assembling of men-at-arms and quartering them in the villages round Paris, to be ready to defend the king and his government against the ill-intentioned. By the advice of his brothers and the king of Navarre, he resolved to defend himself by force against his adversaries, and caused it to be proclaimed throughout the kingdom, in the king's name, that no one should dare to assemble armed in company of the dukes of Berry and Orleans, and their allies, under pain of corporal punishment and confiscation of goods.

The Orleans faction, however, continued their meetings in spite of this proclamation, and even forced their vassals to serve under and accompany them : I mean, such of them as were dilatory in obeying their summons. There were, therefore, at this time, great and frequent assemblies of armed men in different parts of France, to the prejudice of the poor people. Those lords that were well inclined to the king came to Paris, and their men were quartered in the flat country of the island of France. The Orleans party fixed their quarters at Chartres and the adjacent parts; and their forces might amount, according to the estimate of well-informed persons, to full six thousand men in armour, four thousand cross-bows, and sixteen hundred archers, without counting the unarmed infantry, of which there were great numbers. In regard to the army which the duke of Bungundy had assembled by orders from the king, it was estimated to consist of upward of sixteen thousand combatants, all men of tried courage. During this time, the king of Navarre and his brother, the count de Mortain, at the request of the duke of Burgundy, negotiated a peace between the duke of Brittany, their nephew, and the count de Penthievre, son-in-law to the duke of Burgundy.

This was done in the hope that the duke of Brittany would be induced to assist the king with his Bretons, and give up the Orleans party, to whom he had engaged himself. On the conclusion of this peace between the two parties, twenty thousand golden crowns were sent the duke, to defray the expenses he had been at in raising men-at-arms. Large sums of money were also sent to the lord d'Albreths, constable of France, that he might collect a numerous body of men-at-arms, and march them to Paris, to serve the king. He had not any great desire to perform this, for he was wholly inclined to the duke of Orleans and his allies, as was perfectly notorious shortly afterward.



PRINCIPAL TOWNS IN FRANCE. During this troublesome time, Louis duke of Bourbon, uncle to the king of France by the mother's side, being full sixty years of age, feeling himself oppresssd with years and sickness, caused himself to be conveyed to his residence at Moulins * in the Bourbonnois, where he departed this life, and was buried in the church of the Canons, which he had founded. He was succeeded by his only son, the count de Clermont, who, after some days of lamentation, had the funeral obsequies of his father performed, and, having arranged his affairs, returned to the duke of Orleans and the other lords at Chartres, and firmly united himself with them, treading in the steps of his late father. The duke of Bourbon had long held the office of great chamberlain of France, from the friendship of the king, and was in possession of it even at the time of his death ; but at the entreaty of the king of Navarre and the duke of Burgundy, the king now gave it to the count de Nevers, to exercise the duties of it in the usual manner.

At this time, the duchess of Brittany, daughter to the king of France, was brought to bed of a son; and she sent to request the duke of Aquitaine, her brother, to stand godfather. He sent, as his proxy, sir David de Brimeu knight, lord of Humbercourt, with a handsome present of jewels, which sir David gave her on the part of the duke of Aquitaine. The king again issued his summons to the different bailiwicks and seneschalships in the realm, for all

• Moreri says, that the good duke Louis died at Mon- children, Louis and two daughters, died without issue and buran, on the 19th of August, 1410. By his wife Anne, unmarried. He left also a natural son, named Hector, who dauphiness of Auvergne and countess of Forez, he left was killed at the siege of Soissons in 1414. John count of Clermont, his son and successor : his other


persons to arm without delay, who were bounden so to do from the tenure of their fiefs or arriere-fiefs, and to march instantly to Paris to serve the king against the dukes of Orleans, Berry, Bourbon, the counts d'Armagnac, d'Alençon, and others their allies, who, notwithstanding the king's positive orders to the contrary, continued daily to assemble large bodies of men-at-arms, to the destruction of his country and subjects. The above dukes wrote letters to the king, to the university of Paris, and to many of the principal towns, to explain the causes why they had thus confederated and collected men-at-arms; one of which, signed with their signs-manual, they sent to the town of Amiens, and the contents were as follows:

“ To our well-beloved and very dear citizens, burgesses, and inhabitants of the town of Amiens, health and affection. We have written to our most redoubted and sovereign lord the king of France, in manner following :—We dukes of Berry, of Orleans, and of Bourbon, counts of Alençon and of Armagnac, your humble uncles, relations and subjects, for ourselves and all others our adherents, wellwishers to your person,-as the rights of your domination, your crown and royal majesty, have been so nobly instituted, and founded on justice, power, and the true obedience of your subjects,- and as your glory and authority are resplendent through all parts of the world, you having been worthily consecrated and anointed by the holy roman see, and considered by all Christendom as sovereign monarch and equal distributor of justice, as well to the poor as to the rich, without owing obedience to any other lord, but God and his Divine Majesty, who has been pleased most worthily to have gifted you,-may all those who are connected with you by blood, by their frank and loyal affections, guard and defend your sacred person as your relations and subjects. And may we, in particular, as your near relations, and for that cause more cbliged to it, set an example of due obedience to your other subjects, and exert ourselves in preserving to you free liberty of action in every part of your government, insomuch that you may have power to reward the good and punish the wicked, and to preserve every one in his just rights, and likewise that you may execute justice in such wise that your kingdom may remain in peace, first to the honour of God, and then to your own honour, and to the example of your good friends and subjects, by following the paths of your predecessors, the kings of France, who, by this noble way of governing their great kingdom, have ever preserved tranquillity and peace, insomuch that all Christian nations, far and near, and even infidels, have had recourse to them in their disputes, and have been perfectly contented with their decisions on the cases referred to them, as the fountains of justice and loyalty. And, most sovereign lord, that your power, justice, and the state of your government may not suffer at present any wound or diminution, and that public affairs may be managed according to the principles of reason, in such wise as may be apparent to all men of sound understanding ;

“For this effect, most redoubted sovereign, we, the above-written, have confederated and assembled, that we may most humbly lay before you the real state of your situation, in regard to your royal person, and also that of my lord of Aquitaine, your eldest son. We have likewise to lay before you the manner in which you are enthralled, and the government carried on, that justice may be restored, and the public weal no longer suffer, as we can more fully explain. Should any persons deny this, let your majesty, by the advice of your council, appoint some of the princes of your blood, and other impartial and unprejudiced persons, to inquire into it, in whatever number you in your wisdom may select. But we advise that you speedily and effectually provide for the safety of your own person, and for that of my lord of Aquitaine, your eldest son, so that your state may enjoy justice and a good government, to the advancement of the public welfare, and that the power and authority may be exercised by you alone, freely and uncontrolled by any other person whatever ; and that such a desirable object may be obtained, we, the above-named, offer our earnest prayers, and, at the same time, our lives and fortunes, whatever they may be, which God has graciously granted us in this world, for the just defence of your rights, and in opposing all who may attempt to infringe on them, if any such there be.

“ Most redoubted lord, we also inform you, that we shall not break up our confederation until you shall have listened to us, and until we shall see that you have properly provided against the inconveniences we have mentioned, and until you be fully and

wholly reinstated in that power which is your right. To this, most redoubted lord, are we bound, as well in regard to what we have already said, as from fear, honour, and reverence to our Creator, from whom originates your royal authority, and also to satisfy justice, and then yourself, who are sovereign king on earth, and our sole lord. To your support we are urged by our kindred and by our love to your person; for in truth, most redoubted sovereign, there is nothing we dread so much as having offended God, yourself, and wounded our own honour, by leaving for so long time unnoticed the aforesaid grievances, which are notorious to every one. In like manner as we signify the above to you, we shall do the same to all prelates, lords, universities, cities, and principal towns of your realm, and in general to all your wellwishers. Most redoubted lord, we humbly supplicate that you will deign to hear us, and consider of what we have written,—for the sole object we aim at personally affects yourself and your government; and we earnestly beg that you will speedily adopt the most effectual measures for the enjoyment of your own freedom of action, and that your government may be carried on to the praise of God first, and your own glory, and to the advantage of all your good subjects who are anxious for your welfare.

“We have written this, that you may know our intentions, and the cause of our assembling, which is solely for the preservation of the personal liberty of our lord and king, and the affranchisement of his government from any hands but his own. For this object we have sought the advice of the most prudent men, and shall follow their counsels, with all the means God has put in our power, to obtain so desirable an end, for the general welfare of the realm; and we intend so to act toward our lord the king that God and the world shall be satisfied with us. And we most earnestly entreat, that for so praiseworthy an object you will join us, and exert yourselves in the same cause ; for it is not properly us but the king your lord that you will serve, whom by your oaths you are bounden to assist,—and know that for so doing you will be commended by all men of understanding and prudence. Given at Chartres, the 2d day of December, 1410."

This letter, when received by the council of the town of Amiens, produced very little sensation, for all, or the greater part of the inhabitants, were inclined to the duke of Burgundy. When a similar one was read in the council of state, it did not make any impression on the king, nor did it seem advisable that the dukes should have an audience ; but, on the contrary, orders were sent to them to disband their forces without delay, on pain of incurring the royal indignation. They refused to obey this order, and bade the messenger tell the king, that they would not cease assembling until he should grant them an audience, and hear their complaints. At this period, the dukes of Aquitaine and Burgundy paid a visit to the queen of France at her residence in the castle of Melun, and left there a garrison, having brought back with them the queen and her children to the castle of Vincennes. The duke of Brabant at this time left Paris, to go to his country, and assemble his Brabanters to serve the king. Many able ambassadors were sent, in the king's name, to the lords assembled at Chartres ; and among them was the grand-master of Rhodes, to signify to them that they must disband their army, and that, if they pleased to wait on the king in their private capacity, he would see them. This they refused; and as they continued disobedient, the king took possession of the counties of Boulogne *, Estampes, Valois, Beaumont, Clermont, and other lands belonging to the said dukes, counts, and their adherents, of whatever rank they might be. The king's officers appointed governors to the castles and fortresses within these countries, whom they ordered to govern them at the expense of the aforesaid lords. So very numerous were the forces that assembled near Paris, in obedience to the summons from the king and the duke of Burgundy, that the oldest persons had not for a long time seen so many men-at-arms together.

Among the number was the duke of Brabant, with a great force. He was quartered in the town of St. Denis, where he lived at the expense of the greater part of the inhabitants, as if he bad been in the open country. The count de Penthievre, son-in-law to the duke of Burgundy, was there with himn, accompanied by a large body of Bretons. Two thousand men belonging to the count Waleran de St. Pol were quartered at Menil-Aubry, and the adjacent villages.—Because the count himself resided in Paris, he one day ordered his troops to be assembled under the lord de Chin, for him to march them to Paris to be mustered and enrolled for pay; but it happened, as they were marching through St. Denis to obey the order, that a dispute arose between them and the Brabanters, on account of some enterprise which the last had made against the lord de Carlian, a native of the Boulonois, so that the two parties armed and drew up in battle array to decide matters by combat. The duke of Brabant was soon informed of this tumult, and hastened from Paris to check his own men, and acted so prudently with both parties that an end was put to it ; but he was very wroth with the first promoters of it, for he was married to the daughter and heiress of the count de St. Pol.

* Boulogne, the property of the duke of Berry, by mar- I believe, to the count d'Alençon ; Beaumont to the duko riage with Jane, heiress of Auvergne and Boulogne. The of Orleans;- and Clermont to the duke of Bourbon. county of Estampes belonged to the duke of Berry; Valois,

When they had marched through Saint Denis, they came before their lord, the count: de St. Pol, in Paris, who having reviewed them, and paid many compliments to their captains, dismissed them to the quarters whence they had come. In order to pay these troops which had been levied, as has been said, by orders from the king and the duke of Burgundy, and; which amounted, by the muster-rolls, to fifteen thousand men with helmets, seventeen thousand cross-bows and archers, very heavy taxes were levied throughout the realm, and particularly on the city of Pariş. It will be impossible to relate one half of the mischiefs, the armies of both parties committed : suffice it to say, that churches, churchmen, and the poor people were very great sufferers.

The Orleans party, shortly after this, marched from. Chartres to Montlehery, seven, leagues from Paris, and there, and in the neighbouring villages, quartered their army, ruining the whole country on their line of march. The lords and adherents of this faction, as well clergy as seculars, wore, as their badge, a narrow band of white linen on their shoulders, hanging over their left arm, like to a deacon when celebrating divine service. When the king of France and his council learnt that they had approached so near the capital, they hastily despatched to the leaders the count de la Marche, the archbishop of Rheims, the bishop of Beauvais, and the grand master of Rhodes, with some others, to persuade them to disband their army, and come before him at Paris, in consequence of his former orders, without arms, in the manner in which vassals should wait on their lords, and that he would do them justice in regard to their demands; but that, should they refuse, he would instantly march his forces against them.—The princes made answer, that they would not act otherwise than they had said in their letter to the king; and the ambassadors, seeing they could not gain anything, returned to Paris. In like manner, the university sent to them an embassy of learned men, headed by Noeétz, abbot of Povegny and doctor in divinity, who harangued them very ably and gravely. They were very handsomely received by the princes, especially by the duke of Berry, who, among other grievances, complained much that his nephew, the king, should be counselled by such fellows as the provost of Paris, and others of the same sort, who now ruled the realm, which was most miserably governed, as he was ready to explain, article by article, when they should be admitted to an audience. They could obtain no other reply than that, with God's pleasure, they would accomplish, to the utmost of their power, the matters contained in their circular letters to the university and principal towns.

On this repeated ill success, the king, by the advice of his council, sent another embassy, composed of the queen, the cardinal de Bar, the count de St. Pol, and others. The count de St. Pol had lately accepted, with the king's approbation, the office of grand butler of France which the provost of Paris had held, through the interest of the count de Tancarville, by a gift from the king. Notwithstanding the queen and her companions were received with every honour, she did not remain with their army, but went to the castle of Marcoussi, which is not far distant from Montlehery, with her attendants, and remained there some time negotiating with them, and some of the princes daily visited her. Although she acted with much perseverance, she failed in her object, for the princes were firm in their resolution of marching with their army to the king, and requiring that he would execute justice and attend to the affairs of government, and choose another set of ministers than those now in power. Finding she was labouring in vain, she returned with her companions to Paris, and related to the king all that had passed. He was very indignant, and much troubled thereat; and on the morrow, the 230 September, he ordered all the men-at-arms that were come to serve him to be drawn out, and the baggage and artillery waggons to be made ready instantly to march against the Orleans party, to give them battle.

When all were ready, and he was going to attend mass and afterward to mount his horse, he was met by the rector of the university, magnificently accompanied by all the members and supporters of it, who remonstrated with him, that his daughter, the university of Paris, was preparing to leave that city, from the great want of provisions, which the men-at-arms of the two parties prevented coming to Paris,-for no one could venture on the high roads without being robbed and insalted ; and, likewise that all the low countries round Paris were despoiled by these men-at-arms. They most humbly requested, that he would provide a remedy, and give them such answer as might seem to him good. The chancellor, namely, master Arnauld de Corbie, instantly replied, “ The king will assemble his council after dinner, and you shall have an answer.” The king of Navarre, being present, entreated the king that he would fix an hour for hearing them again after dinner; and the king, complying with his request, appointed an hour for the rector to return. When the king had dined, be entered the chambre certe, attended by the following princes : the dukes of Aquitaine, Burgundy, and Brabant, the Marquis du Pont, the duke of Lorrain, the counts de Mortain, de Nevers, and de Vaudemont, with many other great lords, as well ecclesiastical as secular. The king of Navarre made four requests to the king : first, that all the princes of the blood, as well on the one side as on the other, should retire to their principalities, and never more interfere in the king's government; and likewise that henceforth they should not receive any profits or pensions, as well from the subsidies arising from their lands as from other exactions, but live on their own proper revenues until the public treasury should be in a better state than it was at that moment: however, should the king be inclined to make them presents of anything, or call them near his person, they should be always ready to obey him. His second request was, that some diminution should take place in those taxes that most aggrieved the people. The third, that as some of the citizens of Paris had lent different sums of money to the king, of which repayment had been promised, but not made, sufficient assignments on the treasury should be given to them. The fourth, that the affairs of the king and realm should be governed by prudent men, taken from the three estates of the kingdom. When the king of Navarre had ended, the king himself replied, and said he would take advice on what he had proposed, and then give him such answers as ought to satisfy him and every one else.

When this was over, the king showed the same determination as before to march, on the morrow morning, against the rebellious lords; but he was overruled, and the queen, with the former ambassadors, were again sent to negotiate a peace. On their arrival at the army of the princes, she exerted herself, as it was said, very much and loyally ; for it was commonly reported that she was in her heart inclined to the Orleans faction. During the time of this embassy, the count Amé de Savoye, who had been sent for by the king, arrived at Paris with five hundred men-at-arms. His brothers-in-law the dukes of Burgundy and Brabant, and the count de Nevers, attended by many other lords, went out to meet him beyond the gate of St. Anthony, and thence conducted him to the palace to the king, who very kindly received him. Some days after, the queen, not having more success than before, returned to the king, and told him that she could not any way bring them to terms, for they were obstinate in their original intentions. She then hastened to the castle of Vincennes as speedily as she could.

On the ensuing morning, the aforesaid lords quitted Montlehery; and the duke of Berry came to his hotel of Vinchestre *, which he had rebuilt, and was there lodged. The duke of Orleans fixed his quarters at Gentilly, in the palace of the bishop, and the count d'Armagnac at Vitry; the rest as near to each other as they could ; and at vespers, they had advanced as far as the suburb of St. Marcel and the gate de Bordelles. The king, the duke of Burgundy, and the other princes, were greatly surprised at this boldness; and the

* Vinchestre, or rather Winchester, - now called For further particulars, see "Sauval, Antiquités de Paris," Bicêtre, was a palace built by a bishop of Winchester, 1290. vol. ii. book vii.

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