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and began their march into the town in handsome order, completely armed, and with displayed banners before them. Those of the porters who had escaped into the town gave the alarm to the inhabitants, who instantly, and in many places, cried, “ To arms !” The burghers and commonalty immediately assembled; but unfortunately the said jacobin friar had been preaching to them in a very popular strain some days before ; and had requested that they would hear a sermon of his, which would greatly profit their souls if attended to; and he had fixed on this very morning to preach it, at a remote part of the town, the most distant from the gate where the attempt was to be made.
At the moment when the alarm was given, the majority of the inhabitants were attending to the friar's sermon; but on hearing the cries, “ To arms!” often repeated, they were greatly frightened, and hastened to their homes as speedily as they could. Very many of them armed, and with staves, joined their bishop and their governor, who led them to where the French were, intending to drive them out of the town; but it was too late, for the French were much superior in numbers, well armed, and accustomed to war. They were beside far advanced within the town when the inhabitants met them, and the French, the more to deceive them, shouted out, “ Peace! peace !" as they pushed forward in handsome array, discharging their arrows. Soine shot passed on each side; but it lasted not long, for, to complete their misfortune, William de Villeneuve, captain of the garrison, instead of leading them to battle, perceiving the business was so far advanced, mounted his horse, and, with about a hundred of his men, fled in haste through the opposite gate, and multitudes of people with him. Those who remained were soon defeated, without offering further resistance.
The French having advanced to the market-place, and seeing none to oppose them, held a council, and detached parties through the streets, to discover if any of the enemy were preparing for resistance ; but every one fled before them, and saved himself as well as he could. In consequence of this attack about sixty or fourscore of the townsmen lost their lives,—the principal person of whom was master Jean de Festigny, a native of Burgundy, the bishop. From five to six hundred were made prisoners: the chief was master Gilles de l'Aubespine, who governed the town for the English. All who were taken, churchmen or burghers, were forced to pay heavy ransoms, -and everything that could be turned into money was seized. In regard to rapes and other extraordinary acts, they were committed according to military usage on a conquered town.
On the morrow, several who had been partisans of the English were publicly beheaded ; and new magistrates were appointed in the name of the king of France, together with a very strong garrison to defend the frontier against the English. The commander-in-chief within the town, and of this force, was the bastard of Orleans.
CHAPTER CXVIII.-THE CARDINAL OF SANTA CROCE IS SENT BY THE POPE TO FRANCE, TO
ENDEAVOUR TO MAKE PEACE BETWEEN THE CONTENDING PARTIES. At this time our holy father the pope sent to France the cardinal of Santa Croce to appease the quarrel between the king of France on the one part, and Henry king of England and the duke of Burgundy on the other. The cardinal made great exertions to procure a peace, but in vain ; however, he did succeed by his diligence in establishing a truce between the king of France and the duke of Burgundy for six years, and they mutually exchanged assurances of this truce under their hands and seals, drawn up in the strongest manner.
The people fondly hoped that this truce would be lasting, and in consequence returned to their agricultural labours, restocking their farms with cattle, and other things ; but their joy did not long continue, for within the first half-year, so bitter were the parties against each other, the war recommenced with greater fury than before. The principal reason for this renewal of war was owing to the French seizing some of the Burgundian party with the English ; and, in like manner, some poor adventurers among the Burgundians having joined the English, and wearing a red cross, made war on the French, -90 that by these means the
* Giles, baron d'Aubespino, was of a noble family in Verderonno and Aubespine, many of whom were distinBeauce, and ancestor of the Marquises of Chateauneuf, guished characters, in the two following centurics.
truce was broken. Justice was nowhere attended to, and numberless plunderings were daily practised against the lower orders of the people and the clergy; for notwithstanding they paid very large sums to the leaders of the two parties, according to the country they lived in, to enjoy security, and had received from them sealed papers as assurances of not being disturbed, no attention was paid to them, and thus they had no other resource than to offer up their prayers to God for vengeance on their oppressors.
CHAPTER CXIX. -THE ENGLISH CONQUER THE BULWARK AT LAGNY-SUR-MARNE. During the month of March of this year, the duke of Bedford, in conjunction with the council of king Henry then at Paris, ordered a body of men-at-arms to march and subject to the king's obedience some castles held by the French on the borders of the Isle of France, such as Mongay, Gournay, and others. They were also commanded to destroy the bridge of Lagny-sur-Marne. The chief commanders of this force were, the earl of Arundel, the eldest son of the earl of Warwick, the lord de l'Isle-Adam marshal of France to king Henry, sir John bastard de St. Pol, sir Galois d'Aunay, lord d'Orville *, and others. When they left Paris, they were about twelve hundred fighting men, having with them abundance of carts and carriages, with cannon and other artillery. In a few days they came before the above-mentioned castles, which were soon constrained to submit. Some of the garrisons marched away in safety, and with part of their baggage; while others remained at the discretion of the English,-many of whom were executed, and others ransomed.
After these surrenders the English took the road toward Lagny-sur-Marne ; and on their arrival before it, the earl of Arundel had a large bombard pointed against the arch of the drawbridge leading to the town, which broke it down at the first discharge, so that all communication with the bulwark at the opposite end of the bridge was cut off. The earl now made a fierce attack on this bulwark, and won it, notwithstanding the few within defended it with much courage and obstinacy. John of Luxembourg, one of the bastards of St. Pol, was killed at this attack, and others wounded. The English broke down the bridge in many places, and, having set the bulwark on fire, retired to their quarters.
The English having determined to make an attempt, within a few days, on the town of Lagny, on different parts at the same time, the earl of Arundel remained with a certain number of men for that purpose. When the day arrived, and as the marshal and the other captains were marching to the assault, sir John de Luxembourg, bastard of St. Pol, who bore for his device, and on his banner, a brilliant sun, said aloud, in the hearing of many, that he made a vow to God that if the sun entered the town, he would do the same, which expression was diversely construed by those who heard it.
They advanced gallantly to storm the place; but by the vigilance and intrepidity of Huçon Queue, a Scotsman, sir John Foucault, and the other captains in the town, they were boldly received, and very many of the assailants were killed or severely wounded. They lost also four or five of their banners and pennons, which were, by force of arms, drawn into the town by their two ends; one was the banner of the lord de l'Isle-Adam, and another, having the sun on it, that of the bastard de St. Pol, who had vowed to enter the place if the sun did. They were forced to retreat to their quarters with shame and disgrace. At the end of three days the greater part of the men disbanded without leave of their captains, - saying that they were losing their time by a longer stay, for that they ran a greater risk of loss than gain, -and returned to the duke of Bedford at Paris. These English and Burgundians had been eight days before Lagny, battering the walls with their artillery, before they made this attack.
* Robert d'Aunoy Seigneur d'Orville, master of the the son of Robert, is the lord bere mentioned; be was woods and waters in the year 1413, who died the year follow- grand-échanson of France, and died in 1489. Le Galois, ing, was son of Philip l'Aunoy, Maitre-d'hôtel to king was a cominon surname of the lords d'Orville. Charles V., and present at the battle of Poitiers. John,
CXX.- PHILIBERT DE VAUDRAY, GOVERNOR TONNERRE,
D'AMONT, WAIT ON THE DUKE OF BEDFORD TO SERVE IM. In these days, Philibert de Vaudray and the lord d'Amont left Burgundy with about five hundred men-at-arms, by command of their lord the duke of Burgundy, to aid his brotherin-law the duke of Bedford. They took the road through Champagne to gain Picardy ; but the French, hearing of their intentions, had assembled from seven to eight hundred combatants, on their line of march, to combat and to conquer them. They were commanded by Yvon de Puys, the bastard dc Dampierre, the borgne de Remon, and some others, who drew themselves up in battle-array on the approach of the Burgundians. These last immediately dismounted to defend themselves; but when they were on the point of commencing the engagement, the French, who for the greater part had not dismounted, suddenly wheeled about in great confusion and fled, but not without having some few killed and wounded. The Burgundians now continued their route unmolested to Picardy, where they remained for some time pillaging and devouring the country. They thence marched to join the duke of Bedford at Paris.
About this time, the king of Cyprus, in consequence of a long illness that had succeeded to his imprisonment by the Saracens, departed this life, after having most devoutly received all the sacraments of the holy church. With the unanimous consent of the estates of that kingdom, he was succeeded by John de Lusignan, his only son by his queen Charlotte de Bourbon, who was crowned in the cathedral church of Nicosia.
CHAPTER CXXI.—THE DUKE OF BEDFORD MARCHES A LARGE FORCE TO LAGNY-SUR-MARNE,
TO SUPPORT THE ENGLISH AND BURGUNDIANS WHO HAD REMAINED THERE, BUT
(A. D. 1432.] At the beginning of this year, the duke of Bedford, styling himself regent of France, collected about six thousand combatants from different parts under his obedience, whom he marched against the town of Lagny-sur-Marne, held by the supporters of king Charles. There might be in that place from eight hundred to a thousand picked and well-tried men, under the orders of a Scots captain, called sir Ambrose Love, and sir John de Foucault, who valiantly conducted those under their banners. With the duke of Bedford were the lord de l'Isle-Adam, marshal, sir John bastard de St. Pol, the bastard d'Aunay, knight and lord of Orville, Philibert de Vaudray, the lord d'Amont, and many others of notable estate, who had long laid siege to the town, to reduce it to the obedience of king Henry. There were numerous pieces of artillery pointed against the gates and walls
, which they damaged in many places, and caused the greatest alarm to those of the garrison,—for in addition, they were much straitened for provisions. The duke of Bedford had them frequently summoned to surrender, but they would never listen to it,-for they never lost hopes of being relieved by their party, as in fact they afterward were. The besieged had thrown a bridge of boats over the Marne, for their convenience of passing and repassing, and had erected a bulwark at each end, the command of which was intrusted to a certain number of men-at-arms.
While these things were passing, the king of France assembled about eight hundred combatants, whom be despatched to Orleans, under the command of the marshal de Bousac, the bastard of Orleans, the lord de Gaucourt, Rodrique de Villandras, the lord de Saintrailles, and other captains of renown, to throw succours into the town of Lagny. They advanced in a body to Melun, where they crossed the Seine, and thence, through Brie, toward Lagny, being daily joined by forces from their adjoining garrisons. In the mean time, the duke had so hardly pressed the garrison, that they had offered to capitulate when the French forces arrived. The duke prepared with diligence to offer battle to the French, and sent for reinforcements from all quarters. He ordered his heralds at arms to signify to the French
his willingness to combat them and their allies, if they would fix on the time and place. To this they returned no other answer than that, under the pleasure of God and of our blessed Saviour, they would not engage in battle but when it should be agreeable to themselves, and that they would bring their present enterprise to a happy conclusion.
The French advanced in handsome array, in three divisions, to a small river within a quarter of a league of the town ; and the duke of Bedford, having drawn up his army in three divisions also, marched thither to defend the passage. When the two armies were near, several severe skirmishes took place at different parts : especially on the quarter where the heir of Warwick and the lord de l'Isle-Adam were posted, a sharp attack was made by Rodrique de Villandras, the lord de Saintrailles, and other captains, who were escorting a convoy of provision for the town. In spite of their adversaries, they forced a passage for part of their convoy to the very gates, and drove in from twenty to thirty bullocks, a number of sacks of flour, and a reinforcement to the garrison of about four score men-at-arms; but this was not effected without great effusion of blood, for very many were killed and wounded on both sides.
On the part of the French was killed the lord de Saintrailles, eldest brother to Poton de Saintrailles. In another quarter, where sir Thomas Kiriel, sir John bastard of St. Pol, the lord d'Amont, and Philibert de Vaudray were posted, many gallant deeds were done, and several killed and wounded on both sides. The English lost there a gentleman called Odart de Remy.
These skirmishes lasted nearly till vespers,—and as it was St. Laurence's day in August, and very hot, the two armies suffered greatly from it. The French captains, perceiving
that they could not gain any advantage, for the English and Burgundians were strongly posted, retreated with their army to Cressy in Brie, wbere they halted for the night, and thence marched to Chateau-Thierry and to Vitray-le-François, where they stayed four days. The duke of Bedford, knowing that the French intended entering the Isle of France, and fearing they might conquer some of his towns, decamped in no very orderly manner from before Lagny, for many things were left behind by him, and advanced towards Paris. Having collected his men, he followed the French to offer them battle again ; but they sent for answer, that they had gained what they had come for.
The lord de Gaucourt was of infinite service to the French by his wisdom and prudence. The French now left Vitry and returned toward Lagny, where the lord de Gaucourt remained : the other captains led their men to the garrisons whence they had come. The besieged were much rejoiced, and not without cause, at the departure of their enemies,- for the siege had lasted upwards of four months, in which time they had suffered very great hardships from want of provision and other distresses.
At this period, the English lost the castle of Monchas in Normandy, belonging to the count d'Eu, prisoner in England, and which they had held for a long time. The captain of it was called Brunclay*, but he was at the time with the duke of Bedford at the siege of Lagny. The French delivered all of their party confined in the prisons, and sent in haste to offer its government to sir Regnault de Fontaines, then at Beauvais, who immediately accepted of it, and marched thither with about eighty combatants. By means of this castle, a sharp warfare was carried on in Vimeu, and the adjacent parts, against all who supported the party of king Henry and of the duke of Burgundy.
CHAPTER CXXII. -THE COMMONALTY OF GHENT RISE AGAINST THEIR MAGISTRATES.
At this season, the commonalty of Ghent rose in arms, to the amount of fifty thousand, against their inagistratest. Having assembled about ten o'clock in the morning, they went to the square of the market-place, and drew up in front of the hall where the magistrates * “ Brunclay." Q. Brownlow,
sedition lasted twelve, not two days only, and was appeased + The cause of this commotion was the baseness of the by the promise of a new coinage.--Pontus Heuterus, in gold and silver coin struck in the duke's name. The vit. Philippi Boni.
were. They were obliged instantly to speak with them, or they would have forced an entrance through the doors and windows.
When the magistrates appeared, they immediately put to death the deacon of small trades, called John Boëlle, one of the sheriffs, named Jean Danielvan Zenere, with one of
INSURRECTION OF GHENT. -Composed from contemporary authorities. This View exhibits the domestic
architecture of the times.
the counsellors called Jason Habit. The other magistrates were in fear of their lives from the cruelties they saw committed before their eyes ; the mob, however, were contented with what they had done. The commonalty then marched away in a body for the abbey of Saint Pierre, to destroy a wood that was hard by ; from thence they went to St. Barron, to recover some hereditary rents they had paid the church ; but the abbot, by his prudent conduct and kind words, pacified them, and prevented further mischief. He complied with all their requests, and gave them abundantly to eat from the provisions of the monastery.
They went away well pleased with the abbot, and then broke into three or four houses of the principal burghers, carrying away all they thought proper, and destroying the rest of the furniture. They threw open the gates of all the prisons of the duke, setting those confined at liberty,—more especially one called George Goscath, who was a strong partisan of theirs against the magistrates. After they had thus acted for two days, by the interference of several of the chief men of Ghent they were appeased, and returned quietly to their former occupations. During these riots, the duke's officers left the town, fearful tliat the mob would put them to death, as they had done others; and the duke of Burgundy, by reason of the many weighty affairs he had on his hands, was advised to act mercifully toward them. They entreated forgiveness of the duke's council, who, on their paying a fine, pardoned them, and they afterward remained peaceable.