« 前へ次へ »
tneum, et sigilla llugonis filii ct heredis et Johannis filii mei vna cum sigillis veuerabilium patrum Dominorum Dauid et Thome Moraviensis et Rossensis Dei gracia cpiscoporum presentihus literis sunt appensa. Acta scripta et data apud Altlern in Morauia vltimo die mensis Octobris, Anno'Regni dicti domini nostri Regis Roberti Tertio. Testibus venerabilibus patribus supradictis, Domino Bernardo Cancellario Regis, Dominis \\’illiclmo dc Haya, Johanne de Striuelyn, Willielmo \\'ysman, Johanne de Ffenton, Dauid de Berkeley, et \Valtro de Berkeley militibus, magistro Waltero lleroc, Deeano ccclesie Morauie, magistro Willielmo de Creswel eiusdem ecclcsie preeentore et multis aliis nobilibus clericis et laicis dictis die et loco congregatis.
The copy of this curious document was supplied by my friend, lllr Thomson, Deputy Register of Scotland, whose researches into our ancient records are daily throwing new and important light upon the history of the country.
at What train ofdust, with trumpet-sound
While the van of the English army advanced, it detached body attempted to relieve Stirling. Lord Hailes gives the following account of this manoeuvre, and the result, which is accompanied by circumstances highly characteristic of the chivalrous manners of the age, and displays that generosity which reconciles us even to their ferocity upon other occasions.
Brttce had enjoined Randolph, who commanded the left wing of his army, to be vigilant in -preventing any advanced parties of the English from throwing succours I'into the castle of Stirling.
a,Eight hundred horsemen, commanded by Sir Robert Clifford, were detached from the English army; they tnade a circuit by the low grounds to the east, and approached the castle. The king perceived their motions, and, coming up to Randolph, angrily exclaimed, ‘Thougbtless man! you have suffered the enemy to pass.’ Randolph hasted to repair his fault, or perish. ' As be advanced, the English cavalry wheeled to attack
him. Randolph drew up his troops in a circular form, with their spears resting on the ground, and protended on every side. At the first onset, Sir William Daynecourt, an English commander of distinguished note,
was slain. The enemy, far superior in numbers to l Randolph, environed him, and pressed hard on his little band. Douglas saw his jeopardy, and requested the l king's permission to go and succour him. ‘ You shall i not move from your ground,’ cried the king ; ‘let Randolph extricate himself as be best may. I will not alter my order of battle, and lose the advantage of my position.’ ‘ In truth,’ replied Douglas, ‘I cannot stand ‘ by and see Randolph perish; and, therefore, with your
leave, I must aid him.’ The king unwillingly consented, and Douglas flew to the assistance of his friend. While approaching, be perceived that the English were falling into disorder, and that the perseverance of Randolph
‘ had prevailed over their impetuous courage.—‘ Halt,’
cried Douglas, ‘those brave men have repulsed the enemy; let us not diminish their glory by sharing it.'» -—DAt.ttYMt>t.n’s Annals of Scotland, 4to. Edinburgh, H779» PP- 44. 45
Two large stones erected at the north end of the village of Newhottse, about a quarter of a mile from ‘the south part of Stirling, ascertain the place of this .memorablc skirmish. The circumstance tends, were confirmation necessary, to support the opinion of Lord llailcs, that the Scottish line had Stirling on its left flank. It will be remembered that Randolph commanded infantry, Daynecourt cavalry. Supposing, therefore, according to the vulgar hypothesis, that the Scottish line was drawn up, facing to the south, in the line of the brook of Bannock, and consequently that Randolph was stationed with his left flank resting upon Milntown bog, it is morally impossible that his infantry, moving
And when Glosyter and llertfurd were
‘ Without shrinking.
That they were in, to hide fighting;
Or that it was for abaysing ;'
I wete not. But in a schiltt-um
It seemed they were all and some ;
Out ta'en the vaward anerly -'
That right with a great company,
Be them selwyn arrayed were.
Who had been by, might have seen there
On breadth, where many a shining shield,
And many a man of great valour, ‘
And many a bright banner and sheen.
Bastions’: Bruce, vol. II, p. 13;.
from that position with whatever celerity, could cut -
Note 15. Stanza xx.
Responsive from the Scottish host,
There is an old tradition, that the well -known Scottish tune of u Hey, tutti, taitti,» was Bruce's march at the battle of Bannockburn. The late Mr Ritson, no granter of propositions, doubts whether the Scots had any martial music, and quotes Froissart's account ofeach soldier in the host bearing a little horn, on which, at the onset, they would make such a horrible noise, as if all the devils of hell had been among them. He observes, that these horns are the only music mentioned by Barbour, and concludes, that it must remain a moot point whether Bruce's army were cheered by the sound even of a solitary bagpipc.—Hr'storical Essay prefixed to Rt'tson’s Scottish Songs.
lt may be observed in passing, that the Scottish of this period certainly observed some musical cadence, even in winding their horns, since Bruce was at once recognized by his followers from his mode of blowing. See Note 10 on Canto IV.
But the tradition, true or false, has been the means of securing to Scotland one of the finest lyrics in the language, the celebrated war-song of Bruce,
Note 17. Stanza xxi.
See where you bare-foot abbot stands,
it Maurice, Abbot of Inchaffray, placing himself on an eminence, celebrated mass in sight of the Scottish _army. He then passed along the front, bare-footed, and bearing a crucifix in his hands, and Fexhorting the Scots, in few and forcible words, to combat for their y rights and their liberty. The Scots kneeled down. ‘ They 1 yield,’ cried Edward ; ‘see, they implore mercy.’ ‘They do,’ answered lngelram de Umfraville, ‘but not ours. On that field they will be victorious or ‘tlie.'>>-Annals of Scotland, vol. Il, p. 47.
Note 18. Stanza xxii.
u Forth, marshal. on the peasant fee!
The English archers commenced the attack with their Sum wha hue wi. Wallace b,ed_ usual bravery and dexterity. But against a force, whose
. ‘ importance he had learned by fatal experience, Bruce
_ Note 16. Stanza xxi. was provided. A small but select body of cavalry were ' detached from the right, under command of Sir Robert Keith. They rounded, as I conceive, the marsh called Milntown hog, and, keeping the firm ground, charged the left flank and rear of the English archers. As the bowmcn had no spears nor long weapons, fit to defend
Now onward, and in open view, The countless ranks of England drew. Upon the 24th of June, the English army advanced to the attack. The narrowness of the Scottish front, and the nature of the ground, did not permit them to
easy to find out what was their proposed order of battle. The van-guard, however, appeared a distinct body, consisting of archers and spearmen on foot, and commanded, as already said, by the Earls of Gloucester and Hereford. Barbour, in one place, mentions that they! formed nine BATTLES, or divisions; but, from the following passage, it appears that there was no room or space for them to extend themselves, so that, except the van-guard, the whole army appeared to form one solid I and compact body :
into disorder, and spread through the whole English
The English men, on either party,
That as angels shone brightly,
Were not arrayed on such manner;
For all their battles samyn ' were
In a schiltrumfi But whether it was
1 Barbour says expressly, they avoided the New Park (where Bruce's army lay). lllld held 1- well neath the Kirk» which can only mean St Ninians.
! Sclu'Imun.-—'l'his word has been variously limited or extended in its signification. In general, it seems to imply a large body of men drawn up very closely together. But it has been limited to imply a r_ound or circular body of men so drawn up. I cannot un
quarter they might be charged. But it does not appear how, or ' why, the English advancing to the attack at Bannocltburn should have arrayed themselves in a circular form. It seems more prol bahle that, by scltillrum, in the present case, Barbour means to express an irregular mass into which the English army was com
pressed by the unwieldiness ofits numbers, and the carelessness or ignorance of its leaders.
' Frightening. ' Alone. 3 Know. dcrstnutl it with this limitation in the present case. The Schiltrum 4 Digjointd from their main body a 3],,"-_ of the Scottish army at Falkirk was undoubtedly of a circular form, h 6 Th,“ | ‘peak of_ in order to resist the attacks of the English cavalry, on whatever
army a confusion, from which they never fairly reco- ‘
Although the success of this manoeuvre was evident, it is very remarkable that the Scottish generals do not appear to have profited by the lesson. Almost every subsequent battle which they lost against England was decided by the archers, to whom the close and compact array of the Scottish phalanx afforded an exposed and unresisting mark. The bloody battle of Halidon-hill, fought scarce twenty years afterwards, was so completely gained by the archers, that the English are said to have lost only one knight, one esquire, and a few foot-soldiers. At the battle of Neville’s Cross, in 1346, where David II was defeated and made prisoner, John de Graham, observing the loss which the Scots sustained from the English bowmen, offered to charge and disperse them, if a hundred men-at-arms were put under his command. it But, to confess the truth,» says Fordnu, at he could not procure a single horseman for the service proposed.» Of such little use is experience in war, where its results are opposed by habit or prejudice.
It is generally alleged by historians, that the English men-at-arms fell into the hidden snare which Bruce hat‘.
prepared for them. Barbour does not mention this circumstance. According to his account, Randolph, seeing the slaughter made by the cavalry on the right wing among the archers, advanced courageously against the main body of the English, and entered into close combat with them. Douglas and Stuart, who commanded the Scottish centre, led their division also to the charge, and the battle becoming general along the whole line, was obstinately maintained on both sides
for along space of time; the Scottish archers doing great execution among the English men-at-arms, after the bowmen of England were dispersed.
Note zt. Stanza xxiv. And steeds that sbriel: in agony.
I have been told that this line requires an explanatory note; and, indeed, those who witness the silent patience with which horses submit to the most cruel usage may be permitted to doubt that, in moments of sudden or intolerable anguish, they utter a most melancholy cry_ Lord Erskine, in a speech made in the House of Lords, upon a bill for enforcing humanity towards animals, noticed this remarkable fact, in language which I will not mutilate by attempting to repeat it. It was my fortune, upon one occasion, to hear a horse, in a moment of agony, utter a thrilling scream, which [still consider the most melancholy sound I ever heard.
Note 22. Stanza xxviii.
Lord of the Isles, my trust in thee
It firm as Ailse—roek;
When the engagement between the main bodies had listed some time, Bruce made a decisive movement, by bringing up the Scottish reserve. It is traditionally said, that at this crisis he addressed the Lord of the Isles in a phrase used as a motto by some of his descendants, otllly trust is constant in thee.» Barbour intimates, that the reserve \( assembled on one field,» that is, in the same line with the Scottish forces already engaged; which leads Lord Hailes to conjecture, that the Scottish ranlts must have been much thinned by slaughter, since, in that circumscribed ground, there was room for the reserve to fall into the line. But the advance of the Scottish cavalry must have contributed a good deal to form the vacancy occupied by the re
serve. Note 23. Stanza xxx.
To arms they flow,—nxe, club, or spear,-
The followers of the Scottish camp observed, from the Gillies’ hill in the rear, the impression produced upon the English army by the bringing up of the Scottish reserve, and, prompted by the enthusiasm of the moment, or the desire of plunder, assumed, in a tumultuary manner, such arms as they found nearest, fastened sheets to tent-poles, and lances, and showed themselves like a new army advancing to battle.
I Set upon their Bent.
Ileotnen, and swnnyt-,1 and pitaill,’
On their toes lnomhled were;
One of their solwynl that were there
And theeu. that were l0lIt€dllB3 hruld,
Upon long tree: und spears.
And said that they would see the tight,
In 11 route nsselubled er,3
Fifteen thousand lhey were or um.
And than in great haste gun they go,
As they had men been styve 4 and stout.
I Slay! Slay! Upon them hastily ll
Banana‘: Bruce, vol. II, Book XIII, pp. 153, 4.
The unexpected apparition, of what seemed a new army, completed the confusion which already prevailed among the English, who fled in every direction, and were pursued with immense slaughter. The brook of Bannock, according to Barbour, was so choked with the bodies of men and horses, that it might have been passed dry-shod. The followers of the Scottish camp fell upon the disheartened fugitives, and added to the confusion and slaughter, Many were driven into the Forth, and perished there; which, by the way, could hardly have happened, had the armies been drawn up east and west, since in that case, to get at the river, the English fugitives must have fled through the victorious army. About a short mile from the field of battle is a place called the Bloody Folds. Here the Earl of Gloucaster is said to have made a stand, and died gallantly at the head of his own military tenants and vassals. He was much regretted by both sides; and it is said the Scottish would gladly have saved his life, but neglecting to wear his surcoat with armorial bearings over his armour, he fell unknown, after his horse had been stabbed with spears.
Sir Marmaduke Twenge, an English knight, contrived to conceal himself during the fury of the pursuit, and when it was somewhat slackened, approached King Robert. u Whose prisoner are you, Sir Marmaduke!» said Bruce, to whom he was personally known. 1: Yours, sir,v' answered the knight. “I receive you,» answered the king; and, treating him with the utmost courtesy, loaded him with gifts, and dismissed him without ransom. The other prisoners were well-treated. There might be policy in this, as Bruce would naturally wish to acquire the good opinion of the English barons, who were at this time at great variance with their king. But it also well accords with his high chivalrous character.
Note 24. Stanza Xxxi. 0! give their hapless prince his due.
Edward ll, according to the best authorities, showed, in the fatalfield of Baunockbnrn, personal gallantry not unworthy of his great sire and greater son. He remained on the field till forced away by the Earl of Pembroke, when all was lost. He then rode to the castle of Stirling, and demanded admittance; but the governor remonstrating upon the imprudcnce of shutting himself up in that fortress, whiclvmust so soon surrender, he assembled around his person five hundred men-atarms, and, avoiding the field of battle and the victorious
' Selves. 5 Are.
' Somewhat. 4 St iff.
-__*.—______________ army, fled towards Linlithgow, pursued by Douglas with about sixty horse. They were augmented by Sir Lawrence Abernathy with twenty more, whom Douglas met in the Torwood upon their way to join the English army, and whom be easily persuaded to desert the dcfeated monarch, and to assist in the pursuit. They hung upon Edward's flight as far as Dunbar, too few in number to assail him with effect. but enough to harass his retreat so constantly, that whoever fell an instant behind, was instantly slain, or made prisoner. Edward's ignominious flight terminated at Dunbar, where the Earl of March, who still professed allegiance to him. u received him full gently.» From thence, the monarch of so great an empire, and the late commander of so gallant and numerous an army, escaped to Bamborough in a fishing vessel.
Bruce, as will appear from the following document, lost no time in directing the thunders of parliamentary censure against such part of his subjects as did not return to their natural allegiance, after the battle of Bannockburn.
Anna gracie millesimo tricentcsimo quarto decimo sexto die Novembris tenente parliamentum suum excellentissimo principe domino Roberto Dei gracia Bege Scottorum lllustri in monasterio dc Cambuskyneth concordatum fuit finaliter judicatum (ac super) hoc statutum de consilio et assensu episcoporum et ceterorum prelatornm comitum baronum et aliorum nohilium regni Scocie nee non et tocius communitatis regni predicti quod omnes qui contra fidem at pacem dicli domini regis in hello seu alibi mortuisunt (vel qui die) to die ad pacem ejus et fidem non venerant licet scpius vocati ct legitime expectati fuissent dc terris ct tenementis et omni alio statn intra regnum Scocie perpetuo sint exheredati et habeantur do cetero tanquam inimici regis ct regni ab omni vendicacione juris hereditarii vel juris alterius cujuscunque in posterum pro se et hercdibus suis in perpetuum privati Ad perpetuam igitur rei mcmoriam ct evidentem probacionem hujus judicii et statuti sigilla episcoporum et aliorum prelatorum nec non ct comitum baronum ac ccterorum nobilium dicti regni presenti ordinacionijudicio et statuto sunt appcnsa.
Sigillum Domini Begis
Sigillum Willelmi Episcopi Sancti Andree Sigillum lloberti Episcopi Glascueusis Sigillum Willelmi Episcopi Dunkeldensis Episcopi
. . . Episcopi ~
Si illum Alani Episcopi Sodorensis Sigillum Johannis Episcopi Brechynensis Sigillum Andree Episcopi Ergadiensis Sigillum Frechardi Episcopi Cathanensis Sigillum Abbatis de Scona
Sigillum Ahbatis de Calco
Sigillum Abhatis de Ahirhrothok
Nor for De Argentina alone,
The remarkable circumstances attending the death of De Argentine have been already noticed (p. 321). Besides this renowned warrior, there fell many representatives of the noblest houses in England, which never sustained a more bloody and disastrous defeat. Barbour says that two hundred pairs of gilded spurs were taken from the field of battle; and that some were left tlte author can bear witness, who has in his possession a curious antique spur, dug up in the morass not long since.
It was forsootb a great forlio.
Baron: and Baronels. Henry de Boun, Earl of Hereford,
Lord Juhn Giffard,
John de Segrave,
John de Clavering,
Andrew de Ahreuthyn,
Thomas de Berkeley,
Giles de Bcauchatnp,
Gilbert de Bonn,
Bartholomew de Enefeld,
Thomas de Ferrers,
Raclulph and Thomas Bot-
John and Nicolas de
Henry de Wileton,
Baldwin de Frevill,
John de Clivcdon}
Adomar la Zonche,
John de Mcrewode,
Thomas and Odo Lele
Robert Beaupcl (the son),
John lllantt-avers (the son),
William and William Gif-
And thirty-four other