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one part, and the dukes of Berry, of Orleans, of Bourbon, the counts d'Alençon, d’Armagnac, and the lord d'Albreth, on the other, on the 8th day of May, in the year 1412.
“ It was first agreed to by the above lords, or by their commissioners, that they would expose their lives and fortunes in the service of the king of England, his heirs and successors, whenever they should be required so to do, in all their just quarrels,-in which they include the king of England's warfare in Guienne as a just quarrel, and maintain that the duchy of Guienne and its dependencies belong to him by right of succession, and that by such declaration and assistance they shall no way act contrary to their loyalty.-Item, the aforesaid lords make offer, by themselves or their delegates sufficiently authorised, of their sons, daughters, nephews, nieces, relations, in short, of all their subjects, to contract such marriages as shall be agreeable to the aforesaid king of England.-Item, they likewise make offer of all their towns, castles, treasures, and in general all belonging to them, for the assistance of the said king and his heirs in all their lawful quarrels, saving their loyalty, which they have more fully explained in other acts passed between them.-Item, they also make offer of their friends and adherents, to support the said king in the recovery of his duchy of Guienne.-Item, the aforesaid lords are willing, without any fraud or deceit, to acknowledge at the altar, or in any sacred place, the said king's right to the duchy of Guienne, in as full a manner as any of his predecessors ever possessed it.— Item, the aforesaid lords acknowledge, by themselves or their delegates, that all the towns, castles, and possessions they may have in Guienne, they hold under the king of England, as the true duke of Guienne, promising every service due from their homage, to be performed in the best possible manner by them. – Item, they also engage to deliver up to the king of England, as far as lies in their power, all towns and castles, said to have belonged to the king of England, to the number of twenty, as well castles as towns, which are fully detailed in the treaty*. In regard to the other towns and fortresses that are not under their obedience, they will gain them, or assist the king of England to gain them, at their expense and with a sufficient number of men.
"Item, as is more fully detailed in the treaty, that it shall be agreeable to the king of England that the duke of Berry, his loyal uncle, subject and vassal, that the duke of Orleans, his subject and vassal, and in like manner the count d'Armagnac, do hold under him the following lands by fealty and homage. The duke of Berry shall possess the county of Poitou during his life: the duke of Orleans shall hold the county of Angoulême for his life, and the county of Perigord in perpetuity : the count d'Armagnac shall hold four castles specified in the treaty, upon the terms and conditions therein declared.-Item, among the engagements entered into by the king of England as duke of Guienne, he was to guarantee them safe possession of the above places, and to defend them against all enemies whatever, and afford them the assistance due from their true and superior lord,—and he was also to aid them in bringing the duke of Burgundy to exemplary punishment. And the said king was not to make or enter into any treaties with the duke of Burgundy, his children, brother, or with any of his adherents, without the previous consent of the aforesaid princes.-Item, the king of England promises to assist the aforesaid lords as his loyal vassals in all their just wars, and to enforce recompense to them by the duke of Burgundy for all the damages he may have done to them. Item, the king of England will instantly send them eight thousand combatants to their aid against the duke of Burgundy, who has excited the king of France to march against them with the whole force of his realm.”
This treaty of alliance was signed and sealed by the parties on the 8th day of May, in this year 1412. The aforesaid princes, however, agreed to pay the men-at-arms, whom the king of England should send to them, and gave sufficient securities for so doing.
* See the original treaty in the Fædera. It is dated the 18th of May, and not the 8th, as in Monstrelct.
CHAPTER CII.--THE KING's MINISTERS ARE GREATLY ALARMED AT THE ARREST OF SIR
PETER DES ESSARS AND OF THE DUKE OF BAR, --OTHER PROCEEDINGS OF THE
[A. D. 1413.] At the beginning of this year, the king's ministers, that is to say, those who had bad the management of the finances under their care for twenty years past, were much pressed to give in their accounts. Several public and private accusations were made against them, which caused the greater part to fear that they should not escape with honour. Many had been arrested, and others had fled, whose fortunes had been sequestrated by the king. They sought, therefore, by divers means, to obtain the protection of those princes who governed the king; and sir Peter des Essars, who had fled to Cherbourg, through the interest of the duke of Aquitaine was remanded to Paris. He secretly entered the Bastile with his brother sir Anthony, but not so privately as to prevent its being known to some of the Parisians, who disliked him, and who instantly acquainted the duke of Burgundy and his people with it, by whom he was equally hated. A party of the commonalty was soon collected ; and headed by sir Elion de Jacqueville, then governor of Paris, and some others of the duke of Burgundy's friends, they marched to the Bastile, and made prisoners of sir Peter des Essars and his brother, whom they first led to the castle of the Louvre and then to the prison of the palace. When this was done, they again assembled, to the amount of six thousand, under the standard of the aforesaid Jacqueville, who was joined by sir Robert de Mailly, sir Charles de Lens, and several other men-at-arms of the household of the duke of Burgundy,—and about ten o'clock in the morning they drew up before the hôtel of the duke of Aquitaine. The principal instigators of this insurrection of the commonalty were, Jeannot Caboche, a skinner of the slaughter-house of Saint James, master John de Troyes, a surgeon at Paris, and Denisot de Chaumont, who, having forcibly entered the apartment of the duke, addressed him as follows: “ Our most redoubted lord, here are the Parisians, but not all in arms, who on behalf of your good town of Paris, and for the welfare of your father and yourself, require that you cause to be delivered up to them certain traitors who are now in your hôtel.”
The duke, in a fury, replied, that such affairs did not belong to them, and that there were no traitors in his hôtel. They answered, that if he were willing to give them up, well and good,-otherwise they would take them before his face, and punish them according to their deserts. During this conversation, the dukes of Burgundy and of Lorrain arrived ; and several of the Parisians at the same time entered the hôtel, and instantly seized master Jean de Vailly, the duke's new chancellor, Edward duke of Bar, cousin-german to the king, sir James de la Riviere, the two sons of the lord de Boissay, Michel de Vitry and his brother, the two sons of sir Reginald de Guiennes, the two brothers de Maisnel, the two de Geremmes, and Peter de Naisson. The duke of Aquitaine, witnessing this outrage committed before his eyes, turned to the duke of Burgundy, and angrily said,—“Father-in-law, this insurrection has been caused by your advice : you cannot deny it, for those of your household are the leaders of it. Know, therefore, that you shall one day repent of this; and the state shall not always be governed according to your will and pleasure." The duke of Burgundy replied, by way of excusing himself, “ My lord, you will inform yourself better, when your passion shall be somewhat cooled.” But, notwithstanding this, those who had been seized were carried off, and confined in different prisons. They afterwards made search for master Raoul Bridoul, the king's secretary, who, as they were carrying him away, was struck by one that hated him with a battle-axe on the head, and thrown dead into the Seine. They also murdered a very rich upholsterer, who was an eloquent man, called Martin d'Aue, and a cannon-founder, an excellent workman, but who had been of the Orleans party, whose bodies they left naked two whole days in the square of St. Catherine. They compelled the duke of Aquitaine to reside with the king his father in the hotel de St. Pol, and carefully guarded the gates that he might not quit Paris. Some said this was done for his amendment, as he was very young, and impatient of contradiction, but others assigned different reasons : among them was one, that he had intended to have tilted on May-day in the forest
of Vincennes, and that he had ordered sir Peter des Essars to meet him there with six hundred helmets, and to pay them for one month, and that this order had been executed. It was added, that the duke of Orleans and those of his party were collecting large bodies of men-at-arms to join the duke of Aquitaine in the forest of Vincennes, which had greatly displeased the duke of Burgundy and the Parisians.
It was melancholy to behold this reign of the mob, and the manner in which they conducted themselves in Paris, as well towards the king as towards the other lords. They also wrote letters to the different towns to inform them that what they had done was for the welfare of the king and kingdom, and required of them to give them all aid and advice should there be any necessity for it, and to remain obedient in their fidelity to the king and his eldest son. Afterwards, that no assembly of men-at-arms might be made by any lord, the king, at the request of these same Parisians, published an edict, addressed to all the seneschals and bailiffs in the realm, of the following tenour.
“ Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting.
“Whereas, in the divisions and disputes that so lately harassed our kingdom, we, and our very dear eldest son the duke of Aquitaine, dauphin of Viennois, have so successfully laboured, that, through God's grace, we have established a solid peace in our realm, for the observance of which the greater part of our liege subjects have given security, and have promised, on their oaths, to keep and preserve it, and not to issue any summons, or to raise any men, without our express permission. Notwithstanding this, we have heard that some of our blood, and others, are making preparations to raise men, by way of companies, in different parts of our kingdom, which may not only be very expensive to the country, but cause other great inconveniences, unless an immediate remedy be provided.
“These, therefore, are to enjoin you to cause this our prohibition to be most publicly proclaimed in the usual places within your bailiwick, and to forbid any person, under penalty of death and confiscation of goods, whether baron, knight or others, to obey any summons from their superior lord, unless so ordered by us, our son, or our well-beloved cousin the count de St. Pol, constable of France, or others so commissioned by us. That no doubts may arise in regard to these our intentions, we send you this sealed with our great seal. You will likewise inform all our vassals, that whenever, and wherever we, or our son, may send for them, they must obey. And because our very dear uncle and cousin the dukes of Berry and of Lorrain are continually in our service, our intention is not that their vassals or subjects should be prevented going to them whenever they are sent for, or whenever they may employ them in our service ; and should any in your bailiwick act contrary to the premises, we will and order that you constrain them to do their duty, by arrest and seizure of goods.
“Given at Paris the 9th day of May, in the year 1413, and of our reign the 33d.” It was thus signed by the king, on the report made to him of the council held by the dukes of Aquitaine, Berry, and Lorrain, and others, by J. Millet. It was then sent off, and proclaimed throughout the kingdom in the usual places.
The Parisians in those days wore an uniform dress with white hoods, to distinguish all who were of their party. They even made many of the nobles and prelates wear it; and what was more, the king himself afterwards put it on, which seemed to many discreet persons very ridiculous, considering the abominable and detestable manner of the Parisians, and their cruelties, which were almost beyond bearing; but they were so powerful, and obstinate in their wickedness, that the princes knew not well how to provide a remedy. They were all strengthened in it from the belief that they should be supported by the duke of Burgundy and his party, should there be occasion for it.
CHAPTER CIII.—THE PARISIANS PROPOSE WHATEVER MEASURES THEY PLEASE, IN THE
PRESENCE OF THE DUKE OF AQUITAINE AND THE OTHER PRINCES. - CRUELTIES
COMMITTED BY THEM. On Thursday the 11th of May, the Parisians held a great assembly, and made various propositions, in the presence of the dukes of Aquitaine, Berry, Burgundy, and Lorrain, the counts of Nevers, Charolois, and many nobles and prelates, with others, wearing white hoods by way of uniform, who were said to exceed twelve thousand in number. Towards the conclusion, they presented a roll to the duke of Aquitaine, which he would have refused to accept; but they constrained lim not only to take it, but to read its contents publicly. Sixty persons, as well absent as present, were charged in this roll as traitors : twenty of whom were instantly arrested and confined in prison. In this number were the lord de Boissay, master of the household to the king, Michel Lallier, and others to the number above mentioned. The absent that had been thus accused were summoned, by sound of trumpet, in all the squares of Paris, to appear within a few days, under penalty, in case of disobedience, of having their properties confiscated to the king's use.
On the 18th day of this same month, the king recovered his health, and went from his hôtel of St. Pol to the church of Nôtre Dame, wearing a white hood like the other princes.
CATHEDRAL OF Notre Dame, Paris-From an original drawing. When he had finished his prayers, he returned home accompanied by a vast multitude of people. On the Monday following, the Parisians had their city surrounded by numbers of men-at-arms, so that no person might leave it without permission : the gates were closely shut, and the bridges drawn up and watched by a numerous guard at each, armed with all sorts of weapons. They also appointed armed divisions of tens in all the streets ; and when this was done, the provost of the merchants, the sheriffs, and other leaders, marched a large body of armed men to the hôtel of St. Pol, which they surrounded with a line three deep ;
and having given their orders how they were to act, they waited on the king, the queen, and the dauphin, who were perfectly ignorant of their proceedings.
There was at this time a grand assembly of pobles in Paris, namely, the dukes of Berry, Burgundy, Lorrain, and duke Louis of Bavaria, brother to the queen, who was on the morrow to marry, at the hôtel de St. Pol, the sister of the count d'Alençon, the widow of the lord Peter de Navarre, count de Mortain. The counts de Nevers, de Charolois, de St. Pol, constable of France, and many more great barons and prelates, were likewise present. They there ordered a carmelite friar, call friar Eustache, to harangue the king, who, having taken for his text “Nisi Dominus custoderit civitatem suam, frustra vigilat qui custodit eam," discoursed well and long upon it, and made some mention of the prisoners, of the bad state of the government of the kingdom, and of the crimes that were committed.
When he had ended his speech, the chancellor of France bade him say who were his protectors, when instantly the provost of the merchants and the sheriffs acknowledged him. But as there were but few people present, and as they did not speak loud enough, according to the will of the chancellor, some of them descended to the court to call those of the greatest birth and weight that had remained armed below. The principal leaders returned with them to the king's apartment, and with bended knees avowed that what father Eustache had said was conformable to their sentiments; that they had the sincerest love for liim and for his family, and that their sole wish was to serve his royal majesty with clean and pure hearts; that everything they had done had been for the welfare of himself and his kingdom, as well as for the preservation of his person and family.
While this was passing, the duke of Burgundy, noticing the line of armed men that were drawn up three deep, and surrounding the king's hotel, went down and earnestly entreated of them to retire, demanding of them what they wanted, and why they were thus come armed; for that it was neither decent nor expedient that the king, who was so lately recovered from his illness, should thus see them drawn up, as it were, in battle array. They replied, they were not assembled with an ill intent, but for the good of the king and his kingdom : they concluded by giving him a roll, and said, they were on no account to depart thence until those whose names were therein inscribed should be delivered up to them, namely, Louis of Bavaria, brother to the queen, and the following knights : Charles de Villers, Courard Bayer, Jean de Neelle lord d'Ollehaing, the archbishop of Bourges, master William Boisratier, confessor to the queen, Jean Vincent, Colin de Pieul, Jeannet de Cousteville, Mainfroy, treasurer to the duke of Aquitaine, and a courier of the duke of Orleans, who happened accidentally to be in Paris, having brought letters from his master to the king; the lady Bona d'Armagnac, lady of Montauban *, la dame du Quesnoy, la dame d'Avelays, la dame de Noyon, la dame du Chastel, and four other damsels.
When the duke of Burgundy found that everything he could say was in vain, he went to the queen, and showed her the list they had given to him, telling her what they required. She was much troubled thereat, and, calling her son the dauphin, bade him return with the duke of Burgundy, and entreat them most affectionately in her name to desist for only eight days from their present demands, and that on the eighth day she would without fail deliver up her brother, or suffer them to arrest him, and carry him a prisoner to the Louvre, to the Palace, or whithersoever they should please. The duke of Aquitaine, hearing these words from his mother, retired to a private chamber and wept bitterly,—but was followed by the duke of Burgundy, who exhorted him not to weep, which he complied with, and wiped away his tears. They descended to the Parisians, and the duke of Burgundy explained in a few words the request of the queen ; but they positively refused to grant it, and declared they would go up to the queen's apartment,—and should those contained in the list be refused to be given up, they would take them by force, even in the king's presence, and carry them away prisoners.
The two dukes, hearing this answer, went back to the queen, whom they found in conversation with her brother and the king. They reported their reception from the Parisians, when the duke of Bavaria, seeing he could not escape, full of bitterness and distress, descended down to them, and desired that he alone might be taken into custody ; that if he were found
* Bona, eldest daughter of the constable d'Armagnac, afterwards married to Charles duke of Orleans,