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dowager of Orleans*, daughter to Galeazzo, duke of Milan, died in the town of Blois, broken-hearted at not having been able to obtain justice from the king and council against the duke of Burgundy for the murder of her late lord and husband, Louis duke of Orleans. The duke of Burgundy was much rejoiced at this event, for the duchess had bitterly carried on her prosecution against him. Her heart was buried at Paris, near that of her husband, and her body in the church of the canons at Blois. After her death, Charles, her eldest son, was duke of Orleans and of Valois, count of Blois and of Beaumont, lord of Coni aud of Ast,

[graphic]

Charles Duke or Orleans. From a MS. illumination engraved in Montfaueon, Vol. III.

with many other lordships:—Philip, the second son, was count of Vcrtus,—and John, the youngest, was named count of Angouleme. These three brothers, and one sister, thus became orphans, but they had been very well educated; yet, by the deaths of the duke and duchess of Orleans, they were much weakened in support and advice,— and several of the king's ministers were not so zealous to prosecute the duke of Burgundy as they had been. This was very apparent in the negotiations which took place some little time after the death of the duchess, between the duke of Burgundy and the children of Orleans; for although the treaty sent by the king was not wholly to the liking of the duke, as has been said, yet it was so corrected that the parties accepted of it in the following terms:

• This unfortunate princess, who was subjected to Bo niurh obloquy from vulgar prejudices, was one of the most amiable women of her time. She was loudly accused of «aving practised arts learnt in Italy, where the preparation of poison was best understood, and its use most frequently practised, for the destruction of the king. Witchcraft was al» imputed to her, but the only arts she practised were the ipella of a gentle and affectionate disposition. Whilst her hatband, the duke of Orleans, was occupied in gallantries with Queen Isabella, his gentle wife was soothingt he paroxysms of the afflicted king, who, in such cases, could only be calmed by her voice. He was accustomed to call btr his dear sister, sa sour cherie, and was never easy *bcn away from her presence. Her husband's infidelities

could not obliterate the affection she had borne for him, not even when he publicly took pride in them, causing his death by a vain unfounded boast, that even the duchess of Burgundy had smiled on him,—a boast never forgiven by the duke. Disappointed of the justice she sought, her heart failed her at last; but, on her death-bed, she called around her her children, and exhorted them never to cease their pursuit of their father's murderer, Dunois, the bastard of Orleans, accompanied them,—a striking proof of the duchess's constant love, since she included her husband's illegitimate child in her affections. He answered her appeal more warmly than the rest, upon which she touchingly exclaimed, " Alas! they robbed me; he ought to have been my son."—Ed.

First, it was ordered by the king and his great council, that the duke of Burgundy should depart from Paris with his men-at-arms, and return to his own country, where he was to remain until a certain day, namely, the first Wednesday in February, when he was to meet the king at the town of Cliartres, accompanied only by one hundred gentlemen-at-arms, ami the children of Orleans with fifty. It was also ordered, that duke William, count of Hainault, should have under his command four hundred of the king's men-at-arm9, to preserve the peace. It was also ordered, that the duke of Burgundy, when he appeared before the king, should be attended by one of his council, who should repeat the words he was to say ; and the duke, in confirmation of them, was to add, " We will and agree that it should be thus." Afterward, according to the tenor of the treaty, the king was to say to the duke of Burgundy, "We will, that the count de Vertus, our nephew, have one of your daughters in marriage." The duke was by this treaty to assign over to his daughter three thousand livres parisis yearly, and give her one hundred and fifty thousand golden francs. When this treaty had been concluded, duke William set out from Paris for Hainault; and shortly after, the duke of Burgundy disbanded his men-at-arms, and left Paris to go to Lille, whither he had summoned the duke of Brabant his brother, duke William and the bishop of Liege, his brothers-in-law, and many other great lords.

At this period, there was a great quarrel between the duke of Brabant and duke William. It was caused by the father of duke William having borrowed in former times from the late duchess of Brabant one hundred and fifty thousand florins to carry on a war against some of his rebellious subjects in Holland, which sum the duke of Brabant had claimed as belonging to him. He had in consequence, by the advice of his Brabanters, taken possession of a castle called Ilucsden*, situated between Brabant and Holland. The duke of Burgundy took great pains to make up the quarrel between these two princes, that they might tlie more effectually assist him in his plans, which were very extensive. After this business had been settled, and the parties had separated, duke William assembled in Hainault, according to the king of France's orders, four hundred men-at-arms and as many archers. The principal lords among them were, the counts de Namur, de Conversant, and de Salmes. The duke of Burgundy, conformably to the treaty, set out, the day after Ash-Wednesday, attended by his son-in-law the count de Penthievrcj-, and lay at Bapaume. Thence lie went to Paris, with duke William, the above-named lords, the count de St. Pol, the count de VaudcmontJ, and several others of the nobility. On Saturday, the 2d day of March, they arrived all together at the town of Gallardon, four leagues distant from Cliartres. The Wednesday following, duke William of Holland advanced with his body of forces to Cliartres, where the king then was. On the ensuing Saturday, the duke of Burgundy set out from Gallardon, to wait on the king, escorted by six hundred men-at-arms; but when he approached Cliartres, he dismissed them all, excepting one hundred light horsemen, in compliance with the treaty, and thus entered Chartres about ten o'clock in the morning, riding straight to the church as far as the cloisters of the canons, where he was lodged.

At this same time, the duke of Orleans, in company with his brother the count de Vertus, and, according to the treaty, attended by only fifty men-at-arms, entered the church of our Lady at Chartres, with the king their uncle, the queen, the duke of Acquitaine, and several princes of the blood. That the king and lords might not be pressed upon by the spectators, and that all might plainly see the ceremony, a scaffolding was erected in the church, on which the king was seated near the crucifix. Bound him were placed the queen, the dauphin and dauphiness, daughter to the duke of Burgundy, the kings of Sicily and Navarre, the dukes of Berry and Bourbon; the cardinal de Bar, the marquis du Pont his brother, the archbishop of Sena, and tho bishop of Chartres, with other counts, prelates, and the family of Orleans, were behind the king. At the entrance of the church, by the king's orders, were a body of men-at-arms drawn up in battle-array.

It was not long before the duke of Burgundy entered the church, and on his advancing toward the king, all the lords, excepting the king, queen, and dauphin, rose up from their seats. The duke, on his approach to the king, kneeled down with his advocate the lord

• Housden,—» town between Gorcum and Bois-le- t Oliver, count of Penthicvre, mentioned before. Due. ♦ Frederic, or Fern-, count of Vaudemont.

d'Ollehaing, who repeated to the king the following words :—" Sire, behold here my lord of Burgundy, yonr subject and cousin, who is thus come before you, because he has heard you are angry with him, for the action he has committed against the person of the late duke of Orleans your brother, for the good of yourself and your kingdom,—the truth of which he is ready to declare and prove to you, whenever you shall please. My lord, therefore, entreats of you, in the most humble manner possible, that you would be pleased to withdraw from him your anger, and restore him to your good graces." When the lord d'Ollehaing had said this, the duke of Burgundy himself addressed the king, saying, "Sire, I entreat this of you :"—when instantly the duke of Berry, seeing the king made no reply, bade the duke of Burgundy retire some paces behind,—which being done, the duke of Berry, kneeling before the king, said something to him in a low voice,—and immediately the dauphin, the kings of Sicily and Navarre, with the duke of Berry, knelt down to the king and said, "Sire, we supplicate that you would be pleased to listen to the prayer of your cousin the duke of Burgundy." The king answered them, "We will that it be so,—and we grant it from our love to you." The duke of Burgundy then approached the king, who said to him,—" Fair cousin, we grant your request, and pardon you fully for what you have done." After this, lie advanced, with the lord d'Ollehaing, toward the children of Orleans, who, as I have said, were behind the king, weeping much.

The lord d'Ollehaing addressed them, saying, "My lords, behold the duke of Burgundy, who entreats of you to withdraw from your hearts whatever hatred or revenge you may harbour within them, for the act perpetrated against the person of my lord of Orleans, your father, and that henceforward ye may remain good friends." The duke of Burgundy then added, "And I beg this of you." No answer being made, the king commanded them to accede to the request of his fair cousin the duke of Burgundy. Upon which they replied, "Sire, since you are pleased to command us, we grant him his request, and shall extinguish all the hatred we bore him; for we should be sorry to disobey you in anything that may give you pleasure."

The cardinal de Bar then, by the king's orders, brought an open Bible, on which the two parties, namely, the two sons of the late duke of Orleans and the duke of Burgundy, swore on the holy evangelists, touching them with their hands, that they would mutually preserve a firm peace towards each other, without any open or secret attempts contrary to the full meaning of their oaths. When this was done, the king said, " We will that henceforth ye be good friends; and I most strictly enjoin, that neither of you attempt anything to the loss or hurt of the other, nor against any persons who are attached to you, or who may have given you advice or assistance; and that you show no hatred against any one on this occasion, under pain of offending against our royal authority,—excepting, however, those who actually committed this murder, who shall be for ever banished our kingdom." After this speech of the king, these princes again swore they would faithfully abide by their treaty. The duke of Burgundy then advanced to salute the wife of the dauphin, the duke of Acquitaine; and about an hour after this ceremony had taken place, the duke took his leave of the king, queen, and the lords present, and set out from Chartres for Gallardon, where he dined. Many who were there were very much rejoiced that matters had gone off so well; but others were displeased, and murmured, saying, that henceforward it would be no great offence to murder a prince of the blood, since those who had done so were so easily acquitted, without making any reparation, or even begging pardon.

The duke of Orleans and his brother shortly after took leave of the king, queen, dauphin, and the lords of the court, and returned, with their attendants, to Blois, whence they had come, not well satisfied, any more than their council, with the peace that had been made. The marquis du Pont, son to the duke of Bar, and cousin to the duke of Burgundy, who before this day was not beloved by him, on account of the murder of the duke of Orleans, followed him to Gallardon, where they dined publicly together in great friendship and concord. About two o'clock in the afternoon, duke William, the count de St. Pol, and other great lords, visited the duke of Burgundy at his lodgings in Gallardon, and then returned together toward Paris.

The king, the queen, the dauphin, and the other kings, princes, and cardinals, arrived at Paris on Mid-Lent Sunday; and the dukes of Burgundy and of Holland, with the cardinal dc Bordeaux, who was at that time in Paris, on his way to the council of Pisa, went out to meet them, followed by upwards of two hundred thousand Parisians of both sexes, eager to receive the king, singing carols, as he entered the gates, and conducting him with great rejoicings to his palace. They were very happy that the king was returned to Paris, and also that a peace had been concluded respecting the death of the late duke of Orleans. They attributed the whole to the great mercy of God, who had permitted that such strong symptoms of a civil war should be so readily extinguished; but they did not foresee or consider the consequences that ensued. The greater part of the Parisians were obstinately attached to the duke of Burgundy, through the hope that by his means all the most oppressive taxes would be abolished; but they did not see clearly all the mischiefs that afterward befel the kingdom and themselves,—for in a very short time, as you shall hear, a most cruel contention broke out between the families of Orleans and Burgundy.

CHAPTER L. THE QUEEN OF SPAIN DIES DURING THE SITTING OF THE COUNCIL AT PISA.

THE MARRIAGE OF THE KING OF DENMARK, NORWAY, AND SWEDEN.

In this year died the queen of Spain*, sister to Henry king of England, and mother to the young king of Spain and queen of Portugal. The Spaniards after her death sent home all the English servants, male and female, belonging to the late queen, who returned to England in much grief and sorrow at heart.

At this same season, great numbers of prelates, archbishops, bishops, and abbots, set out from various countries of Christendom to attend the council at Pisa which was assembling to restore union to the church, which had for a long time suffered a schism, to the great displeasure of many princes and well-inclined persons.

About this same period, Henry f king of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, took to wife the daughter of Henry king of England. These kingdoms were put into the hands of the king of Denmark by their queen, who divested herself of all power and profit over them in favour of king Henry.

CHAPTER LI. TnE KING OF FRANCE HAS A SEVERE RETURN OF niS DISORDER.—THE

MARRIAGE OF THE COUNT DE NEVERS WITH TnE DAMSEL OF COUCY. THE WAR OF

AME DE VIRY, A SAVOYARD, WITn THE DUKE OF BOURBON.

[ad. 1409.] At the beginning of this year, Charles king of France was much oppressed with his usual disorder. On this account, when the kings of Navarre and Sicily, and the duke of Berry, had properly provided, in conjunction with the duke of Burgundy, for the state of the king, and the government of the realm, they went to visit their own territories. In like manner, the duke of Burgundy went to the marriage of his brother Philip count of Nevers, who took to wife the damsel of Coucy, daughter to sir Enguerrand de Coucy J, formerly lord and count of Soissons, and niece by the mother's side to the duke of Lorrain and to the count de Vaudemont; which marriage was celebrated in the town of Soissons. This ceremony was performed on Saint George's day, and the feasts and entertainments lasted for three days afterward. There were present the duchess of Lorrain § and the countess of Vaudemont ||, who had come expressly thither to do honour to the lady of Coucy and her daughter. When these fVasts were over, the duke of Burgundy, attended by his son-in-law the count de Penthievre, set out for Burgundy; and shortly after, the count de Nevers conducted his wife, and the duchess of Lorraine and tho countess of Vaudemont, to his county of RetheL, where she was received with every token of joy.

• Catherine of Lancaster, wife of Henry III. and Margaret, tlie Semiramis of the North, married Philippe

mother of John II. kings of Castile. 1 do not find a daughter to king Henry of England, by Eleanors his second

queen of Portugal in the catalogue of her children; hut wife. His great aunt Margaret was still alive,

this event seems to be here strangely misplaced. Turquct J See ante, p. 1G.

says, " L'un suyvant, 1418, dcc&Ia la roync D. Catherine, § Margaret of Bavaria, sister to the emperor Robert,

agec de einquante ans, dc mort soudaine, et (tit entcrrec married Charles the bold, duke of Lorrain.

k Toledc, en la chapclle des roj% dernicrs." || Margaret, heiress of Vaudemont, married Frederick,

f Eric X. king of Denmark, fa-., son of Wratislaus, brother of Charles duke of Lorrain. duk« of Pomerania, by Man- of Mecklenburg, niece to

During this time, the duke of Bourbon was challenged by Ame de Viry, a Savoyard, and a poor blade in comparison with the duke of Bourbon; nevertheless, he committed much damage by fire and sword in the countries of Bresse and Beaujolois. The duke was very indignant at this, and assembled a large body of men-at-arms and archers to punish and conquer him. He ordered his son, the count do Clermont, to lead on the van, and he speedily followed in person. In his company were the counts de la Marcbe and de Vendome, the lord d'Albret, constable of France, Louis de Baviere, brother to the queen, Montagu, grand master of the king's household, the lord de la Heusc and many more great lords, who advanced with a numerous body of men to the county of Beaujolois.

Ame de Viry was informed of the great force which the duke of Bourbon was marching against him, and dared not wait his arrival; for he had not strength enough to garrison the forts he had taken. On his retreat, he marched to a town called Bourg-en-Bresse, which belonged to the earl of Savoy, his lord. The earl, however, would not support him against his great uncle, the dnke of Bourbon, but gave him up, on condition that Ame should make every amends in his power for the mischiefs he had done, and should surrender himself to one of the prisons of the duke, until he should have completely made him satisfaction, but that no harm of any sort should be done to his person. The duke of Bourbon gladly received him, and thanked bis nephew for his friendship.—This caused a quarrel of some standing to be made up; for the earl of Savoy had declared his great uncle owed him homage for his lands of Beaujolois, which he would not pay,—but now the dispute was mutually referred by them to the duke of Berry. When these matters were concluded, the duke of Bourbon returned to France, and disbanded his forces. Some time after, by means which Viry made nse of with the duke, he obtained his liberty. Waleran count de St. Pol intended being of this expedition with the duke of Bourbon, and raised a large force; but on marching near Paris, he was ordered not to proceed further, and to return to the frontiers of the Boulooois, where he had been specially commissioned by the king.

CHAPTER LII. TWO COMBATS TAKE PLACE AT PARIS IN THE PRESENCE OF THE KING.

—THE DEATH OF THE ARCHBISHOP OF RI1EIMS. THE COUNCIL AT PISA.

About Ascension-day, the king of France, who had been grievously ill, was restored to health,—and in consequence, the dukes of Berry, Burgundy, and Bourbon, with many other lords, instantly returned to Paris. Two combats were ordained to be fought in the square behind St. Martin des Champs, in the presence of the king and the aforesaid lords. One was between a Breton knight, called sir William Batailler, and an Englishman named sir John Carmien, for a breach of faith.

When they were met, and Montjoye king-at-arms had proclaimed their challenges and the causes of them, in the accustomed manner, he bade them do their duty. Sir William, who was the appellant, issued first out of his pavilion, and marched proudly toward his adversary, who was advancing to meet him. They threw their lances without effect, and then made use of their swords: but in this last combat the Englishman was slightly wounded below his armour, when the king instantly put an end to the fight. They were both very honourably led out of the lists, and conducted to their lodgings.

The other combat was between the seneschal of Hainault and sir John Cornwall, an English knight of great renown, and who had married a sister to the king of England*. This combat was undertaken by the two knights at the desire of the duke of Burgundy, when at Lille, to show their prowess in running a few courses with the lance and giving some strokes with the battle-axe: but when the duke had caused the lists to be prepared, the two champions were ordered by the king to repair to Paris, and to perform their deeds

* Q. Who was lliis.1

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