The Neolithic Revolution in the Near East: Transforming the Human Landscape
University of Arizona Press, 2011/04/15 - 360 ページ
One of humanity's most important milestones was the transition from hunting and gathering to food production and permanent village life. This Neolithic Revolution first occurred in the Near East, changing the way humans interacted with their environment and each other, setting the stage, ultimately, for the modern world.
Based on more than thirty years of fieldwork, this timely volume examines the Neolithic Revolution in the Levantine Near East and the Mediterranean island of Cyprus. Alan H. Simmons explores recent research regarding the emergence of Neolithic populations, using both environmental and theoretical contexts, and incorporates specific case studies based on his own excavations. In clear and graceful prose, Simmons traces chronological and regional differences within this land of immense environmental contrasts—woodland, steppe, and desert. He argues that the Neolithic Revolution can be seen in a variety of economic, demographic, and social guises and that it lacked a single common stimulus.
Each chapter includes sections on history, terminology, geographic range, specific domesticated species, the composition of early villages and households, and the development of social, symbolic, and religious behavior. Most chapters include at least one case study and conclude with a concise summary. In addition, Simmons presents a unique chapter on the island of Cyprus, where intriguing new research challenges assumptions about the impact and extent of the Neolithic.
The Neolithic Revolution in the Near East conveys the diversity of our Neolithic ancestors, providing a better understanding of the period and the new social order that arose because of it. This insightful volume will be especially useful to Near Eastern scholars and to students of archaeology and the origins of agriculture.
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3 Environmental Context
The First Villagers? Small Steps with Big Consequences
Villagers and Others During the PrePottery Neolithic A
Florescence During the PrePottery Neolithic B
7 Megasites in Jordan and the End of the PPN
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Abu Hureyra Aetokremnos agriculture Ain Ghazal Ain Mallaha animals archaeological architecture areas artifacts assemblages Bar-Yosef Belfer-Cohen believes burials Byrd Çatalhöyük cattle Cauvin Çayönü ceramics cereals changes chipped stone climatic communities complex context core CPPNB cultural Cyprus domestication Early Natufian East Eastern economic environmental Epipaleolithic EPPNB especially evidence example excavations fauna figurines food production Garfinkel gazelle Ghwair Gopher ground stone human important increased indicate interpreted island Jericho Jordan Valley Khiamian Khirokitia Kuijt and Goring-Morris Late Natufian Levantine lithic LPPNB mainland Mediterranean megasites mortuary MPPNB Mureybat Nahal Nahal Oren Negev Neolithic Revolution Netiv Hagdud noted occupation occur patterns Peltenburg phase plants plaster population PPNA PPNA sites PPNB PPNC projectile points reflect regional represented ritual behavior Rollefson scholars sedentism settlements Shillourokambos significance Simmons skulls social southern Levant structures suggests symbolic tion Valla villages Wadi Rabah Wadi Shueib wild Yarmoukian Younger Dryas zones