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draw it up as for myself. If this cannot scatter thy fears, thou art unhappy, and I am sorry. Thy friend,
WM, PENN."* I now for the present, take leave of Fenwicke and his difficulties and concernments while in England, to speak of his embarking and landing at Salem in West Jersey. Having all things in readiness he went on board the ship with his family, consisting of his three daugh. ters, by his first wife, Elizabeth, Anna, and Priscilla, and his house. keeper Mary White; also, John Adams, the husband of Elizabeth, with their three children-Elizabeth Fenwicke and Priscilla ; also, Edward Champneys, the husband of Priscilla, with two children John and Mary, with their servants, viz: Robert Turner, Gervas Bywater, William Wilkenson, Joseph Worth, Michael Eaton, Eleanor Geere, Ruth Geere, Zachariah Geere, Sarah Hutchins—these were the ser. vants of Fenwicke-and Mark Reeve, Edward Webb, and Elizabeth Waits, the servants of Champneys. Anna Fenwicke, his daughter, some short time after their arrival married Samuel Hedge. They all arrived at Salem on the 23d of June, 1675, in the ship called the Griffin, Capt. Robert Griffith. +
* From Life of Penn.
+ It is well to mention here the names of such ships as brought over emigrants to Salem as far as I can with certainty, as it will correct some mistakes in Smith's History of New Jersey
On the 13th March, 1674, arrived at Salem the ship called the Joseph and Benjamin, Matthew Payne, commander, with emigrants, among whom were John Pledger, Hypolite Lefevre and others. These two persons became large proprietors of land. The ship was bound to Maryland. To one of these I can easily trace back my connectionPledger's son Joseph married the daughter of Richard Johnson, who was my great grand father.
On 230 June, 1675, arrived at Salem the ship Griffin, Capt. Robt. Griffith, with emigrants, among whom were John Fenwicke and his family and friends, besides Elizabeth Pledger, the wife of John Pledger, with their child Joseph.
The same ship Griffin returned to England, and arrived again at Salem with emigrants in the last of November of the same year, 1675.
In November, 1677, arrived at Elsinborough the ship Willing Mind, Capt. John New. comb, with emigrants.
On 12th of twelfth month, 1677, arrived the ship Mary, with emigrants, commanded by Capt. John Wall. The same ship Mary made a second voyage from Ireland, with emigrants, and landed them at Elsinborough the same year; but the date I have not discovered.
In 1677 arrived the ship Kent, Capt. Gregory, with emigrants, to Salem.
In 1677 arrived the ship Success, commander Stephen Nicholson, from Virginia, with emigrants, 10 Salem.
In 1679 arrived the ship Success, Nicholson, commander, with emigrants.
In 9th month, 1681, arrived the ship New Adventure, commander John Dagger, with emigrants, to Elsinborough.
In 1681 arrived from London the ship Henry and Ann, with emigrants.
I have enumerated in the note on last page 16 arrivals at the town of Salem, twelve of them occurring before the death of Fenwicke, showing a large influx of immigrants, and I have no doubt but that many other immigrations were made to Salem in ships by persons of whom we have no account at this distant day, who were compelled to flee from the tyranny and persecutions of the hard hearted rulers of the old world.
This indicates most conclusively, that the personal influence of Fenwicke, united with that of his friends in England and Ireland, produced an extraordinary disposition for immigration hither among the masses of the people, notwithstanding the secret and unmanly opposition carried on against him by the large proprietors.
Fenwicke, now established in his proprietory, and locating his office at Ivy Point in the town of Salem, forthwith entered into treaties with the Indians and purchased all their lands included within the bounds of Old Man's Creek and Morris's River, for which he paid them accord. ing to contract in such articles as they stood in need of_namely: Guns, powder and lead, with rum, shirts, shoes, stockings and blankets, watch-coats and other English goods. These purchases were made within the years 1675 and 1676.
Fenwicke forth with directed Richard Noble, his Surveyor General, to proceed and lay off lots in Salem and Cohanzick, (now Greenwich,) and at other places were designated by him. But for reasons not now known, Noble neglected or refused to comply with the requisitions of his employer, so that Fenwicke was obliged to discharge him and revoke his commission, and then appointed Richard Hancock as Surveyor General in his place. But he being subsequently employed by the coalition composed of Eldridge, Warner, Penn, Lawrie, Lucas, Billinge and Langhorne, Fenwicke revoked his commission also by the following document:
“ That Richard Hancock had dismissed himself from being any longer my deputy surveyor general, because that he did not only
In Nov., 1682, arrived the ship Pink, commander John Dagger. She was chartered in Dublin, and went round to London to take in her passengers and cargo, and arrived at Elsinborough.
Among many other persons came passenger in this ship Mark Newby, celebrated in our histories as the first financier that New Jersey produced, and whose Assembly conferred upon him the high honor of issuing half pence, to be called Patrick's half pence.
On 8th month, 1685, arrived the ship Dorothea, with emigrants, commander Bridgeman. In 1685 arrived the ship Charles, commander Edward Payne, with emigrants.
In 1686 arrived at New Castle the ship Shield of Stockton, in the 5th month. Many passengers came and settled near to Salem.
In 1705 many emigrants arrived at Salem, but the name of the ship is unknown, the remaining leaves of the book being lost.
perfidiously betray and deny my most legal and just interest-albeit, he had engaged twice under his hand, by way of an oath to be true and faithful thereunto-but also refused and wilfully neglected to obey, execute, and observe my commands and general warrants, when directed to him, or otherwise. Besides, he hath highly presumed to endeavor to survey my colony, and divers parcels of lands therein, by virtue of the arbitrary powers and illegal orders of Richard Guy, James Nevill, and others, his followers in connection — the which to justify they and he did lately force from Richard Tyndall, the legal commission I formerly gave him (as my surveyor general) and highly threatened to send him to prison, unless he would engage to act no more for me, nor by my order. All which their arbitrary practices and proceedings are contrary to law, equity and good conscience, and contrary to the peace of our sovereign lord the King, his crown and dignity, as may be made appear. Given under my hand and seal, the first day of the tenth month, called December, 1680.
FENWICKE.” Notwithstanding the unfriendly conduct exhibited by Noble and Hancock, Fenwicke having consulted with ten of the principal purchasers of his land, concluded that every resident purchaser should have his tract of land set out to him, the one half in the liberty of Cohansey, and the other half in the liberty of Allaways; and that the purchasers should cast lots, who should begin and succeed till the tracts of land be surveyed. It was afterwards concluded that any individual might select his tract, and by applying to the office would have his warrant issued to the surveyor for surveying the same.*
* The first and general order as agreed upon by Fenwicke and the first purchasers.—"We whose names are here subscribed, do first declare, as hereby is declared, that we have been exposed to great hazards, straits, dangers and cruelties whilst at sea. John Lord Berkely's deed being declared to be left in England, was the the cause of our troubles we met with there, and at our arrival, when our sorrows were multiplied, our miseries increased through cruelties and oppression; so that, as it appeared, John Eldridge and Edmund Warner laboured 10 send us away with the shadow, whilst they detained from us the substance, that should every where preserve us and our interest from ruin, even the ruin under which we hitherto groaned, and liked to be ruined, having received no relief from England, neither can we hear when to expect any; but wholly left as a people forsaken, even forsaken of them that pretended to take care of us; and many of those that embarked with us in the same undertaking did also desert us, and disperse themselves into other countries ; so that now, if we can live, we may—if we cannot, we may die, for the care that has been and is taken of those men, as if their own interests were our destruction. But blessed be the God of heaven and of earth, who hath showed us mercy (to the amazement of our enemies here, and so it will be also to others in Que ume) praised be his name forever. He hath also by his spirit stirred in the hearts of many good people to pity us, sitting down together in this tract of land which John Fenwicke, the chief proprietor, purchased of the natives for his colony,
Eight of those persons who had purchased of Fenwicke when in England in the year 1674 and before his arrival here, were Samuel Nicholson, Edward Champneys, John Adams, Richard Noble, Rodger Huchins, Richard Hancock and Edward Wade, proceeded to draw for their lots of land, in the whole amounting to 26,000 acres. The lot No. 4.was drawn by Richard Noble, which he refused to take, and being asked, declined offering any reasons for his refusal; and from that time might be dated the enmity exhibited by him against Fenwicke, and was in all probability the beginning of that opposition formed against all the plans he devised, and which had ultimately in view the depriving him not only of his authority, but his lands also.
Fenwicke had hypothecated several thousand acres of his land when in England to raise funds to enable him to embark with his household to America in such a style as became his character as Lord or Chief Proprietor over his extensive domains ;-and had he not been molested in the schemes he had projected, and had been permitted to have carried out his plans of locating the several towns, the sites of which he had demarcated, and of establishing Salem as the capital, with court-lets, and court barons, and of draining the great town marsh, and of erecting wharves for the accommodation of vessels, he estimated, that such and similar improvements contemplated, would have secured to him and his posterity wealth, and a name which would be perpetuated to succeeding generations.* and to satisfy every of his purchasers by setting out their tracts of land therein accordingly. To the end, therefore, that the Lord's requirings may be answered, the desire of strangers satisfied, the said colony planted, we and our families preserved from ruin, every purchaser having his land set out, the natives neither provoked nor tempted, but all our lives preserved by setting out and planting the land as people come to take it up, and so sitting down together as in other countries:-We, after many meetings and serious consultations, do unanimously agree and conclude upon the method following, which we, the chief purchasers of Fenwicke’s colony, and other the purchasers and freeholders residing within the same, do approve of and deem to be most just, reasonable and equal; and do therefore declare and order, that every purchaser that is resident shall forthwith have his tract of land set out-the one half in the liberty of Cohansick, the other half in the liberty of Allaways, or as the chief proprietor shall order the same there or elsewhere.” The remainder refers to setting off lots.
This was signed 25th of the fourth month, answering to June 1676, just three days after Fenwicke had landed. The names of those purchasers were Edward Wade, John Smith, Richard Noble, Samuel Nicholson, John Adams, Hypolitus Lefevre, Edward Champneys, Richard Whitaker, William Malster, Robert Wade.
Fenwicke did not live to see those improvements made, but his executors, namely, Governor William Penn, of Pennsylvania, John Smith, of Smithfield, Samuel Hedge, of Hedgefield, and Richard Tindalls, of Tindalls Bower, conveyed by deed of trust, dated 24 Dec. 1688, all the above mentioned town marsh containing 560 acres to George Haslewood, Thomas Woodruff, and Richard Johnson, on condition that they, the owners and possessors of said Marsh shall embank and make a road though the same, lead.
But the many interruptions to the plans of Fenwicke were sueceeded by open opposition to his authority. Demands were made upon him by his creditors, and so harrassed was he by the combinations formed against him, that he even included William Penu among his enemies, whom he had always heretofore considered as his fast friend. In his remonstrance he names several persons who had conspired against him to deprive him, as he thought, of his influence among the people and of his property also.
Let us here look at Smith’s History of New Jersey; in which we find that William Penn, Gawen Lawrie and Nicholas Lucas became the trustees of Edward Billinge in behalf of his creditors; and they, in conjunction with Edward Billinge, John Eldridge and Edmond Warner (together deriving title from Lord Berkley, John Fenwicke's title being as good for his proprietary as any title could be) became, as they say, the Proprietors of the half part of the province, (including Fenwicke's purchase) which “though yet undivided, necessidy pressing, they soon sold a considerable number of shares of their propriety to different purchasers, (according to their different shares) in common with them ; so after some scheme had been fallen upon (not mentioned by the historian) as well for the better distribution of rights to land, as to promote the settlement, and ascertain a form of government, concessions were drawn, &c. &c."
These six Proprietors issued a commission and instructions to Richard Hartshorne, dated London, 6th month (August) 1676, which were sent by James Wasse, "a copy,” say they, “is bere enclosed; and also a copy of a letter sent to John Fenwicke to be read to him in the presence of as many of the people that went with him as may be;" but these papers are not now to be found. And that the instructions might be the more indelibly impressed upon his mind,
ing to Windham, and erect two wharves at and opposite Broadway Street. Those conditions were fulfilled by the twenty-three owners of the said Marsh, which greatly facilitated the trade of the place, and gave an additional impulse to the agricultural interest of the country; so that in a few years a considerable trade was carried on by the merchants to Boston, and Barbadues, and other West India islands. In confirma. tion whereof, I will here mention, a notice taken by Gabriel Thomas in his account of Pennsylvania and West Jersey. These are his words_“In 1675, one Major Fenwicke went to West Jersey, and with some others built a pretty town, and called it Salem. And a fine market town it is, having several fairs kept yearly in it. Likewise well furnished with good stores of most necessaries for human support, as bread, beer, beef, and pork, as also butter and cheese. And of vessels they freighted several and sent them to Barbadoes and other islands. There are many fine stately brick houses built, and a commodious dock for vessels to coine in at, and they claim equal privileges with Burlington for the sake of antiquity, but that is the principal place appointed by Colonel Daniel Core for holding the Courts."