potent lords, although they had been summoned by the king in like manner as the others.

On St. Thomas's day, after the king had feasted his nobles in royal state, the queen, by orders from the king, came from the castle of Vincennes to Paris. All the princes, prelates, and great crowds of people, went out to meet her and her son, the duke of Aquitaine, and



From a print in Vol. II. of Mezeray's Histoire de la France.

conducted her to the palace, where they presented her to the king, in the presence of all the before-mentioned lords. Her son had visited his government, to be properly instructed in arms, and other necessary matters, that he might be the better qualified to rule his kingdom when it should fall to him.



STATE OF THE NATION. In consequence of several meetings having been held in the presence of the king, queen, and duke of Aquitaine, the king ordered the great hall of the palace to be magnificently prepared for a royal sessions. Thither were summoned all the principal noblemen, prelates, and others, when the king appeared seated in his regal robes. On one side of him were the king of Navarre and the cardinal de Bar, and on the other the duke of Aquitaine, the duke of Berry, and all the other princes and nobles, each seated according to his rank : in like manner were the prelates, knights, and clergy, and a multitude of others, seated according to their respective situations in life. Then, by the king's commands the count de Tancarville, an able and eloquent man, harangued, with a loud and clear voice, how Richard, late king of England, and son-in-law to the king, had been basely and treacherously put to death, during the time of a truce, by Henry of Lancaster, calling himself king of England, but then earl of Derby, in conjunction with his partisans, as might be fully proved by several of the English, near relations of the deceased king Richard : and also how the young prince of Scotland, an ally to the king, when on his voyage to France, was taken by this same Henry, and detained his prisoner for a long time; as were likewise many Scots, who were in the company of the prince of Wales. Yvain Graindos *, with several of his Welchmen, allies also to the king, notwithstanding the aforesaid truce, were by the English harassed with war. The eldest son likewise to the prince of Wales was made captivet, carried to England, and imprisoned by Henry for a considerable time. “In consequence of the facts stated, the king thinks he may, without further consideration, lawfully wage war against the said Henry and his English subjects, without giving them any respite. Notwithstanding this,” continued the orator, “ the king is desirous that whatever he may please to order should be for the common welfare of the state ; and for this purpose a royal sessions has been held, for every one to consider these matters and what ought to be the line of conduct for him to pursue,—and, having an opinion thereon, if they will inform the king or his council thereof, the king will thank them and follow that advice which shall seem to him the most advantageous for the general good.”


John Duke of BERRY.-From an original in Crayons, engraved in Montfaucon, Vol. II.

Upon this, the eldest of the princes of the blood, namely, the king's uncle the duke of Berry, arose from his seat, and, advancing in front of the king's throne, fell on his knees, and, speaking for himself and the other princes of the blood, declared they would relinquish, to the use of the state, all taxes and impositions which they annually levied on their lands,and in like manner would they relinquish all the fees and perquisites of office which they were in the habit of receiving from their places under the king, and as the members of his council. The king kindly listened to the duke's speech, and accepted his offers, and then commanded him to be reseated. The lord Tancarville continued his harangue, saying, that the king, then present, revoked all pensions and grants which he had given, and thus publicly

. This Yvain Graindos is a strange corruption, if any sovereign, from thenceforward always styled himself Prince corruption in the French nomenclature can be strange to of Wales, as appears from several acts." a practised ear, of Owen Glendower, who, as Rapin says, f In a battle fought May 14, 1405. See Rapin's His“jipon the Welch unanimously renouncing their allegiance tory of England in loco. to the crown of England, and acknowledging him for

annulled them. In regard to the reformation and future management of the finances, the king declared his intention that such regulations as should be ordered by himself, and by the advice of the count de la Marche (who had now lost his wife, the daughter of the king of Navarre), his brother the count de Vendôme, the count de Saint Pol, and the other commissioners from the parliament, should be fully executed without excepting any person whatever; and that the reformations by them proposed should take place, as well in the chambers of accounts as in the generalities and in the household of the king,--and that all receivers, comptrollers, and all persons any way interested in the management of the finances of the realm, whether bishops or archbishops, and of what rank soever, should be subjected to them.” The orator continued,—“That the king willed and ordered, that during his absence, the queen should call to her assistance some of the princes of the royal blood, and should govern the affairs of this kingdom according as she might judge most conducive to its welfare; and in case of the absence of the queen, the duke of Aquitaine, his son, then present, should govern the kingdom, with the assistance of the dukes of Berry and Burgundy.”

When the lord de Tancarville had more fully enlarged on the above matters, and concluded his speech, the king descended from his royal throne, and, with a small company, entered his apartment to dinner; and the whole assembly broke up, and departed to their hôtels. After the dinner, the queen set out with her attendants for the castle of Vincennes, as it was the eve of the feast of the Circumcision, but left her son with the king. On the morrow, the feast-day, the duke of Burgundy (who had alone more princes, knights, and gentlemen attached to him than all the other princes together,) gave presents of jewels and rich gifts, of greater magnificence than any one, according to the custom of that day. He made presents to all the knights and nobles of his household, to the amount, as was estimated, of fifteen thousand golden florins, of medals formed like to a mason's level, of gold and silver gilt; and at the pointed ends of these levels was fastened a small gilt chain, with a plummet of gold, so that it might be used as a rule.--Item, on Twelfth-day following, Louis king of Sicily, having been sent for by the king, entered Paris. He came from the city of Pisa, whither he had gone to visit pope Alexander V. and made his entry, attended by numbers of the nobility and clergy, who had gone out to meet him. Shortly after, the cardinal de Thurey came to Paris, as ambassador from the pope to the king, who most honourably received him, as he likewise did Philibert de Lignac, grand master of Rhodes, and chief of the order of St. John of Jerusalem, who had come from England. The king now disbanded all the troops he had collected, as did the duke of Burgundy, excepting about one hundred or six score gentlemen, whom he retained, with those of his household, to guard his person : the others returned to their homes.

Before the duke of Burgundy left Paris, the duke of Aquitaine, with the consent of the king and queen, was intrusted to his care and guardianship, that he might be properly instructed in the arts of war and government. He had been very anxious to obtain this, and had caused several of the princes of the blood to press the matter : even his uncle, the duke of Berry, had, on this account, more than once refused the queen to accept of the guardianship of the duke of Aquitaine ; but had so urged the business that the lord de Dolhaing *, knight, his principal esquire, counsellor, and advocate, had, by the earnest desire of the queen, been made chancellor to the duke of Aquitaine, and the lord de Saint George his first chamberlain. The government of the castles of Crotoy and Beaurain-sur-Cance were granted to the duke of Berry for his life, on giving the preceding governors the usual pension, in whose room he appointed two of his own knights; the lord de Croy to Crotoy, and the lord de Humbercourt to Beaurain ; and sir Reginald Pot was, at his request, appointed governor of Dauphiny for the dauphin. Soon after this, the king relapsed into his usual disorder, and was put under good guard. Those who were intrusted with the reform of abuses continued daily at work, and with such success that large sums were recovered from the late directors of the finances. At this period, the princes and council of state went often to the castle of Vincennes, where the queen resided, for without her knowledge no business of any importance was carried on. The dukes of Berry and Bourbon, however, were much discontented that they were not so often summoned to the council as

* De Dolhaing. Q. D'Olhaing?

before, and that their authority was greatly lessened. Seeing themselves, as it were, banished from the government, they took leave of the king, queen, and princes, and each retired to his own domains.

The cardinal de Thurey had come to Paris to solicit the university and council of state to consent that pope Alexander might levy two-tenths on the Gallican church, to defray the great expenses he was bound to pay. This request was not granted, because the university opposed it, in the name of the whole church. The better to effect this, the university required and obtained a royal mandate, to command all officers under the crown forcibly to send out of their jurisdictions all persons who should come thither making similar demands. The solicitors of this levy had brought to Paris with them a bull containing many novelties, which were not usually advanced, namely, that the tythes, and other things, such as oblations to the church, belonged to them in preference to the parochial clergy, for that in fact they were in the same capacity, inasmuch as whoever should confess themselves to them were not under the necessity of so doing to their own clergyman. This doctrine they publicly preached throughout Paris, and the members of the university preached in opposition to it, so that during Lent the whole town was in confusion and discord by these quarrels of the university and the mendicants, until they were driven out of it by the university. The Jacobins, however, as the most prudent, renounced the bull, and made oath that they would never claim any advantages from it, nor from other privileges that had been granted to them. By this means, they were reconciled to the university. The pope, at this period, held his court with great state in Bologna la Grassa.



ON THE OTHER. This year, a great quarrel arose between the king of Poland and the grand master of the Teutonic order in Prussia ; and the king assembled a large force from different nations, which he marched into Prussia, with the intent to destroy it. The grand master and his brethren soon made themselves ready to meet him with a great army, and showed every inclination to give him battle ; but when the two armies were in sight of each other, through the will of God, the king of Poland retreated with his forces, among which were twenty thousand Tartars at least, without counting his Polanders and others his Christian allies, who were very numerous, and returned to his own country. Afterward, the king of Lithuania, by the exhortations of the king of Poland, invaded Prussia with an immense army, and destroyed the greater part which lay on the sea-shores. The Prussians made a thousand of them prisoners, and slew many. The king of Poland was formerly an infidel, and son to the king of Lithuania, but having a great ambition to reign, murdered his father, and was for this crime banished the country. He took refuge with the then king of Poland, who received him kindly, and admitted him into his friendship and confidence. He also gained the affections of the princes and nobles, insomuch that, on the death of their king, they unanimously elected this parricide to succeed him, had him baptised, and married him to the widow of the late king; and, since that time, he has happily enough governed that kingdom.*

At this period, Sigismond king of Hungary, brother to the king of Bohemia, took to wife the sister of the above queen of Poland : they were daughters to a German count, called the count de Cilly, of the royal branch of Hungary t. The king of Poland laid claim to Hungary in right of his wife, and thence took occasion to harass that country as well as Prussia. He sent secret messengers to the king of Lithuania, his cousin-german and ally, to press him to invade Prussia on the quarter nearest the sea, when he would march his Polanders to form a junction and destroy the whole of it. His intentions were discovered by the messenger being arrested by orders of the king of Hungary, and information sent of them to Prussia, whenceforward the king of Hungary and grand master took such wise precautions that his future attempts were fruitless.

* I suppose Monstrelet must mean Jagellon, grand Jagellon took the name of Uladislaus V. on his baptism; duke of Lithuania, who was called to the throne of Poland but Hedwige, daughter to the king of Poland, reigned two in 1386, on condition that he would become a Christian, years before she married Uladislaus.—ANDERSON. marry the daughter of the late king, and annex Lithuania + Sigismond was king of Hungary in 1387,-Roman to Poland. This last condition, however, was not com- emperor, 1411,-king of Bohemia, 1419,--died, 1437, pletely fulfilled until the reign of Sigismond Augustus in aged 70. He married for his second wife Barbara, daughter 1569.-BAUDRAN.

to Hermannus II., count of Cilly in Crain.—ANDERSON.

queen Champdivor sir John and Cat



[1. D. 1410.1 This year, the duke of Berry was, by the king's orders, remanded to Paris, and on his arrival, was sent, with the king of Navarre, to Giens sur Loire, to put an end to the quarrels between the duke of Brittany and the count and countess of Penthievre. Although both parties had promised to meet them, they did not personally attend, but sent commissioners. The king of Navarre and the duke of Berry took great pains, and proposed various means, to bring about a reconciliation. Finding all their attempts fruitless, they referred the whole matter, with the consent of the commissioners, to the king's decision on All-saints-day next coming, and then they returned to Paris. In this year was concluded the marriage between the eldest son of Louis king of Sicily, and Catherine, daughter to the duke of Burgundy. The lady was conducted by sir John de Châlons, lord de Darlay, the lord de St. George, sir William de Champdivers, and sir James de Courtjambe, to Angers, and there delivered to the queen of Sicily, who received her most affectionately and honourably,—and she magnificently entertained the knights who had brought her. After a short stay at Angers, they returned to their lord, the duke of Burgundy, at Paris.

At this time, the dukes of Orleans and Bourbon, the counts de Clermont, d'Alençon, d'Armagnac, the lord Charles d'Albreth, constable, and many other lords of great power and authority, held a meeting in the town of Meun le Châtel,—where they had several long consultations with each other on the state of public affairs, and particularly as to the murder of the late duke of Orleans, principally to consider how they should proceed to take vengeance on the person who had committed it. Many different opinions were urged: one was, that the duke of Orleans should declare a deadly war against him, and carry it on by every possible means, with the assistance of his relations, friends, and the well-wishers to his cause. Others said, it would be better to follow another course, and remonstrate strongly to the king, their sovereign lord, on the necessity he was under to do strict justice on the duke of Burgundy, to which he was the more particularly bound, as the murder was committed on his own brother. But, as they could not all agree in the same opinion, they broke up the meeting, and appointed another day to assemble again. Before they separated, a treaty of marriage was entered upon between Charles duke of Orleans and the daughter of the count d'Armagnac. She was niece to the duke of Berry, by her mother's side, and sister * to the count de Savoye. This done, the lords departed for their own domains.

The duke of Burgundy resided in Paris, and ruled there more despotically than any other of the princes : affairs were solely carried on by him and his partisans, which, no doubt, made very many jealous of him.

* Of the half blood. See pp. 149, 150.

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