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minate over artificial language, and the whole earth (Continued from page 411 of Vol. I.)
would have the same dialect. No education, no locali
ties, no circumstances whatever, could eradicate such We have now completed our survey of animals of a language, and substitute another in its place. As the cat kind. In all of them, from the lion down to soon would the lion's roar or the riger's yell be changed the domestic puss, we find a similarity of temperament to the melodious notes of the nightingale. and conformation, with the exception of the chetah, As a further proof of this position, we have only to which occupies a middle station between the cat and consider the case of children. These have no lanthe dog kinds. The animals of this class, as we have guage till they learn it of others; and then it is of that seen, are the lion, the puma or cougar, the tiger, kind which they chance to learn. Were they to learn the jaguar, the leopard, the panther, the chetah, the none at all, they would have none at all; as is proved lynx, the caracal or siya-gush, the ounce, the ocelot, in the case of individuals who bave from their infancy the serval, the tiger-cat, the margay, the wild-cat, and been secluded from human society. Peter the Wild the domestic cat.
Boy, whose biography we gave on page 15 of our 1st. The whole feline race are the natural enemies of Vol.' is a case in point. We have another case in the man; and they are the only quadrupeds that make experiment made by Psamiticus,* king of Egypt, and good their ground against him, keeping some portions Melabdin Echbar,t in the Indies, who, being desirous of the earth in their entire possession. Witness the of ascertaining the innate or natural language, had extensive territories in Africa where the wild beasts some infants brought up without being taught to speak, are so numerous that the natives are deterred from or permitted to hear any human voice. The result taking up their residence among them; yielding to the was, that they proved to be little more than mere dominant lion and leopard large tracts of country that mutes. The sound which after two years experiment seem adapted to human convenience.
these infants were found to utter, viz. bec, somewhat The animals of this class are distinguished by sharp resembling the Phrygian word for bread, and which and formidable claws, which they can extend and close Psamiticus therefore supposed to be of Phrygian at pleasure. They lead a solitary, ravenous life, origin, was a mere suund, void of any signification uniting neither for mutual defence nor support. Ex- whatever ; such as the dumb, and indeed the veriest cept at certain seasons, they are enemies to each other. infants, sometimes happen to utter. They subsist entirely on flesh, and would starve on Man, then, has no inherent language. But he has other food. In their natural state, they are rapacious the capacity of acquiring language from another ? The and cruel, and unfit even for the society of one another, inquiry therefore next arises, How came language in much less for human society, like some domestic the world? How came the first man by language ? animals. It is probable, however, that the fiercest of The conclusion is obvious : Ît must have been comthem could be domesticated, Even the lion himself municaied to him by his Creator. There was therehas been yoked to the conqueror's car, and the tiger fore an original but not an innate language; and this laughi to guard those herds which in his wild state he language had a Divine origin. destroys. But so great is the trouble of domesticating The next proper inquiry seems to be, What was the and subsisting them, that notwithstanding they might nature of this original language ? Undoubtedly it was be rendered thus serviceable, their service would be very simple and limited. The longer a language is in obtained at too dear a rate, and consequently they are use, the more complicated and copious it becomes. permitted to roam at large in their native wilds' and Consequently, at its outset it is less so. It has been deserts.
nguage at first had but one part of While other kinds of animals are classed with no speech. Without endorsing this opinion, we will give little difficulty, having but few points of resemblance, the reasons of its advocates a hearing. and different appetites and dispositions, those of the “All that the first men,” says Shuckford, “could have cat kind, though differing in size and colour, have not- occasion to express to one another," must be a few of withstanding a near resemblance in the leading traits the names and qualities and actions of the creatures or of their character. All are fierce, rapacious, and artful; things about them; and they might probably endearall are unchanging in their forms, bearing, even in our to express these by one and the same word. The their domesticated state, the marks of their original Hebrew language has but few adjectives ; so that it is wildness. The dog and the cow vary according to easy to see how the invention of a few names of things circumstance and clime; but the lion, the tiger, the may express things and their qualities. The name man, leopard, and the panther, are every where essentially joined with the name of some fierce beast, as lion-man, the same.
might be the first way of expressing a fierce man. Many We have now done with this ferocious tribe. As a instances of the same sort might be named ; and it is class, it stands pre-eminently conspicuous in the ani- remarkable that this particular is extremely agreeable mal kingdom. Åt its head is the monarch of the forest, to the Hebrew idiom. In the same manner the actions the noble and majestic lion. For this reason, we have of men or creatures might be described ; the adding to given this class the first place, contrary to the usual a person's name the name of a creature remarkable for course pursued in natural history. In our next, we some action, might be the first way of expressing a pershall introduce to the notice of our readers that huge son's doing such an action; our English language will mass of animated matter, the elephant.
afford one instance, if no more, of this matter. The
observing and following of a person wherever he goes LITERATURE.
is called dogging, from some sort of dogs performing (Continued from page 363 of Vol. I.)
that action with great exactness; and therefore Cain
Dog Abel may give the reader some idea of the origiLANGUAGE.
nal method of expressing Cain's seeking an opportunity Having copied extensively from the writings of to kill his brother, when the names of persons and others on the interesting and important subject of things were used to express the actions which were language, we will now try our own hand at it, that done, without observing any variation of mood and our readers may at least have something Editorial tense or number or person for verbs, or of case for in this department-whether very literary or otherwise, nouns. For all these were improvements of art and remains to be seen.
study, and not the first essay and original production. li is supposed by some that man has an innate lan- | Time and observation taught men to distinguish lan. guage, as natural to him as are the various sounds guage into nouns and verbs; and afterwards made produced by the brute and feathered tribes to them. adjectives and other parts of speech. Time and conBut if this were the fact, it would evidently predo * Herod, lib. ii.
Purchas. b. i. c. 8
tnvance gave to nouns their numbers; and in some lan- | whether Shem, Ham, and Japheth continued with Noah, guagts a variety of cases, which varied verbs by mood, or accompanied their posterity to Shinar. Egypt is tense, number, person, and voice: in a word, which indeed denominated the land of Ham, and Palestine found out proper variation for the words in use, and the land of Canaan. But those countries might be made men thereby able to express more things by them, named thus, eren is neither Ham nor his son ever saw and in a better manner, and added to words in use new them. It is hardly supposable, that so distinguished and different ones, to express new things, as a further men as the thr sons of Noah would remain unnotiacquaintance with the things of the world gave occa- ced, if they had accompanied the emigrants to Shinar. sion."
It is true Shem's age, as well as that of Noah, is given ; This theory is indeed plausible and curious; but we but they do not appear to have figured at all, or to have incline to the opinion that when God gave to man a been otherwise noticed. We conclude, therefore, that language, he gave him a perfect one, containing all the they remained with Noah, while the younger and more parts of speech and modifications necessary to the clear vigorous portion of mankind journeyed in search of communication of his ideas. This seems to us more in fresh adventures. We see but one objection to this consonance with the idea of a revealed language ; supposition, viz. that the age of one of these individuals whereas the theory just considered is more in agree- is given ; from which we should be led to infer that ment with the idea of a natural or innate language. they were not separated from the main body, but con
We shall pursue this subject in our next, and in tinued where their ages could be known and recorded. many of the succeeding numbers, as we intend to treat Yet it should be kept in mind that they lived till after it thoroughly ere we leave it.
the Dispersion, and consequently that the same difficulty would exist in relation to ascertaining their ages, as if they had not come to Shinar at all. In all pro
bability, a communication was kept open between the HISTORY.
separated portions of mankind, by which means this (Continued from page 410 of Vol. I.)
and other particulars were made known to one another.
We come, then, to the following conclusion: that The journeying of the descendants of Noah from neither Noah nor' his three sons went to Shinar, and the East, which has already been noticed, consisted, that Nimrod, the grandson of Ham, was the Leader of no doubt, of various migrations, made at different pe- the party that did go thither. riods, their object being, to find a country that would Having now reduced the subject to something defisuit them. Not a few years, therefore, must have nite, and found a starting point, we will proceed with elapsed, from the commencement of their peregrina- our history: tions to the time of their arrival on the plains of Shi After the party above mentioned had taken up their nar; especially, if, as we have supposed, they made a abode in the plain of Shinar, they took it into their circuitous route from Armenia, journeying thence by heads to build a tower of vast height, to serve as a bond gradual stages to the regions east of Shinar, ere they of union to keep them together in one community. So bent their steps towards that place. This idea of a they commenced their operations by making brick, the circuitous route we find confirmed by a striking pas- plain which they inhabited furnishing them with clay sage in Berosus already quoted. After having repre- in abundance for the purpose, and being at the same sented Noah and several others as disappearing, he time destitute of stone. Several years are supposed to says: “The remainder offered sacrifices to the gods, have been spent in preparing materials for building.
taking a circuit, journeyed towards Babylonia." | These being dy, they began to construct their tower, According to the computation of some, they reached using slime for the want of mortar. that land about eighty years after the Flood, viz. in The time occupied in building this tower, and the the year of the world, '1736. Authors differ, however, height to which it was reared, have been variously estiwith regard to this period. Some make it four hundred mated. Some have supposed the time twenty years, years after the Deluge. This we conceive to be a and others even longer. According to the opinion of great mistake. For the earth was divided in the days some, the height attained was a league; and some have of Peleg; and he died but three hundred and forty supposed it was two leagues. The fact undoubtedly years after the Flood. Most chronologers concur in is, that years were employed in its construction, and the opinion, that it was a hundred and fifty years after that it was raised to a great height, though far less than that event that the foundation of Babel was laid. This either of the foregoing suppositions would lead us to is probably near the truth.
conclude. This stupendous structure consisted of tower About one hundred and fifty years, then, after the heaped on tower, diminishing in size at every stage of Deluge, it seems the main body of the descendants of their altitude, with a staircase winding round the exteNoah, after various migrations from place to place rior, for the conveyance of the building materials upin quest of a country to their liking, chanced, while ward to the workmen at the top, who were still engaged wending their course westerly, to find a plain in the in raising it higher. While thus engaged in their ambiland of Shinar, where they settled. Their leader ap- tious project, fancying that they were rendering their pears to have been Nimrod, the grandson of Ham, and names immortal, behold! their language became most the son of Cush. Of him it is said : “He began to be strangely confused, insomuch that they could not undera mighty one in the earth. He was a mighty hunter stand one another. For God had come down and confounbefore the Lord: wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod, ded their speech, giving them diverse tongues, whereby the mighty hunter before the Lord. And the begin- the utmost confusion was introduced ; and thus were ning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Ac- they induced to abandon their undertaking, and were cad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.” During the at length scattered abroad over the face of the earth. the roamings of mankind through the various regions Hence the abandoned tower obtained the name of Baof the East prior to their settlement in Shinar, they bel, that is, Consusion. must have been almost continually in the wilderness, The cut on the next page represents the principal the earth being at that period unsettled. Con mound of Babylon at the present time. It is reputed to sequently, they must frequently have encountered wild be, and no doubt is, the Tower of Babel-the identical beasts. This afforded a fine opportunity to enterprise Babel built more than 4000 years ago. . It is situated and ambition to display their skill and prowess in their near the Euphrates, fifteen or twenty miles from Bag.. destruction. Nimrod, it seems, distinguished himself dad. Its appearance is that of the fallen and decayed above all others in this respect; and as a reward for pyramid, with the remains of a tower on the summii 50 his services, he appears to have been selected as the feet in height, the rubbish whereon it stands being 200 Chief of that portion of mankind. It does not appear feet high. It seems to have risen in distinct stages or
platforms, of which the remains/are still visible. The part of one of those platforms; and there were undoubtapparent tower which surmounts it is but a remaining | edly several others above it.
The following description of the building of Babel | as if it was through his means they were happy, but to and the confusion of tongues is from Josephus.
believe that it was their own courage which procured " Now the sons of Noah were three, Shem, and their happiness. He also gradually changed the govJaphet. and Ham, born one hundred years before the ernment into tyranny, seeing no other way of turning deluge. These first of all descended from the mountains men from the fear of God, but to bring them into a coninto the plains, and fixed their habitation there ; and stant dependence on his own power. He also said, persuaded others who were greatly afraid of the lower He would be revenged on God, if he should have a grounds on account of the flood, and so were very loath mind to drown the world again; for that he would to come down from their higher places, to venture to build a tower too high for the waters to be able to reach; follow their example. Now the plain in which they and that he would avenge himself on God for destroyfirst dwelt was called Shinar. God also commanded ing their forefathers." them to send colonies abroad, for the thorough peo Now the multitude were very ready to follow the pling of the earth, that they might not raise seditions determination of Nimrod, and to esteem it a piece o. among themselves, but might cultivate a great part of cowardice to submit to God; and they built a tower, the earth, and enjoy its fruits after a plentiful manner. neither sparing any pains, nor being in any degree negBut they were so ill-instructed that they did not obey ligent about the work. And, by reason of the multiGod; for which reason they fell into calamities, and tude of hands employed in it, it grew very high sooner were made sensible by experience of what sin they than any one could expect; but the thickness of it was had been guilty. For when they flourished with a so great, and it was so strongly built, that thereby numerous youth, God admonished them again to send its great height seemed, upon the view, to be less than out colonies; but they, innagining that the prosperity it really was. It was built of burned brick, cemented they enjoyed was not derived from the favour of God, together with mortar made of bitumen, that it might but supposing that their own power was the proper not be liable to admit water. When God saw that cause of the plentiful condition they were in, did not they acted so madly, he did not resolve to destroy them obey him. Nay, they added to this their disobedience utterly, since they were not grown wiser by the deto the Divine will, the suspicion that they were there-struction of the former sinners, but he caused a tumult fore ordered to send out separate colonies, that being among them, by producing in them diverse languages, divided asunder, they might the more easily be op- and causing, that through the multitude of those lanpressed.
guages, they should not be able to understand one an“Now it was Nimrod who excited them to such an other. The place wherein they built the tower is now affront and contempt of God. He was the grandson of called Babylon, because of the confusion of that landam, the son of Noah, a bold man, and of great strength guage which they readily understood before; for the of hand. He persuaded them not ty ascribe it to God. | Hebrews mean by the word Babel, confusion."
The following ancient fragment is from the Chal- | ruins are said to be at Babylon : and the gods introdudean historian Berosus.
ced a diversity of tongues among men, who till that time They say that the first inhabitants of the earth, had all spoken the same language: and a war arose glorying in their own strength and size, and despising between Cronus and Titan : but the place in which the gods, undertook to raise a tower whose top should they built the tower is now called Babylon, on account reach the sky, where Babylon now stands : but when of the confusion of the tongues; for confusion is by it approached the heaven, the winds assisted the gods, | the Hebrews called Babel.”—Euseb. Præp. Evan. lib. and overturned the work upon its contrivers : and its | 9.-Syncel. Chron. 44.-Euseb. Chron. 13.
STATUE OF NIOBE. In our last, we brought the tragedy of Niobe as far When Niobe and her husband were apprised of the down as the death of her children. We will now con haroc made among their children by the arrows of clude the Kory.
Apollo and Diana, they hastened to their rescue. But
an arrow from the unerring bow of Apollo quickly It was about noon when we reached a small stream winged its flight to the heart of Arusion. The cup flowing down from the mountain, on the banks of vi grief of the widowed, childless Niobe was now filled which we halted to refresh ourselves, and soon asier to overflowing. Disgusted with life, she went forth reached the village of Sibbeehel above it. We saw into the wilderness, there in solitude to pour forth her here some ancient sepulchres in the rocks, and a new tears. Her melancholy and deplorable fate excited the church just finished, the inhabitants being all Christians compassion of the gods themselves, and determined of the Greek communion. There was an appearance them to put a period to her woes. On a sudden, the of fresher health and vigour in the men than is seen in once beauteous but now disconsolate Niobe found the plains, and the women were fairer than their lowherself deprived of the power of motion, and gradually land neighbours. The former were dressed in the stiffening into stone. And there on Mount Sipylus usual costume of the peasantry of the country; but the she stands, a statue of solid marble; stiil, however, latter wore a horn of metal, differing in shape and poshedding tears, as if conscious of her former grief. sition from any that I had yet seen. It was placed on Pausanias, a Greek writer of the second century, who the crown of the head pointing rather backward, like a was not a little fond of the marvellous, tells us that on small diadem ; and being flat at the top, and larger this mount he saw the wondrous statue. “When you there than at the bottom, it looked exactly like one of are near it,” says he, “it is nothing but a steep rock, the small boiling kettles of the country reversed. There bearing no resemblance at all to a woman, much less is a fine spring, in an arched well, just over Sibbeehel, to one weeping; but when you are at some dis- over which is a cross, and at which we drank. The tance, you might imagine it to be the figure of a female population of the place might amount to 200 persons; in distress."
and the state of their grounds spoke favourably of their The story of Niobe has been a favourite subject for industry. sculptors; and it is probable there were once several In about an hour from hence we passed under anothgroups representing the mother and her children. One er Christian village on the summit of a high hill on our of these groups forms the Frontispiece to our first vol- left. This was called Aytou, and though small, had ume. Pliny speaks of one in a temple of Apollo at several large and well-built dwellings in it. The road Rome in his time.
became here so fatiguing to our horses, as to require There is now extant a very large number of short occasional halts. It was in many places dangerous Greek picces in verse, commonly called epigrams, too, as it presented only a bed of smooth stones, on though not in our sense of the word. Several of these which the foot could take no hold. The layers of epigrams refer to some figure or figures representing rock having exactly the same form as the surface of Niobe, or Niobe and her children. One of them, in the soil and shape of the mountain, presented in masstwo lines, runs thus :
es a steep smooth side, over which it was necessary “ The Gods turned me while living into stone, but to lead our animals, and to use great caution ourselves. out of stone Praxiteles has restored me to life.”
This same cause renders many parts of the road along This was undoubtedly intended to express the wri- the coast disagreeable. ter's admiration of some statue of Praxiteles.
It was fully another hour before we reached the There is a longer inscription than the foregoing. It summit of the mountain, this part of which is called is couched in the following terms.
Jebel Arrneto. The whole body of this is white lime" Daughter of Tantalus, Niobe, hear my words stone rock of different qualities, and here the stone has which are the messengers of wo; listen to the piteons streaks, or layers of red, as if coloured by the oxide of tale of our sorrows. Loose the bindings of thy hair, iron, or some other metal. There was, at this moment, mother of a race of youths who have fallen beneath snow still remaining here, though the heat of the sun the deadly arrows of Phæbus. Thy sons no longer was nearly equal to that of an English summer. Flocks live. But what is this? I see something more. The of large white long-haired goats were browsing on the blood of thy daughters too is streaming around. One rocks, under the care of boys and their faithful dogs ; lies at her mother's knees; another in her lap; a third and pines and young cedars of a smaller size were on the earth; and one clings to the breast : une gazes abundant. The view from hence, on looking weststupified at the coming blow, and one crouches down ward, commands an unbounded horizon at sea, with the to avoid the arrow, while another still lives. But the whole of the coast from Ras-el-Shukkah to the extreme mother, whose tongue once knew no restraint, stands northern point of land seen from Tarabolus. The port like a statue, hardened into stone."
and island of that town bore from us about N. by W. $ W. perhaps fifteen miles ; but the town itself was not visible, from the intervention of the hill which overhangs it. The whole of the plain below, with the deep valleys which intersect it, looked beautiful from hence, presenting corn lands of the freshest green, bare patches of ploughed land, showing a deep red soil, and olive trees, and streams of water in abundance. The bluff point of Ras-el-Shukkah, which had been called, according to Strabo, the Face of God, from an idea of its being the end of Lebanon, looked from hence quite insignificant, from being so much lower than our own level; and the white hills and valleys, over which we had crossed with much fatigue, now looked like the little eminences raised by ants, and resembled very much the white hills on the banks of the Jordan, as seen in that valley from the Mount of Olives near Jerusalem. We descended over the eastern side of this Jebel Arrneto, and opened a narrow but exceed
ingly deep valley, called Wadi Khezheyap. The MOUNTAIN SCENE NEAR THE CEDARS OF
descent down the perpendicular cliffs of the eastern LEBANON.
part of this hill was by winding steps, cut originally Our way up the side of Lebanon was steep, and in in the rock in some places, and formed by stones and many parts difficult; but we were repaid by the delight- earth in others, over which it was necessary to lead our ful freshness of the air as we mounted, and the grand- horses with great caution. The valley was watered eur of the views on every side.
by a fine stream, running through it, and presented on