol resided ; an 1 on the morrow, about four o'clock in the afternoon, he returned to Dourlens with the count de St. Pol”. He thence conducted the regent and his sister to his castle of Hesdin, were he lodged them and their attendants, and entertained them magnificently. They all remained there for six days, passing the time joyously in feasting, drinking dancing, hunting, and in divers other amusements. At the end of six days the duke an

* John Honnequin, lord of Haltbourdin, son of Waleran, count de St. Pol, by Agnes de Bric, one of his mistresses. He married Jaqueline de la Tremouille.

duchess of Bedford departed with their attendants, and went from Hesdin, to Abbeville, where they staid sometime. They thence went to Crotoy, where the duke d'Alençon was prisoner, whom the regent sent for into his presence, and reasoned long to prevail on him to take

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Pontnait or the Duke or Bedronn.—From an illumination in Gough's Bedford Missal.

the oath of allegiance to king Henry of Lancaster, as then he would be released from his confinement, and all his lands and lordships restored to him, adding, that should he refuse to comply, he would run much personal danger. The duke d'Alençon replied, that he was firmly resolved never, during his life, to take any oath contrary to his loyalty to king Charles of France, his true and legal lord. On hearing this answer, the regent ordered him from his presence into confinement, and then passing through the country of Caux, returned to Paris. During the time the regent was at Hesdin, the bastard de St. Pol and Andrew de Humieres" appeared there with silver rings on their right arms, whereon was painted a sun with its rays. They had put them on as a challenge to the English and their allies, maintaining that duke John of Brabant had a more just right to the government and possession of Hainault and the other territories of Jacqueline of Bavaria, his lady, than the duke of Gloucester. The regent was at first desirous that these rings should be taken from them by some of his men, for he had been given to understand that their wearing them was owing to another quarrel, for which they wanted to fight with the English ; but, in the end, he was well satisfied with them,-and nothing farther was done in the matter. When the duke of Gloucester was returned to London, he was sharply reprimanded by the council, in presence of the young king Henry, on his expedition into Hainault, and on the manner in which he had conducted himself in regard to the duke of Burgundy, the most potent prince of the blood-royal of France: he was much blamed, because they said from such conduct a coolness might arise between the king and the duke, the alliances between them broken, and all their conquests in France lost. The duke of Gloucester was plainly told, that he would not, in this business, have any aid of men or money from the king. which very much dissatisfied him, but, at the moment, he could not remedy it.

* Dreux de Humieres, son of Philip, and brother of Matthew lord de Humieros



WHEN the Saracens, whom we have before mentioned, left Cyprus, they waited on the sultan, and, as a sign of their victory, carried with them the head and spurs of the knight whom they had slain with a lance. They proclaimed throughout the town of Cairo that it was the head of the brother to the king of Cyprus, Henry prince of Galilee, but in this they lied. Nevertheless, the sultan and his courtiers were so much puffed up with this victory, that they resolved to raise so large an army as should destroy the whole kingdom of Cyprus. There was at this time in the town of Damascus a great, powerful, and rich Saracen, who was considered throughout Syria as a saint: he was much reverenced by the sultan, although a cordial friend to the king of Cyprus.

When this holy man heard of the destruction which the six Saracen galleys had done in Cyprus, he went to Cairo, and reproved and blamed the sultan for having thus commenced a war, insomuch that the sultan repented of what he had done, and consented that a peace should be made. To accomplish this purpose the holy Saracen determined to send his son to Cyprus to treat thereof; but, on his arrival in the island, the king would not admit him to his presence, but sent his ministers to inquire into his business. He would not explain the cause of his coming to them, but said, if he could have a personal interview with the king, he would engage that an honourable peace should be made with the sultan. The ministers of the king of Cyprus remonstrated with him on the folly of the sultan in beginning the war, because he would have all Christendom against him. The Saracen replied, that the sultan was perfectly well informed of the state of Christendom; that the king of France, his most mortal enemy, had now so much on his hands that he no way feared him.

After this conversation, he returned to his father in Damascus, and related to him the reception he had met with in Cyprus, and that the king would not even see or hear him. The holy man was so much exasperated against the king of Cyprus, that he became ever after his most mortal enemy, and was continually urging the sultan to make war on Cyprus, declaring there could be no doubt but that he would be victorious over his enemies.

CHAPTER XXXIV.-THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY MAKES GREAT PREPARATIONS TO COMBAT THE DUKE OF GLOUCESTER.—OTHER MATTERS. The duke of Burgundy lost no time in making his preparations, as well in armour as in housings for his horses, to be ready for the day of combat with the duke of Gloucester. The greater part of his armour he had forged within his castle of Hesdin. He also exercised himself with all diligence, and was very abstemious, the better to strengthen his breath; for in truth he was very impatient for the arrival of the day, that he might combat his enemy, as he well knew that his brother-in-law the regent and his council were endeavouring by all means to procure a reconciliation, and that measures for the same effect were pursuing with the duke of Gloucester in England. In the mean time, the regent ordered the earl of Salisbury to besiege the castle of Rambouillet, in the possession of king Charles's partisans, who at times made excursions even to the gates of Paris, and heavily oppressed the people. The castle held out some time, and then surrendered to the earl, on condition that the arrison should carry away their effects.

About the feast of St. John Baptist, the people of Tournay again rebelled, and gained the

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