gentlemen in their company, so that the French were repulsed with the loss of many of their men. Alain Guion was so badly wounded that he was in great peril of death. They caused, however, a very handsome suburb toward Fouilloy to be burnt. They retreated to forage the countries on the banks of the Somme, where they took the castles of Morcourt and Lyon belonging to the lord de Longueval, committing also much damage to the lands.

They soon quitted these castles for fear of being besieged in them, and returned to the places they had come from ; but the duke of Burgundy, on their departure, had them razed to the ground.


In this year, the lord de Barbasan, who had resided a considerable time with the duke of Bar on the borders of Champagne, laid siege to the Burgundians in the castle of Anglure", —and he had approached so near as to batter the walls with his cannon and other artillery. The duke of Bedford, on hearing this, sent to their relief the earl of Arundel, with the eldest son of the earl of Warwick, the lord de l'Isle-Adam, the lord de Châtillont, the lord de Bonneult, and other captains, with sixteen hundred men. After some days' march, they came to Anglure, and found that the lord de Barbasan, having had intelligence of their motions, had retreated to a strong post, which he had also strengthened by outworks. Some skirmishes took place, in which from sixteen to twenty men were killed on both sides, and the lord de l'Isle-Adam was wounded. The English and Burgundians, seeing that they could not force the enemy to battle without great disadvantage to themselves, withdrew the garrison, with the lady of the castle, and set fire to it; after which they returned to Paris, and to the other parts whence they had come.

The lord de Barbasan had been constituted by king Charles governor of the countries of Brie, the Laonnois, and Champagne. Before he laid siege to Anglure, he had conquered Noeville in the Laonnois, Voisines, and other places. He had remained about a month before this castle of Anglure, having with him the lord de Conflans, sir John bastard de Dampierre, and a great number of common people. When the English and Burgundians were on their march to raise this siege, in one of the many skirmishes, the French gained possession of the outworks of the castle,_but were soon driven thence by the English, who in consequence set the castle on fire, as has been related.


JoAN the Maid had sentence of death passed on her in the city of Rouen, information of which was sent by the king of England to the duke of Burgundy, a copy of whose letter now follows: “Most dear and well-beloved uncle, the very fervent love we know you to bear, as a true Catholic, to our holy mother the church, and your zeal for the exaltation of the faith, induces us to signify to you by writing, that in honour of the above, an act has lately taken place at Rouen, which will tend, as we hope, to the strengthening of the Catholic faith, and the extirpation of pestilential heresies. It is well known, from common report, and otherwise, that the woman, erroneously called the Maid, has, for upward of two years, contrary to the divine law, and to the decency becoming her sex, worn the dress of a man, a thing abominable before God; and in this state she joined our adversary and yours, giving him, as well as those of his party, churchmen and nobles, to understand that she was sent as a messenger from Heaven, and presumptuously vaunting that she had personal and visible communications with St. Michael, and with a multitude of angels and saints in paradise, * Anglure, eight leagues to the north of Troyes. # Another Charles de Châtillon, of a younger branch. such as St. Catherine and St. Margaret. By these falsehoods, and by promising future victories, she has estranged the minds of persons of both sexes from the truth, and induced them to the belief of dangerous errors. “She clothed herself in armour also, assisted by knights and esquires, and raised a banner, on which, through excess of pride and presumption, she demanded to bear the noble and excellent arms of France, which in part she obtained. These she displayed at many conflicts and sieges; and they consisted of a shield having two flower de luces, or, on a field azure, with a pointed sword surmounted with a crown proper. In this state she took the field with large companies of men-at-arms and archers, to exercise her inhuman cruelties by shedding Christian blood, and stirring up seditions and rebellions of the common people. She encouraged perjuries, superstitions, and false doctrines, by permitting herself to be reverenced and honoured as a holy woman, and in various other manners that would be too long to detail, but which have greatly scandalized all Christendom wherever they have been known. “But Divine Mercy having taken pity on a loyal people, and being no longer willing to suffer them to remain under such vain errors and credulities, permitted that this woman should be made prisoner by your army when besieging Compiègne, and through your affection she was transferred to our power. On this being known, she was claimed by the bishop in whose diocese she had been taken; and as she had been guilty of the highest treason to the Divine Majesty, we delivered her up to be tried and punished by the usual ecclesiastical judges, not only from respect to our holy mother the church, whose ordinances we shall ever prefer to our own, but also for the exaltation of our faith. We were unwilling that the officers of our secular justice should take cognizance of the crime, although it was perfectly lawful for us so to do, considering the great mischiefs, murders, and detestable cruelties, she has committed against our sovereignty, and on a loyal obedient people. “The bishop having called to his aid in this matter the vicar of the inquisitor of errors and heresies in the faith, with many able doctors in theology and in the canon law, commenced with much solemnity and gravity the trial of the said Joan. After these judges had for several days interrogated her on her crimes, and had maturely considered her confessions and answers, they sent them for the opinion of our beloved daughter the university of Paris, when they all determined that this Joan was superstitious, a sorceress of the devil, a blasphemer of God and of his saints, a schismatic, and guilty of many errors against the faith of Jesus Christ. “To recal her to the universal faith of our holy church, to purge her from her pernicious errors, and to save her soul from perpetual damnation, and to induce her to return to the way of truth, she was long and frequently charitably preached to ; but that dangerous and obstinate spirit of pride and presumption, which is always endeavouring to prevent the unity and safety of Christians, held the said Joan so fast bound that no arguments nor exhortations could soften the hardness of her heart, so that she boasted that all which she had done was meritorious, and that it had been done by the command of God and the aforesaid holy virgins, who had personally appeared to her. But what was worse, she refused to acknowledge any power on earth but God and his saints, denying the authority of our holy father the pope, and of the general councils of the universal church militant. “The ecclesiastical judges, witnessing her obstinacy and hardness of heart, had her brought forth before the people, who, with the clergy, were assembled in great numbers, when she was again preached to by an able divine. Having been plainly warned of the doctrines of our holy religion, and the consequences of heresies and erroneous opinions concerning it to the welfare of mankind, she was charitably admonished to make her peace with the church, and renounce her errors, but she remained as obstinate as before. The judges, having considered her conduct, proceeded to pronounce sentence upon her, according to the heinousness of her crimes; but before it was read her courage seemed to fail her, and she said she was willing to return to the church. This was heard with pleasure by the judges, clergy, and spectators, who received her kindly, hoping by this means to preserve her soul from perdition “She now submitted herself to the ordinances of the church, and publicly renounced and abjured her detestable crimes, signing with her own hand the schedule of her recantation and abjuration. Thus was our merciful mother the church rejoiced at the sinner doing penance, anxious to recover the lost sheep that had wandered in the desert. Joan was ordered to perform her penance in close confinement.

t Perhaps Charles de Châtillon lord of Sourvilliers, was lord of Bonneuil. *on of Charles lord of Sourvilliers, killed at Azincourt,

[ocr errors][ocr errors]

Place de la Pucelle, Rouen. The Square in which the Maid, Joan of Arc, was burnt, with the Fountain raised to her memory. This monument was destroyed in the great revolution, but has since been replaced by a statue. From an original drawing, assisted by a print of the Fountain in Millin's Antiquités Nationales.

“But these good dispositions did not last long; for her presumptuous pride seemed to have acquired greater force than before, - and she relapsed, with the utmost obstinacy, into all those errors which she had publicly renounced. For this cause, and that she might not contaminate the sound members of our holy communion, she was again publicly preached to: and proving obstinate, she was delivered over to the secular arm, who instantly condemned her to be burnt. Seeing her end approach, she fully acknowledged and confessed that the spirits which had appeared to her were often lying and wicked ones; that the promises they had made to set her at liberty were false; and that she had been deceived and mocked by them. She was publicly led to the old market-place in Rouen, and there burnt in the presence of the people !"

This notice of her sentence and execution was sent by the king of England to the duke of Burgundy, that it might be published by him for the information of his subjects, that all may henceforward be advised not to put faith in such or similar errors as had governed the heart of the Maid.


cRAPTER cwt.—Til E GENERAL council is continued AT BASIL, BY THE solicitATIONs of the eMperor.

In this year, a general council of the holy church, which had been moved for during the pontificate of pope Martin, was ordered by the pope to be held in the city of Basil. Basil is a handsome city, abounding in wealth, and seated on the banks of the Rhine; whither came crowds from all parts to attend the council, more especially many notable clerks from the university of Paris, and numberless ambassadors from the emperor of Germany, different kings, princes, and prelates. Pope Eugenius, however, was desirous of deferring this council for a year and a half, and wished to have it transferred to Bologna la Grassa, for the accommodation of the Greeks, who he was in hopes would attend it. The emperor, when he heard of this, wrote letters to the pope, containing in substance as follows. In the first place, he was unwilling that the council should be transferred from Basil, or any way delayed on account of the Greeks; for as much pains had been taken in vain to unite them with the holy church, it would be better to extirpate reigning heresies.—Item, the members of the council had written to those of Prague, called Hussites, to attend this council; and he, the emperor, had likewise written to them, and sent them passports for their coming and return. The Hussites had shown intentions of compliance with these requests, for they had suffered great losses in Hungary, having been twice defeated by the duke of Austria.-Item, as the Hussites knew that this council was chiefly held for the abolition of their heresies, could it be expected that any sincere conversions would take effect, without the points of the disputed doctrines having been fully and publicly argued ?—Item, should it happen that they be converted by force of reason, as the members of the council are from various countries, they will admonish their countrymen when returned to destroy these Hussites.—Item, because the Hussites declare their sect to be founded on the Holy Scriptures, should the council be delayed, they will naturally conclude that this is done through a consciousness of inability to controvert their doctrines, and will become more hardened and obstinate in their errors.-Item, because common report has bruited it abroad that this council was assembled for the reformation of public manners and the state of the church, it is to be feared that many, who have loudly spoken of these matters, will say, if the council be adjourned, that it is a mockery and farce, and will end as unprofitably to the church as those of Pisa and of Constance. Item, since this council has been called to appease dissentions that have arisen between the clergy and laity in many towns of Christendom; and since the members have summoned the attendance of several of the chief inhabitants of different towns in Saxony, particularly of Magdebourg, who had expelled the bishop and his clergy from their town, and of others who had rebelled against their bishops because they leaned to the doctrines of the Hussites; it is to be feared, should the council be deferred, that they will form such strong connexions with the Hussites that it will be no longer possible to remedy the mischief—Item, although several towns and princes, situated amidst these heretics, have made truces with them, nevertheless the majority of them are firmly united with the Hussites, in hopes that the council will decide on their doctrines; but should they find it is adjourned for so long a time as a year and a half, they will be for ever lost to the church. Item, it was hoped that this council would employ itself in the pacification of many kings and princes now waging war against each other, and in taking proper measures for a secure and lasting peace. Should it now separate, these princes would continue a cruel warfare, and no hope remain of again assembling it for the prevention of seditions and heresies, and thus very many things profitable to the Christian church will be delayed, if not totally obstructed; and greater slanders and mischiefs will arise than he was willing to write. These arguments having been adduced in the letters from the emperor, he thus concludes: “We, therefore, require of your holiness, that you instantly write to the president and members of the council that they do not on any account separate, but that they do accomplish that which they have begun, and for which they have been assembled in the name of the Lord; and that you do recal and annul whatever you may have written to the contrary. Have the goodness to consider also, that the heretics are increasing in arms; and that if you do not disband them by clerical measures, and replace them in their primitive state, there will not be left a possibility of doing it by any other means whatever. Those who have advised you to adjourn the council have not assuredly understood the grievous evils that may result from that measure. Would to God they were sensible of the dangerous consequences at this moment arising from delay! Should they fear that laics would usurp power belonging to the church, they would deceive themselves, for this is only a subtlety to retard the council; which measure, if carried into effect, would indeed force the laics to act against the church. “This can only be prevented by continuing the sittings of the council; for then the laics will be effectually restrained, when they shall see the clergy abstain from all considerations of personal profit. You should also consider, that perhaps the holy council will not consent to adjourn itself, and that in this it will be followed by the kings, princes, and common people; and your holiness, who has hitherto been held in respect, and considered as spotless by the members of the Christian church, will fall under suspicion, and your mandates be disregarded. For this adjournment, without any essential cause, will stain your innocence; and it may be said that you nourish heresies among Christians, a perseverance in wickedness, and in the sins of the people. Disobedience may, therefore, be consequently expected to the church of God; for there are some who will not scruple to publish that you have been the cause of these evils, and many more than you are aware of will agree with them. It would be very useful and good, if your holiness would attend the council in person; but if that cannot be, send your immediate commands for it to continue its sittings in the manner in which it has commenced; for there are measures before it, affecting the very vitals of Christianity, that cannot and ought not to suffer a moment's delay. “Should your holiness require, in future, any measures to be discussed that do not demand such haste, such as touching a union with the Greek church, – another council may be called better inclined towards it ; for should this council be now dissolved, it is to be doubted whether another can be assembled within the eighteen months, from events that may arise. Your holiness will be pleased to weigh maturely all that we have written to you, and give directions for the continuation of this council; and have the goodness to receive our admonitions paternally and kindly; for it has been our conscience, and the great difficulties into which the church of God has fallen, and also our anxiety that your character may not be liable to the least suspicion, that have urged us to make them. This we will more clearly demonstrate to you when we shall be in your presence, which we hope will shortly happen." This remonstrance had its due effect on the holy father, who re-established the council at Basil, which was attended by great multitudes of ecclesiastical and secular lords, ambassadors, princes, and prelates, and common people out of number.


I HAve before mentioned that a serious quarrel * had taken place between René duke of Bar and Anthony de Lorraine count de Vaudemont. In consequence, thereof, the duke of Bar had collected a great body of men-at-arms, as well from his own duchy as from other parts of Germany, to the amount of six thousand men. The principal leaders were, the counts de Salmes, de Salivines and de Linanges, the bishop of Metz, sir Thibaut de Barbey, and other noblemen of high rank. The duke had also with him that gallant and renowned

• The duchy of Bar having passed to the house of Anjou, René, in the year 1431, sent his bailiffs from Bar and St. Michel to receive fron Anthony of Lorraine, count de Vaudemont, his acknowledgment of him as lord paramount. The duke insisted on having full obedience of all places within the county that had been held as fiefs from the dukes of Bar, under pain of confiscation. Dict, de Martinière. This was probably the cause of quarrel. René claimed the duchy of Lorraine in right of his wife

Isabella, only daughter of Charles the late duke; and Heuterus, relating the cause of this quarrel, says, that Anthony, count of Vaudemont, brother of the deceased, refused to admit René's pretensions, alleging that the duchy could not descend to heirs-female. For some reasons, however, it would appear probable that Heuterus is mistaken, and that the dispute related to the affairs of the county of Vaudemont enly.

« 前へ次へ »