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government of the town to rule it as it had formerly been done by one named Passecarte, with another called Blarie and others of low degree, who for their misconduct had been banished the town. The populace, however, with displayed banners, and in arms, brought them back in triumph, and replaced them in their situations contrary to the will of the higher ranks of burghers and the magistrates, some of whom were imprisoned, and in great danger of their lives; but all was after some time appeased. In this year, the sultan of Egypt required the aid of the king of Tunis to carry on his war against Cyprus, which was granted him. He then collected the largest possible force of armed vessels from all his dependencies, which he victualled and filled with men, and sent them, under the command of one of his admirals, to make a descent on Cyprus near to Famagousta, where, having effected a landing, they overran the country, and committed innumerable mischiefs. At this period the king of Cyprus lay dangerously ill; for which reason he appointed his brother, the prince of Galilee, captain and commander-in-chief of his army. The prince collected the whole force of Cyprus, and advanced to where the Saracens were to offer them combat; but they, having intelligence of his motions, retreated to their vessels. The prince pursued them; but when near to them he found that the greater part of his vessels had deserted, which forced him to return to Nicosia; and the Saracens relanded, behaving worse than they had done before, so that the country was destroyed wherever they came. After they had gorged themselves with plunder and rapine, they returned to Syria with numbers of Christian prisoners. They carried off with them a gentleman of high renown, called Ragonnet de Picul, who had been taken in the large tower of Lymissa, and presented him to the sultan, for he had defended himself like a man of valour. The sultan attempted strongly to persuade him to renounce the religion of Jesus Christ, promising to make him a great lord if he would do so; but he would never listen to such proposals, and even in the presence of the sultan contemned the doctrines of Mohammed, which so much exasperated the sultan, that he caused his body to be sawn in twain. It was afterward assured for truth, by many persons worthy of belief, that on the spot where he had been buried they saw a crown of fire descend from heaven to earth, and repose on the aforesaid grave. When the earl of Salisbury had conquered the castle of Rambouillet, he went to lay siege to the town of Mans St. Julien. Having surrounded it, he was some time combating the garrison with his engines of war; but the inhabitants, despairing of succour, offered to capitulate. The bishop and other churchmen waited on the earl, and with all humility besought him to take pity on them, to avoid further effusion of Christian blood. The earl inclined to their prayers, and concluded a treaty, that if within eight days they were not relieved by king Charles's party, they were to surrender the town, with all its artillery, arms and stores, and to swear allegiance to king Henry. In return, they were to enjoy all their effects unmolested. Upon this they gave sufficient hostages for their due performance of the above; and as they were not succoured by any one, they delivered the town up to the earl of Salisbury, who, after placing a new garrison within it, returned to the duke of Bedford at Rouen.
CHAPTER XXXV. — THE DUCHESS JACQUELINE OF BAWARIA ESCAPES IN DISGUISE FROM GHENT, AND GOES TO HOLLAND.
The duchess Jacqueline, finding her confinement in Ghent very irksome, began about the beginning of September to look for means of escape. One evening, when her guards were at supper, she dressed herself in man's clothes, as did one of her women, and quitting her apartments unobserved, they mounted horses which were waiting for them, and, escorted by two men, rode off full gallop from Ghent to Antwerp, where she reassumed her female dress, and thence proceeded on a car to Breda, and to la Garide", where she was honourably received, and obeyed as their princess.
* La Garide. Q. if not meant for Gertruydenberg?
She there ordered the lord de Montfort, her principal adviser, to meet her, and many of the noble barons of Holland, to take council with them on the state of her affairs. Knowledge of this event was soon carried to the duke of Burgundy, who was much troubled thereat, and sent in haste for men-at-arms from all quarters; he collected numerous vessels to pursue the duchess into Holland, whither he also went in person. On his arrival in Holland, many of the principal towns opened their gates to him, such as Haerlem, Dordrecht, Rotterdam, and some others. Then began a serious war between the duke of Burgundy and the duchess Jacqueline of Bavaria, his cousin-german.
CHAPTER xxxvi. — The DUKE OF BEDFORD PREVENTS THE COMBAT BETWEEN T IIE DUKES OF BURGUNDY AND GLOUCester.-Other EV Ents.
In the month of September, the duke of Bedford, who styled himself regent of France, assembled in the city of Paris many of the nobles of France, some learned men from the three estates, and the ambassadors from England, to consider on the combat that had been declared between the dukes of Burgundy and of Gloucester. Having for several days discussed the origin of this quarrel, and all matters appertaining thereto in council, it was concluded, after mature deliberation, that there was no cause for a combat; and, although a day had been fixed for it to take place, it was annulled ; and it was declared that neither party was bound to make any satisfaction to the other. There were present at this meeting, on the part of the duke of Burgundy, the bishop of Tournay; from the duke of Gloucester, the bishop of London; each of them attended by some of their lord's council. On the 17th of this same month, the marriage between Charles de Bourbon count de Clermont, son and heir to the duke of Bourbon, a prisoner in England, and Agnes, sister to the duke of Burgundy, was solemnly celebrated in the city of Autun. The duchess-dowager of Burgundy, sister to the duke de Bourbon, was present at the ceremony and feasts; and, when they were finished, she returned to Dijon, where she suddenly departed this life, and was buried in the church of the Carthusians, without the walls of Dijon, being followed to the grave by the universal sorrow and lamentations of the Burgundians, who loved her much ; for she was a good and pious lady toward God and man. In this year, an embassy was sent to the holy father in Rome from the two kingdoms of France and England, consisting of the abbot of Orcamp and two knights from France, and of the abbot of Beaulieu and two knights from England, to summon the pope (in like manner as had been done previously to the last general council held at Constance) to convoke a council to perfect and accomplish those things that had been left unfinished at the last council, notifying to him, at the same time, that he had too long delayed this, which was hurtful to the universal church. In this year, a great quarrel took place in England between the duke of Gloucester and the cardinal of Winchester*. The cause of this discord arose from the duke wishing to have the government of his nephew the young king, who had been by his father king Henry given in wardship to the cardinal. The cardinal, overpowered by force, was constrained to take refuge from the duke of Gloucester, in the tower of London, where he remained six days, without daring to venture abroad, for eight or ten of his people had been slain. At length peace was made between them; and the parliament was assembled to take cognizance of their dispute. During its sitting, the young king Henry was frequently brought thither, and seated on the royal throne; the earl-marshalt was then created a duke. This parliament lasted a considerable time, in which many weighty matters were discussed, relative to affairs in France as well as in England. In the month of December the duke and duchess of Bedford, attended by about five nundred combatants, left Paris for Amiens, where they stayed some days. While the duke was at Amiens, there were in that neighbourhood about a thousand pillagers, well mounted, under the command of one Sauvage de Fermanville, who was not in favour with the regent. Sauvage was quartered at Esclusiers, near Peronne, and hearing that the duke was to leave Amiens for Dourlens, lightly accompanied, was in hopes of taking him by surprise, and to this effect he marched his men from Esclusiers, and hastily advanced to Beauquesne, where he halted; but the duke had passed by, and was lodged in Dourlens, and thence went to Calais, by St. Pol and Therouenne. He embarked from Calais to England, whither he went to reprimand and check his brother Humphrey of Gloucester, for his conduct toward the duke of Burgundy. When the duke of Bedford learned the intentions of Sauvage de Fermanville he was very indignant, and so managed that some time afterward he was severely punished, as you shall hear, for this and others of his evil deeds.
* Henry, second son of John duke of Lancaster, and † Thomas Mowbray, duke of Norfolk tor, thcrof John earl of Somerset and Thomas duke of Hoxeter, called Cardinal Beaufort. WOL. I. M. M.
CHAPTER XXXVII.--THE LORD FITZWALTER ARRIVES IN HOLLAND TO THE AID OF THE DUCHESS JACQUELINE.
While the duke of Burgundy was carrying on a deadly warfare in Holland against his cousin the duchess Jacqueline, about five hundred English, all picked men, arrived at Zuricksee in Zealand, under the command of the lord Fitzwalter", calling himself lieutenant for the duke of Gloucester in the countries of Holland and Zealand. This body of men advanced toward the duchess to aid her to support the war. The duke of Burgundy was at Leyden when he heard of the landing of this reinforcement; he departed thence with about four thousand combatants, whom he had assembled from his different territories, and marched to Rotterdam, where he embarked with the intent to meet the English and offer them battle. In the mean time, a party of Burgundians, falling in with them, were defeated, slain, or made prisoners by the English. The duke having had intelligence that his enemies, Dutch, Zealanders, and English, amounted to from two to three thousand combatants, and were at the port of Branverst en une aduene, he marched thither, and made so successful an attack on them that they were soon discomfited. From seven to eight hundred of his enemies lay dead on the field; the rest fled in great confusion toward the sea-shore, and great part saved themselves on board their vessels. Among those who escaped were the lord Fitzwalter and the lord de Hentredée. On the part of the duke of Burgundy, the only man of note that was killed, was sir Andrew de Valines; Robert de Brimeu was carried away so badly wounded that he died thereof. After this victory, the duke collected his men around him, and most humbly returned thanks to his Creator for the fortunate issue of the day. Having strengthened the garrisons of those towns under his obedience, he returned to Flanders to collect reinforcements to carry on his war in Holland against the duchess with greater vigour. On the duke of Burgundy's leaving Holland, the duchess Jacqueline assembled a large force, and led it before Haerlem, which she closely blockaded. The captains for the duke within the town were the damoiseau Ysambergue and sir Roland de Hultquerre knight, with a sufficient garrison. During the siege, sir John de Hultquerre, son to sir Roland, assembled in haste a body of men, from seven to eight hundred of nobles and common people, from Flanders, whom he conducted into Holland by forced marches to succour his father; but his intentions were known to the duchess, who detached a force to meet him ; and he was found near the sea with his men in great disorder, so that when attacked, he was speedily routed; the greater part were made prisoners, and the others escaped with sir John de Hultquerre. The duchess was delighted with her victory, but cruelly caused the prisoners to be put to death ; and after this, from fear of the arrival of the quke of Burgundy, who was raising an immense army in Flanders and Artois, she raised the siege of Haerlem. In this year the earl of Salisbury besieged the castle of Moyennes in Champagne, which was beyond measure strong and well garrisoned with men-at-arms. During the siege there * Walter Fitzwalter, fifth in descent from the great t Branvers. Q. Brouvershaven?
baron Fitzwalter of king John's days He was unade prisoner at the battle of Baugé.
were many severe skirmishes on each side. In one of them Valerien de Bournouville, brother to sir Lyonnel de Bournouville, was slain by a lance passing through his body. However, notwithstanding the obstinate resistance of the garrison, from the length of the siege, they were forced to capitulate, with liberty to depart with their baggage and effects. The castle was afterward razed to the ground. When the duke of Burgundy was in Flanders, he had many conferences with his cousin the duke of Brabant and his council, respecting the affairs of Holland. Many great lords there joined him, and a noble chivalry from Burgundy under the command of the prince of Orange. With these, and a large body of Picards and Flemings, the duke returned to Holland about mid-Lent, and renewed his war more earnestly than before against the duchess Jacqueline and her adherents. Although several of the principal towns soon surrendered to him, the duchess collected about four thousand combatants, and led them to the town of Horn, on the borders of Frizeland, to conquer it by surprise. Within the place was the lord de l'Isle-Adam, the bastard de St. Pol, and about five hundred combatants, who with great gallantry sallied out against the enemy, and fought them with such determined courage that they conquered and put them to flight. Four hundred were left dead on the field, and the numbers of the wounded were very great indeed. On the part of the duke of Burgundy were slain the bastard de la Viefville and about ten archers; and in consequence of this defeat, the greater part of Holland submitted to him. There were very many severe rencounters between the two parties in Holland, but it would be too tedious to relate them in detail : suffice it to say, that in general the success of them was against the duchess Jacqueline,—for the duke's men had been long experienced in arms, and were expert in war: add to this, he had plenty of archers, to whose mode of fighting the Hollanders had not been accustomed.
cIIAPTER xxxviii.-the DUKE of BURGUNDY RETURNs to Holla ND, AND BESIEGEs THE Town of zENEUBERChE", which surrenders to HIM.—other MATTERs. [A. D. 1426.]
At the beginning of this year, the duke of Burgundy assembled a great body of men-atarms from his countries of Flanders, Artois and Burgundy, whom, after he had finished his preparations, he led into Holland, to the attack of a strong town called Zeneuberche, which, with its lord, had supported the party of the duchess Jacqueline of Bavaria, and, in consequence, had carried on a severe warfare by sea and land against the friends of the duke of Burgundy. The town was surrounded on all sides, and vigorously attacked; but the lord of it had a numerous garrison, with whom he for a considerable time made a gallant defence,—but at length the lord de Zeneuberche was forced to capitulate, and on the hard terms that he should surrender the town, its inhabitants and dependancies, to the duke, and also that he and all the gentlemen with him should yield themselves up to the will of the duke, on having their lives spared, and promise to remain prisoners on their parole, in any place whithersoever he might please to order them.
The whole of the stores in the town and castle were given up to the duke, as well as the shipping : the foreign soldiers were allowed to march away, on taking an oath that they would never make war on any of the territories of the duke of Burgundy. All the prisoners of the duke's party were set at liberty, among whom were, the lord de Moyencourt, the damoiseau d'Ercle, and others. The burghers and inhabitants of the town took the oaths of allegiance to the duke, or to his commissioners—and on paying a certain sum of money they remained in peace. Thus was the lord de Zeneuberche deprived of his town and fortune, and, in addition, carried to Lille. The duke, having regarrisoned the place with his own men, marched his army back to Flanders and Artois; but the lord de Humbercourt, sir Manfroy de St. Leger, and some others, died of an epidemical disorder in their march bome.
* Zeneuberche. Q. Nieuwerkerk P
The duke of Bedford, after a residence of eight months in England with his duchess, returned to Calais, escorted by three thousand combatants, and thence to Paris, where he remained some time, to regulate the affairs of France. He thence went to Lille, where he and his duchess were joyfully received by the duke of Burgundy. They had many conferences together on the subject of the dissentions between the dukes of Burgundy and Gloucester; but as the regent could not any way succeed in bringing about a pacification. he returned to Paris.
In these days, the duke of Gloucester, on the departure of his brother, the duke of Bedford, for France, issued his summonses for the raising a large force to succour the duchess Jacqueline in Holland, whom he called his wife. The earl of Salisbury and many other great lords had connected themselves with him, in opposition to the duke of Burgundy; but the duke of Bedford, hearing of these movements, sent in haste ambassadors to his brother of Gloucester, who prevailed on him to give up his intentions, on the conclusion of a truce for a certain period, in the hope that, in the course of time, peace might be made between them. The abbot of Orcamp and master John le Duc were the ambassadors on this occasion.
CHAPTER xxxix.-THE SARACENS RETURN TO CYPRUS.-A BATTLE BETWEEN THEM AND THE CYPRIOTs, IN which THE KING Is MADE PRISONER, AND CARRIED TO THE SULTAN.
About this period, many knights and esquires arrived at Cyprus, in consequence of the king of Cyprus's solicitations to oppose the Saracens, who were daily expected to return thither. The king collected all the forces within the island, whom he provided with lodging, food, and money, as well as he could, according to their different ranks. While they were thus expecting the Saracens, his army, which was collected from various nations, mutinied, so that the king had much difficulty to keep peace among them, and knew not whom to appoint as commander-in-chief, who would be agreeable to them. During these dissentions, the Saracens came before Cyprus in prodigious numbers, and landed at Lymeson : they besieged the great tower, and, notwithstanding it had been much strengthened, and was full of men-at-arms, they took it by storm, and killed the governor, Estienne de Buyserse, and all his men.
The king, hearing of this, assembled his council, and demanded what measures he should pursue. The greater part proposed that he should remain in the town of Nicosia, saying that a country wasted was better than a country lost; but all the foreigners were of a contrary opinion, and advised him to march his army into the plain, and combat boldly an enemy who was destroying his kingdom, and putting to death his subjects. The king, on this, determined to march his army to meet the Saracens; and on the second day after, when he was mounted, his horse, at the first step, fell on its knees to the ground. The prince of Galilee also, his brother, let his sword fall out of the scabbard on the earth : many persons thought these such omens of ill success, that they had but little hopes of victory.
This day the king advanced three leagues, and fixed his quarters at a very beautiful spot called Beaulieu. On the Saturday following, for on the Thursday he had taken the field, he marched in handsome array to a town called Citolye". On the ensuing Sunday, the 6th day of July, after the king had attended mass, and was seated at table, and while he and his army were at dinner, a great smoke was seen in different parts not far distant, and intelligence was brought that the Saracens were advancing against him. The commander of Cyprus, with some of the knights of Rhodes, the lord de Varemboulais, and several gentlemen from France, hearing this, requested the king's permission to go and reconnoitre the enemy. It was very unwillingly granted. They advanced so far that they fell in with the Saracens, with whom they skirmished, and killed a few ; but numbers were so much against them that they could not longer resist, and, leaving nearly thirty dead behind them, retreated
* Citolye. Q Chiti.