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CHAPTER LXII. THE KING OF SICILY GOES TO PROVENCE AND TO BOLOGNA, TO MEET HIS
RIVAL KING LADISLAUS. THE DEATH OF POPE ALEXANDER, AND THE ELECTION OF
About this period, Louis king of Sicily set out from Paris with a numerous body of menat-arms, and went for Provence, and thence to Bologna, to meet king Ladislaus, his opponent, and to defend his kingdom of Naples, where his rival was committing great devastation. King Louis had for this raised so considerable a force, that he might be enabled to offer him combat; and he had also the hope that pope Alexander would assist him, to the utmost of his ability, in money and in men. An end was soon put to his expectations in this respect; for, on the morrow of the feast of the discovery of the holy cross, pope Alexander was poisoned in the town of Bologna, as was currently reported, and died most pitifully *. His bowels were interred, and his obsequies were performed in the church of the Cordeliers. Mass was celebrated by the cardinal de Vimers: the deacon and under deacon were the cardinals d'Espaigne and de Thurey. The whole court was dressed in deep mourning.
The 6th of May, the corpse of the pope, having been embalmed with fine spices, was placed in the hall of audience, dressed in his papal robes, his face uncovered, gloves on his hands, but his feet naked, so that whoever pleased might kiss them,—and nine funeral services were there performed. There were present twenty cardinals, two patriarchs, four archbishops, twenty-four bishops, with many prelates, abbots, and other churchmen. His escutcheon of arms were placed at the four corners of his coffin; and for nine days, masses were celebrated in the same manner as on the morrow of his death. The masses were said by the cardinals in rotation; and the ninth day, the body was carried to the Cordeliers for interment. The two first bearers were the cardinals de Vimers and de Challant, and the two last the cardinals d'Espaigne and de Thurey. The cardinal Milles preceded the body bearing a cross. The chorists were the cardinals de Bar, (not the son of the duke of Bar, but the cardinal of Bar t in Calabria), and d'Orsini. The cardinal de Vimers performed the service, as he had done at the interment of the bowels.
When this ceremony was over, the cardinals returned home dressed in black; and after dinner, they assembled at the palace, and entered into conclave, where they remained shut up from the Wednesday to the Saturday following. Some of the cardinals, having cousulted together, proposed Balthazar, cardinal of Bologna, as sovereign pontiff of the universal church; and the others, who were not of this opinion, seeing their numbers were very small, consented to it; and the new pope was conducted by them to the church of St. Peter, where they placed the tiara on his head, and took the oaths of fidelity to him. They then led him to the palace of his predecessor, where every piece of furniture had been carried off, and there did not remain even a door or window-frame +. On the morrow, he took the name of pope John XXIII. and great were the rejoicings and feasts that ensued. In the procession were twenty-three cardinals, two patriarchs, three archbishops, twenty-seven abbots, mitred and non-mitred, without reckening other churchmen, who were almost numberless. The pope wore on that day a silver-gilt tiara bound with white. The following Saturday, the 23d of May, the pope received, in the chapel of his predecessors, the holy order of priesthood, when the cardinal de Vimers said the mass, and the cardinal de Challant was deacon: at this service, all the before-named prelates attended.
On the following day, Sunday, the pope celebrated mass in the church of St. Peter, having the cardinal de Vimers near him to show him the service. The marquis of Ferrara and the lord of Malatesta were present, and held the bason wherein the pope washed his hands. The marquis of Ferrara had brought with him fifty-four knights, all clothed in scarlet and blue, having five trumpets and four companies of minstrels, each playing on a different instrument. When mass was finished, pope John was carried out of the church to a very handsome platform erected without the porch, and there solemnly crowned in the presence of all those whom I have mentioned, and a great multitude of doctors and clergy.
* His successor, Balthazar Cozza, was accused of having f i. e. Ban.
administered poison to him, but the fact was never estnb- J We have attempted in vain to ascertain the meaning
lished ; and, in those days, it was but too common to raise and origin of this very peculiar ceremony, if it uiay be w
such suspicions without foundation. The following account termed.—Ed.
When seated on his throne, which was covered all over with cloth of gold, he was surrounded by the cardinals de Vimers, de Challant, de Milles, d'Espaigne, de Thurey, and de Bar, having tufts of tow in their hands. The cardinals lighted their tufts; and as the flame was suddenly extinguished, they addressed the pope, saying, " Thus, holy father, passes the glory of this world!" This was done three times. The cardinal de Vimers having said some prayers over him and on the crown, placed it upon his head. This crown was a triple one: the first of gold, which encircled the forehead within the mitre; the second of gold and silver, about the middle of the mitre; and the third, of very fine gold, surmounted it. He
Tiara And Official Badges Of The Pofedom.—Selected from old Italian pictures.
was then led down from the platform, and placed on a horse covered over with scarlet furniture. The horses of the cardinals and bishops, &e. were caparisoned in white; and in this state he was conducted from street to street, making everywhere the sign of the cross, until he came to where the Jews resided, who presented him a manuscript of the Old Testament. He took it with his own hand, and having examined it a little, threw it behind him, saying, "Your religion is good, but this of ours is better." As he departed, the Jews followed him, intending to touch him,—ill the attempt of which, the caparison of his horse •was all torn.—Wherever he passed, the pope distributed money,—that is to say, quadrini and mailles of Florence, with other coins. There were before and behind him two hundred men-at-arms, each having in his hand a leathern mallet, with which they struck the Jews in such wise as it was a pleasure to see.
On the morrow, he returned to his palace, accompanied by the cardinals dressed in erimson,—the patriarchs in like manner,—the archbishops and bishops in similar dresses, having white mitres on their heads, and numbers of mitred and non-mitred abbots. In this procession were, the marquis of Ferrara*, the lord Malatesta-f, the lord of GaucourtJ, and others, to the amount of forty-four, as well dukes as counts and knights of Italy, all dressed out in their liveries. In each street, two and two by turns led the pope's horse by the bridle,—the one on the right hand, and another on the left. There were thirty-six bagpipes and trumpets, and ten bands of minstrels playing on musical instruments, each band consisting of three performers. There were also singers, especially those of the chapel of his predecessor, as well as those belonging to the cardinals and from different parts of Italy, who rode before the pope loudly chaunting various airs, sacred and profane.
* Probably Nicholas d'Este, connected by marriage with the house of Malatesta.
•f Probably Pandulph Malatesta, lord of Rimini, a captain of great reputation and adherent of king Ladislaus.
J Sir Raoul de Gaucourt, successively promoted to the
posts of chamberlain, governor of Dauphin^, and grandmaster of the household, became a distinguished actor in the wars with the English, from 1427 to 1437 particularly. There wns also a sir Eustace de Gaucourt, lord of Vicy, who was grand faleoner in HOG and 14 12.
When he arrived at the palace, he gave his peace to all the cardinals, who, according to their rank in the college, kissed his foot, hand, or mouth. The cardinal de Vimers first performed the ceremony, and was followed by the other cardinals, patriarchs, archbishops, bishops, abbots and clergy. He then gave his benediction to the four elements, and to all persons in a state of grace, as well to those absent as present, and bestowed his dispensations for four months to come, provided that, during this time, three Pater-nosters should be said by each in praying for his predecessor, pope Alexander. Pope John then went to dinner, as it was now about twelve o'clock, and this ceremony had commenced between five and six in the morning. In honour of him, feasts were continued at Bologna for the space of eight days; and on each of them very handsome processions were made round St. Peter's church, when the prelates were all dressed in vermilion robes, with copes of the same. In like manner did the Carthusians of St. Michael's Mount, without the walls of Bologna.
Public Inauguration Of The Pofe. The Pope is crowned with the Tiara, and seated on a richly-caparisoned Mule led by two Cardinals.—Original design.
The next day, the 25th of May, pope John held a consistory, in the presence of the cardinals, patriarchs, archbishops, bishops, and presented to the marquis of Ferrara and the Italian heralds many and various rich gifts. This was followed by a great feast, with dancing and musie. The ensuing day, the pope revoked all that his predecessor had done, excepting what he had confirmed, or what had been taken corporal or spiritual possession of. King Louis of Sicily arrived at Bologna the Friday after the coronation of the pope, and twenty-two cardinals, two patriarchs, six archbishops, twenty bishops, and eighteen abbots, handsomely equipped, went out of the city to meet him: on his entrance, he went directly to the pope. He was clothed in scarlet, and his horse's furniture was ornamented with small gilt bells: he was attended by about fifty knights dressed in his uniform. It was the last day of May that the king arrived,—and he was most graciously received by the pope. The ensuing day, the Florentines came to pay their duty and reverence to the holy father. They were about three hundred horse, among whom were eighteen knights dressed in scarlet, with feathers bespangled with gold. They were attended by six trumpets, two heralds, and ten musicians playing on different instruments. When they had made their reverence to the pope, they returned to their hotels, and the next day went to court. By reason of their alliance with king Louis, they supplicated the pope to give him assistance against his adversary king Ladislaus, adding, that they intended affording him every aid in their power of men and money. These Florentines were very indignant at the late conduct of the Genoese in regard to the king of Sicily; for when the king of Sicily was sailing with five galleys from Marseilles, near to the port of Genoa, the Genoese, being in the interest of king Ladislaus, hastily armed fifteen galleys with cross-bows and men-at-arms, and sent them to attack the remainder of king Louis's fleet that was following him, which they conquered, all but one, that escaped back to Marseilles by superior sailing, and carried the crews and all their baggage prisoners to Genoa.
The pope, having heard their request, asked some time to consider of it before he gave an answer. He could not well consent to it, because the Genoese had been long connected with him, and he had also entered into some engagements with king Ladislaus. The matter was, therefore, deferred. King Louis was, notwithstanding this, magnificently feasted by the pope and cardinals; after which, he left his court well pleased, and returned to Provence. On the first day of June, the pope held an open court, and signed many graces and benefices, and all such things as with honour and justice he could sign. He continued from that time to hold public audiences, and to do whatever business appertained to the papacy.
CHAPTER LXIII. THE GRAND MASTER OF PRUSSIA MARCHES A POWERFUL ARMY OF
CHRISTIANS INTO LITHUANIA.
This year, 1410, the grand master of the Teutonic order, accompanied by his brother knights and a numerous army of three hundred thousand Christians, invaded the kingdom of Lithuania, to destroy the whole of it. The king of Lithuania was soon ready to meet him; and, aided by the king of Sarmatia, he assembled an army of four hundred thousand infidels, and offered battle. The Christians gained a complete victory,—for there remained dead on the field full thirty-six thousand infidels, the principals of whom were the grand general of Lithuania and the constable of Sarmatia. The remnant, with the other officers, escaped by flight. Of the Christians, only two hundred were slain, but a great many were wounded. Shortly after, the king of Poland, who was a determined enemy to the grand master of Prussia, (and who had but faintly accepted of Christianity in order to obtain his kingdom) marched his Polanders to the assistance of the infidels, whom he strongly pressed to renew the war against Prussia, insomuch that, eight days after this defeat, the king of Poland, in conjunction with the aforesaid two kings, assembled an army of six hundred thousand men, and marched against the grand master of Prussia, and other Christian lords. A battle ensued, which was lost by the Christians, who had more than sixty thousand killed and wounded. In the number of dead were the grand master of Prussia, with a noble knight from Normandy, called sir John de Ferriere, son to the lord de Ferriere, and another from Picardy, son to the lord du Bos d'Ancquin.
It was currently reported that the day had been lost through the fault of the constable of Hungary, who commanded the second squadron of the Christians, by running away with all his Hungarians. The infidels, however, did not gain the glory without loss,—for without counting the Polanders, who had ten thousand men slain, they lost upward of six-score thousand men, according to the reports of the heralds, and the bastard of Scotland, called the count deHembe*. The lord de Kyeuraing and John de Grez, Hainaulters,
• Count de Hembe. Q.
were there, and with them full twenty-four gentlemen, their countrymen, who were unhurt at this battle, and returned home as speedily as they could. After the engagement, the infidels entered Prussia, and despoiled many parts of it, and took twelve inclosed towns in a short time and destroyed them. They would have persevered in their wickedness, and have done further mischief, had not a valiant knight of the Teutonic order, named Charles de Mouroufle*, rallied a great number of the Christians who had fled, and by his prudence and vigour regained the greater part of these towns, and finally drove the infidels out of the country t.
CHAPTER LXIV. THE DUKE OF BKMtY QUITS PARI8, AND RETIRES TO HIS OWN ESTATES.
HE GOES AFTERWARD TO ANGERS, AND UNITES WITH THE DUKE OF ORLEANS AND
THE OTHER PRINCES OF HIS PARTY.
The duke of Berry, finding that he had not that government of the king and the duke of Aquitaine to which he had been accustomed, became very discontented, and retired to his estates, indignant at the ministers, and particularly at his nephew and godson, the duke of Burgundy. Shortly after, he went to Angers, where the dukes of Orleans and of Bourbon, and all the principal lords of that party, were assembled. They went in a body to the cathedral church, and there made oath, in the most solemn manner, to support each other. and mutually to defend their honour against all who should attempt anything against it, excepting the king, and ever to remain in strict friendship united, without acting to the contrary in any kind of measure. Many great lords in France were not pleased with this confederation; and when, shortly after, news of it was brought to the king and his council, he was much astonished and dissatisfied therewith.
The king, in consequence of the advice of the duke of Burgundy and his friends, marched out of Paris, accompanied by him, the duke of Brabant, the count de Montagu, and a large body of chivalry, and went to Senlis: thence to the town of Creil, to regain the castle of that place, which the duke of Bourbon held, and had given the government of it to some of his people. The governor made so many delays before he surrendered it that the king became much displeased; and because they had not obeyed his first summons, the garrison were made prisoners, and carried bound to the prisons of the Chatelet in Paris. The countess of Clermont, cousin-german to the king, soon after made application for their deliverance, and obtained it; and on the morrow the king appointed another garrison, and returned to Paris. This expedition was not very agreeable to the Orleans-faction,—and they continued to collect daily, and inlist in their party as many as they could.
The duke of Burgundy became very uneasy at their proceedings; for he suspected the duke of Orleans and his party would infringe the peace which had so lately been patched up between them at Chartres, or that they would inarch a large force to Paris, to seize the government, together with the persons of the king and duke of Aquitaine. To obviate this, lie caused several royal summons to be proclaimed in various parts of the realm, for the
* diaries de Mouroufle. Q. meet his enemy. Such a battle as this was never heard f The author of "An Account of Livonia, with a of before in these parts, and was given the 15th day of Relation of the Rise, Progress, and Decay of the Marian July, 1410, in Prussia, near the town Gilgenbourg, beTeutomc Order," London, 1701, relates these transactions tween the two villages Tannenberg and Grunwald, on i in the manner following: large plain, with such obstinacy, that, according to an exact "The order was now on the highest pinnacle of pros- computation, there were actually killed, on both sides, perity and honour, exceeding great kings and potentates of 100,000 on the spot. The Poles got the victory, but lost Europe in extent of dominions, power and riches, when 60,000 men. The order lost 40,000,—but among them Ulricus a Jungingen was chosen great master; but he almost all their generals and commanders. The great being of a boisterous, fiery temper, soon broke the peace master himself, and the chief of the order, with 600 noble concluded between Poland with his brother Conradus a German Marian knights, were there slain. There is still Jungingen, whereupon king Uladislaus Jagellon joining kept every year a day of devotion upon that plain, in a forces with his father Witoldas of Lithuania, formed an chapel built to the remembrance of this battle, marked army of 150,000 fighting men and marched into Prussia, with the date of the year it happened, and this inscription. To stop the progress of this formidable army, the great Centum mille necisi. The king of Poland was so weakmaster drew up as many forces as he could, and, after the ened * this dear-bought victory, that he very readily Livonians had joined him, found his army consisted, in a agreed to a peace. This memorable lattle is called the general muster, of 83,000 well-armed stout combatants; battle of Tannenberg." and thus, with an undaunted spirit, he marched furth to