day, when, whether as dedicated to Venus, with whom,

Note 9. Stanza xi. in Germany, this subterraneous people are held nearly

A bishop by the altar stood. connected, or for a more solemn reason, they are more

The well-known Gawain Douglas, Bishop of Dunkeld, active, and possessed of greater power. Some curious

son of Archibald Bell-the-Cat, Earl of Angus. He was particulars concerning the popular superstitions of the author of a Scottish metrical version of the Æneid, Highlanders, may be found in De Graham’s « Pic- and of many other poetical pieces of great merit.

He turesque Sketches of Perthshire.»

had not at this period attained the mitre. Note 7. Introduction.

Note 10. Stanza xi. --the towers of Franchémont.

the huge and sweeping brand The journal of the friend to whom the Fourth Canto

Which wont, of yore, in battle-fray, of the poem is inscribed, furnished me with the follow

His foeman's limbs to shred away, ing account of a striking superstition.

As wood-knife lops the sapling spray. « Passed the pretty little village of Franchémont Angus had strength and personal activity corre(near Spaw), with the romantic ruins of the old castle sponding to his courage. Spens of Kilspindie, a faof the counts of that name. The road leads through vourite of James IV, having spoken of him lightly, the many delightful vales, on a rising ground; at the ex- Earl met him while hawking, and, compelling him to tremity of one of them stånds the ancient castle, now single combat, at one blow cut asunder his thigh bone, the subject of many superstitious legends. It is firmly and killed him on the spot. But ere he could obtain believed by the neighbouring peasantry, that the last James's pardon for this slaughter, Angus was obliged Baron of Franchémont deposited, in one of the va Its to yield his castle of Hermitage, in exchange for that of the castle, a ponderous chest, containing an immense of Bothwell, which was some diminution to the family treasure in gold and silver, which, by some magic spell, greatness. The sword with which he struck so rewas intrusted to the care of the devil, who is constantly markable a blow was presented by his descendant, found sitting on the chest in the shape of a huntsman. James, Earl of Morton, afterwards Regent of ScotAny one adventurous enough to touch the chest is land, to Lord Lindesay of the Byres, when he defied instantly seized with the palsy. Upon one occasion, a

Bothwell to single combat on Carberry-hill.--See priest of noted piety was brought to the vault: he used | Introduction to the Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, all the arts of exorcism to persuade his infernal majesty p. ix. to vacate his seat, but in vain; the huntsman remained

Note 11. Stanza xiv. immovable. At last, moved by the earnestness of the

And hopest tbou hence unscathed to go? priest, he told him, that he would agree to resign the

No, by St Bride of Bothwell, no!

Up draw-bridge, grooms,-what, warder, ho! chest, if the exorciser would sign his name with blood.

Let the portcullis fall. But the priest understood his meaning, and refused, as This ebullition of violence in the potent Earl of by that act he would have delivered over his soul to Angus is not without its example in the real history the devil. Yet if any body can discover the mystic words of the house of Douglas, whose chieftains possessed used by the person who deposited the treasure, and pro- the ferocity, with the heroic virtues, of a savage stale. nounce them, the fiend must instantly decamp. I had The most curious instance occurred in the case of many stories of a similar nature from a peasant, who Maclellan, tutor of Bomby, who having refused to achad himself seen the devil, in the shape of a great cat.» knowledge the pre-eminence claimed by Douglas over Note 8. Stanza iv.

the gentlemen and barons of Galloway, was seized and The very form of Hilda fair,

imprisoned by the earl in his castle of the Thrieve, on Hovering upon the sunny air.

the borders of Kirkcudbright-shire. Sir Patrick Gray, « I shall only produce one instance more of the great commander of King James the Second's guard, was veneration paid to Lady Hilda, which still prevails even uncle to the Tutor of Bomby, and obtained from the in these our days; and that is, the constant opinion king a « sweet letter of supplication,» praying the earl that she rendered, and still renders, herself visible, on to deliver his prisoner into Gray's hand. When Sir some occasions, in the abbey of Streanshalh, or Whitby, Patrick arrived at the castle, he was received with all where she so long resided. At a particular time of the the honour due to a favourite servant of the king's year (viz. in the summer months), at ten or eleven in household; but while he was at dinner, the earl, who the forenoon, the sun-beams fall in the inside of the suspected his errand, caused his prisoner to be led forth northern part of the choir; and 't is then that the spec- and beheaded. After dinner, Sir Patrick presented the tators, who stand on the west side of Whitby church- king's letter to the earl, who received it with great afyard, so as just to see the most northerly part of the fectation of reverence; «and took him by the hand, abbey past the north end of Whitby church, imagine and led him forth to the green, where the gentleman they perceive, in one of the highest windows there, the was lying dead, and showed him the manner, and said, resemblance of a woman arrayed in a shroud. Though Sir Patrick, you are come a little too late ; yonder is we are certain this is only a reflection, caused by the your sister's son lying, but he wants the head : take his

Sir Patrick splendour of the sun-beams, yet fame reports it, and it body and do with it what you will. is constantly believed among the vulgar, to be an ap- answered again with a sore heart, and said, My lord, if pearance of Lady Hilda in her shroud, or rather in a ve have taken from him his head, dispone upon the glorified state ; before which, I make no doubt, the pa- body as ye please: and with that called for his horse, pists, even in these our days, offer up their prayers with and leaped thereon; and when he was on horseback, as much zeal and devotion, as before any other image he said to the earl on this manner, My lord, if I live, of their most glorified saint.»-CHARLTON’s History of you shall be rewarded for your labours, that you have Whitby, p. 33.

used at this time, according to your demerits.

« At this saying the Earl was highly offended, and Beneath a tall rock, near the bridge, is a plentiful founcried for horse. Sir Patrick, seeing the Earl's fury, tain, called St Heleu's Well. spurred his horse, but he was chased near Edinburgh

Note 15. Stanza xxiii. ere they left him; and had it not been his led horse was so tried and good, he had been taken.»—PITSCOT

Hence might they see the full array Tie's History, p. 39.

Of either host, for deadly fray.

The reader cannot here expect a full account of the Note 12. Stanza xv.

battle of Flodden; but, so far as is necessary to underA letter forged ! St Jude to speed !

stand the romance, I beg to remind him, that when the Did ever knight so foul a deed?

English army, by their skilful counter-march, were Lest the reader should partake of the earl's astonishi- fairly placed between King James and his own country, ment, and consider the crime as inconsistent with the the Scottish monarch resolved to fight; and, setting fire manners of the period, I have to remind him of the to his tents, descended from the ridge of Flodden to numerous forgeries (partly executed by a female as- secure the neighbouring eminence of Branksome, on sistant) devised by Robert of Artois, to forward his which' that village is built. Thus the two armies met, suit against the Countess Matilda; which, being detect- almost without seeing each other, when, according to ed, occasioned his flight into England, and proved the the old poem of « Flodden Field,» remote cause of Edward the Third's memorable wars

The English line stretch'd east and west, in France. John Harding, also, was expressly hired

And southward were their faces set; by Edward IV, to forge such documents as might ap

The Scottish northward proudly prest, pear to establish the claim of fealty asserted over Scot

And manfully their foes they met. land by the English monarchs.

The English army advanced in four divisions. On the Note 13. Stanza xviii.

right, which first engaged, were the sons of Earl Surrey,

namely, Thomas Howard, the admiral of England, and Where Lennel's convent closed their march.

Sir Edmund, the knight marshal of the


Their This was a Cistertian house of religion, now almost divisions were separated from each other; but, at the entirely demolished. Lennel House is now the residence

request of Sir Edmund, his brother's battalion was drawn of my venerable friend Patrick Brydone, Esquire, so

very near to his own. The centre was commanded by well known in the literary world. It is situated near

Surrey in person; the left wing by Sir Edward Stanley, Coldstream, almost opposite to Cornhill, and conse with the men of Lancashire, and of the palatinate of quently very near to Flodden Field.

Chester. Lord Dacre, with a large body of horse,

formed a reserve. When the smoke, which the wind Note 14. Stanza xix.

had driven between the armies, was somewhat disThe Till by Twisel Bridge.

persed, they perceived the Scots, who had moved down On the evening previous to the memorable battle of the hill, in a similar order of battle, and in deep Flodden, Surrey's head-quarters were at Barmoor-wood, silence. The Earls of Huntley and of Home comand King James held an inaccessible position on the manded their left wing, and charged Sir Edmund ridge of Flodden-hill, one of the last and lowest eminences Howard with such success, as entirely to defeat his part detached from the ridge of Cheviot. The Till, a deep of the English right wing. Sir Edmund Howard's and slow river, winded between the armies. On the banner was beaten down, and he himself escaped with morning of the 9th September, 1513, Surrey marched difficulty to his brother's division. The admiral, howin a north-westerly direction, and crossed the Till, with ever, stood firm; and Dacre, advancing to his support his van and artillery, at Twisel bridge, nigh where that with the reserve of cavalry, probably between the interriver joins the Tweed, his rear-guard column passing vals of the divisions commanded by the brothers Howabout a mile higher, by a ford. This movement had ard, appears to have kept the victors in effectual check. the double effect of placing his army between King Home's men, chiefly Borderers, began to pillage the James and his supplies from Scotland, and of striking baggage of both armies; and their leader is branded, the Scottish monarch with surprise, as he seems to by the Scottish historians, with negligence or treachery. have relied on the depth of the river in his front. But

On the other hand, Huntley, on whom they bestow as the passage, both over the bridge and through the ford, was difficult and slow, it seems possible that the many encomiums, is said, by the English historians, to

have left the field after the first charge. Meanwhile English might have been attacked to great advantage the admiral, whose flank these chiefs ought to have while struggling with these natural obstacles. I know attacked, availed himself of their inactivity, and pushed not if we are to impute James's forbearance to want of forward against another large division of the Scottish military skill, or to the romantic declaration which


in his front, headed by the Earls of Crawford and Pitscottie puts in his mouth, « that he was determined Montrose, both of whom were slain, and their forces to have his enemies before him on a plain field,» and routed. On the left, the success of the English was yet therefore would suffer no interruption to be given,

more decisive; for the Scottish right wing, consisting even by artillery, to their passing the river.

of undisciplined Dighlanders, commanded by Lennox The ancient bridge of Twisel, by which the English and Argyle, was unable to sustain the charge of Sir crossed the Till, is still standing beneath Twisel Castle, Edward Stanley, and especially the severe execution of a splendid pile of Gothic architecture, as now rebuilt by the Lancashire archers. The King and Surrey, who Sir Francis Blake, Bart, whose extensive plantations have so much improved the country around.

Lesquels Ecossois descendirene la montagne en bon ordre, en la is romantic and delightful, with steep banks on each manière que marchent les Allemans, sans parler, ni faire aucun bruit. side, covered with copše, particularly with hawthorn. Gazette of the Battle, Pinkerton's Ilistory, Appendis, vol. II, p. 456.

The glen


commanded the respective centres of their armies, were this tale was revived in my remembrance, by an unmeanwhile engaged in close and dubious conflict. authenticated story of a skeleton, wrapped in a bull's James, surrounded by the flower of his kingdom, and hide, and surrounded with an iron chain, said to have impatient of the galling discharge of arrows, supported been found in the well offHome Castle; for which, on also by his reserve under Bothwell, charged with such inquiry, I could never find any better authority than fury, that the standard of Surrey was in danger. At the sexton of the parish having said, that if the well that critical moment, Stanley, who had routed the left were cleaned out, he would not be surprised at such a wing of the Scottish, pursued his career of victory, and discovery. lome was the chamberlain of the king, arrived on the right flank, and in the rear of James's and his prime favourite; he had much to lose (in fact division, which, throwing itself into a circle, disputed did lose all) in consequence of James's death, and nothe battle till night came on. Surrey then drew back thing earthly to gain by that event: but the retreat, or his forces; for the Scottish centre not having been inactivity, of the left wing, which he commanded, after broken, and their left wing being victorious, be yet defeating Sir Edmund Howard, and even the circumdoubted the event of the field. The Scottish army, stance of his returning uphurt, and loaded with spoil, however, felt their loss, and abandoned the field of bal- from so fatal a conflict, rendered the propagation of tle in disorder before dawn. They lost, perhaps, from any calumny against him easy and acceptable. Other eight to ten thousand men, but that included the very reports gave a still more romantic turn to the king's prime of their nobility, gentry, and even clergy. Scarce fate, and averred, that James, weary of greatness after a family of eminence but has an ancestor killed at the carnage among his nobles, had gone on a pilgrimage, Flodden;

and there is no province in Scotland, even at to merit absolution for the death of his father, and the this day, where the battle is mentioned without a sen- breach of his oath of amity to Henry. In particular, sation of terror and sorrow. The English lost also a it was objected to the English, that they could never great number of men, perhaps within one-third of the show the token of the iron belt; which, however, he vanquished, but they were of inferior note.-See the was likely enough to have laid aside on the day of only distinct detail of the field of Flodden in Pinker- battle, as encumbering his personal exertions. They ton's History, Book XI; all former accounts being full produce a better evidence, the monarch's sword and of blunder and inconsistency.

dagger, which are still preserved in the Heralds' College The spot, from which Clara views the battle, must in London. Stowe has recorded a degrading story of be supposed to have been on a hillock commanding the disgrace with which the remains of the unfortunate the rear of the English right wing, which was defeated, monarch were treated in his time.—An unhewn column and in which conflict Marmion is supposed to have marks the spot where James fell, still called the King's fallen.

Note 16. Stanza xxiv.

Note 18. Stanza xxxvi.
--Brian Tunstall, stainless knight.
Sir Brian Tunstall, called in the romantic language

The fair cathedral storm'd and took. of the time, Tunstall the Undefiled, was one of the few This storm of Lichfield cathedral, which had been Englishmen of rank slain at Flodden. He figures in garrisoned on the part of the king, took place in the the ancient English poem, to which I may safely refer great civil war. Lord Brook, who, with Sir John Gill, my reader; as an edition, with full explanatory notes, commanded the assailants, was shot with a muskethas been published by my friend Mr Henry Weber. ball through the visor of his helmet. The royalists Tunstall perhaps derived his epithet of undefiled from remarked, that he was killed by a shot fired from St his white armour and banner, the latter bearing a Chad's Cathedral, and upon St Chad's day, and received white cock about to crow, as well as from his unstained his death-wound in the very eye with which, he had loyalty and knightly faith. His place of residence was said, he hoped to see the ruin of all the cathedrals in Thurland Castle.

England. The magnificent church in question suffered Note 17. Stanza xxxv.

cruelly upon this, and other occasions; the principal

spire being ruined by the fire of the besiegers.
View not that corpse mistrustfully,
Defaced and mangled though it be;
Nor to yon Border castle high
Look northward with upbraiding eye.

Upon revising the Poem, it seems proper to mention
There can be no doubt that King James fell in the the following particulars :
battle of Flodden. He was killed, says the curious The lines in page 75,
French Gazette, within a lance's length of the Earl of
Surrey; and the same account adds, that none of his

Whose doom discording neighbours sought,

Content with equity unbought; division were made prisoners, though many were killed; a circumstance that testifies the desperation of their have been unconsciously borrowed from a passage in resistance. The Scottish historians record many of the Dryden's beautiful epistle to John Driden Chesterton. idle reports which passed among the vulgar of their The ballad of Lochinvar, p. 92, is in a very slight day. Home was accused, by the popular voice, not degree founded on a ballad called « Katharine Janfarie,» only of failing to support the king, but even of having which may be found in the « Minstrelsy of the Scottish carried him out of the field and murdered him. And Border.»

--fanatic Brook

The Lady of the Lake.



This poem is Inscribed,



The Scene of the following Poem is laid chiefly in the vicinity of Loch Katrine, in the Western Highlands of Perthshire. The Time of Action includes Six Days, and the transactions of each day occupy a Canto.

I. The stag at eve had drunk his fill, Where danced the moon on Monan's rill, And deep his midnight lair had made In lone Glenartney's hazel shade; But when the sun his beacon red Had kindled on Benvoirlich's head, The deep-mouth'd blood-hounds' heavy bay Resounded up the rocky way, And faint, from farther distance borne, Were heard the clanging hoof and horn.





II. As chief, who hears his warder call, To arms! the foemen storm the wall,» The antler'd monarch of the waste Sprung from his heathery couch in haste. But, ere his fleet career he took, The dew-drops from his flanks he shook ; Like crested leader proud and high, Toss'd his beam'd frontlet to the sky; A moment gazed adown the dale, A moment snuff'd the tainted gale, A moment listen'd to the cry, That thicken'd as the chase drew nigh; Then, as the headmost foes appear'd, With one brave bound the copse he clear'd, And, stretching forward free and far, Sought the wild heaths of Uam-Var.

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III. Yell'd on the view the opening pack, Rock, glen, and cavern, paid them back; To many a mingled sound at once The awaken'd mountain gave response. An hundred dogs bay'd deep and strong, Clatter'd an hundred steeds along, Their peal the merry horns rung out, An hundred voices join'd the shout; With hark and whoop and wild holloo, No rest Benvoirlich's echoes knew. Far from the tumult fled the roe, Close in her covert cower'd the doe, The falcon, from her cairn on high, Cast on the rout a wondering eye, Till far beyond her piercing ken The hurricane had swept the glen. Faint and more faint, its failing din Return’d from cavern, cliff, and linn, And silence settled, wide and still, On the lone wood and mighty hill.

O wake once more! how rude soc'er the hand

That ventures o'er thy magic maze to stray; O wake once more! though scarce my skill command

Some feeble echoing of thine earlier lay: Though harsh and faint, and soon to die away,

And all unworthy of thy nobler strain, Yet if one heart throb higher at its sway,

The wizard note has not been touch'd in vain. Then silent be no more! enchantress, wake again!

IV. Less loud the sounds of sylvan war Disturb'd the heights of Uam-Var, And roused the cavern, where, 't is told, A giant made his den of old; (1) For ere that steep ascent was won, High in his pathway hung the sun, And many a gallant, stay'd perforce, Was fain to breathe his faltering horse, And of the trackers of the deer Scarce half the lessening pack was near; So shrewdly, on the inountain-side, Had the bold burst their mettle tried.

The lone lake's western boundary,
And deem'd the stag must turn to bay,
Where that huge rampart barr'd the way;
Already glorying in the prize,
Measured his antlers with his eyes;
For the death-wound, and death-halloo,
Muster'd his breath, his whinyard drew;—(3)
But thundering as he came prepared,
With ready arm and weapon bared,
The wily quarry shunn'd the shock,
And turn'd him from the opposing rock;
Then, dashing down a darksome glen,
Soon lost to hound and hunter's ken,
In the deep Trosach's wildest nook
His solitary refuge took.
There while, close couch'd, the thicket shed
Cold dews and wild flowers on his head,
He heard the baffled dogs in vain
Rave through the hollow pass amain,
Chiding the rocks that yell'd again.

V. The noble stag was pausing now; Upon the mountain's southern brow, Where broad extended, far beneath, The varied realms of fair Menteith. With anxious eye he wander'd o'er Mountain and meadow, moss and moor, And ponder'd refuge from his toil, By far Lochard or Aberfoyle. But nearer was the copse-wood gray, That waved and wept on Loch-Achray, And mingled with the pine-trees blue On the bold cliffs of Ben-venue. Fresh vigour with the hope return'd, With flying foot the heath he spurn'd, Held westward with unwearied race, And left behind the panting chase.

IX. Close on the hounds the hunter came, To cheer them on the vanish'd game; But, stumbling in the rugged dell, The gallant horse exhausted fell. The impatient rider strove in vain To rouse him with the spur and rein, For the good steed, his labours o'er, Stretch'd his stiff limbs to rise no more. Then touch'd with pity and remorse, He sorrow'd o'er the expiring horse : « I little thought, when first thy rein I slack'd upon the banks of Seine, That Highland eagle e'er should feed On thy fleet limbs, my matchless steed; Woe worth the chase, woe worth the day, That costs thy life, my gallant gray!»—

VI. 'T were long to tell what steeds gave o'er, As swept the hunt through Cambus-more; What reins were tighten'd in despair, When rose Benledi's ridge in air; Who flagg'd upon Bochastle's heath, Who shunn'd to stem the flooded Teith, For twice, that day, from shore to shore, The gallant stag swam stoutly o'er. Few were the stragglers, following far, That reach'd the lake of Vennachar; And when the Brigg of Turk was won, The headmost horseman rode alone,

VII. Alone, but with unbated zeal, That horseman plied the scourge and steel; For jaded now, and spent with toil, Emboss'd with foam, and dark with soil, While every gasp with sobs he drew, The labouring stag strain'd full in view. Two dogs of black Saint Hubert's breed, Unmatch'd for courage, breath, and speed, (2) Fast on his flying traces came, And all but won that desperate game; For scarce a spear's length from his haunch, Vindictive toild the blood-hounds staunch; Nor nearer might the dogs attain, Nor farther might the quarry strain. Thus the margin of the lake, Between the precipice and brake, O'er stock and rock their race they take.

X. Then through the dell his horn resounds, From vain pursuit to call the hounds. Back limp'd, with slow and crippled pace, The sulky leaders of the chase ; Close to their master's side they press'd, With drooping tail and humbled crest; But still the dingle's hollow throat Prolong'd the swelling bugle-note. The owlets started from their dream, The eagles answer'd with their scream, Round and around the sounds were cast, Till echo seem'd an answering blast; And on the hunter hied his way, To join some comrades of the day; Yet often paused, so strange the road, So wond'rous were the scenes it show'd.


XI. The western waves of ebbing day Rolld o'er the glen their level way; Each purple peak, each flinty spire, Was bathed in floods of living fire, But not a setting beam could glow Within the dark ravines below, Where twined the path in shadow hid, Round many a rocky pyramid,

VIII. The hunter mark'd that mountain high,

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