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situation he was then in. He received almost daily intelligence from Paris, and learnt how his enemies governed the king and the duke of Aquitaine, and were labouring to keep those of his party at a distance from the royal presence, in order to prevent their receiving any marks of favour or benevolence. The duke formed various opinions on this intelligence, and suspected, what indeed afterward happened, that his adversaries would succeed in setting tbe king and the duke of Aquitaine at variance with him, and in the end making war upon bim. He was, however, prepared to meet whatever events might befal him.

At this period, the earl of Warwick, the bishop of St. Davids, and others, waited upon him, to treat of a marriage between the king of England and a daughter of the duke, notwithstanding the embassy that had been sent to the king of France on a similar subject. These ambassadors and the duke of Burgundy could not agree on the terms of alliance, and they consequently returned to England. On the 4th day of October, the lords d'Offemont and de Moy came to St. Pol-en-Ternois, by orders from the king of France, to demand from the count de St. Pol, that he would surrender to them, or send to the king, his constable's sword. The count replied, that he would never willingly, nor without the advice of his friends, comply with such a request, but that he would refer the matter to the counsel of his friends, and would shortly send such an answer that the king should be satisfied therewith. These lords, having heard this, returned to Paris, after having been honourably entertained by the constable, and related to the king and council what they had done, which was not any way agreeable to those who had sent them.

This same day, another royal edict was published against all who should not strictly keep the peace, forbidding every one to spread abroad any evil reports that would tend to create discord and commotion, and to call any one by such sirnames as should engender strife, and renew the mischiefs that had so lately desolated the kingdom. It was proclaimed throughout France, and was of the following tenor.

"Charles, by the grace of God king of France, to the bailiff of Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting.

"It has come to our knowledge, that whereas by great and mature deliberation of council, and by the aid and diligence of many of our blood, and other discreet men of our realm, we have, by the grace of God, established a peace between several of our kindred, among whom disputes and discords had arisen and continued for a considerable time. We have first shown all the points of the treaties that had been proposed, after mature counsel, as well to those of our blood and great council, as to the prelates, barons, and knights of our different courts of parliament, and to other officers of justice in the court of the Conciergerie, and also to our well-beloved daughter the university of Paris, the clergy and citizens of our capital, who have been all delighted therewith, and have unanimously supplicated us to complete the peace, which, through the mercy of God, we have done. For the greater security of its observance, our very dear and well-beloved eldest son, nephews, uncle and cousins,—that is to say, Louis duke of Aquitaine, dauphin of Vienne, the dukes of Berry, Burgundy, Orleans, Brittany, Bourbon, and of Bar,—the counts d'AIencon, Vertus, Richemont, d'Eu, Vendosme, and many others of our blood,—have promised and sworn in our presence, on the word of a son to a king and a prince, on part of a piece of the true cross, and upon the holy evangelists of God touched corporally by them, never more in any respect to misbehave toward us, but to pay a due regard to their own honour and rank, and henceforward to act toward each other like to kind relations and friends. This they declare they have done without any fraud, deception, or mental reservation, and promise most faithfully to observe this union, and to deposit in our hands their several letters-patent.

"In like manner have the different ranks of our faithful subjects promised and sworn to the due observance of that affection, loyalty, and service they owe to us, and that they will most strictly keep this aforesaid peace concluded between the princes of our blood,—and that they will, to the utmost of their power, prevent it from being in any way infringed, as is more fully explained in others of our letters-patent. Nevertheless, there are, as we learn, several within your bailiwick full of evil intentions, who, believing that no proceedings will take place against them for any commotions they may excite, and that they may remain unpunished in body or goods, do daily spread abroad reports injurious to the said peace, and by wicked murmurings endeavour to raise discontents against it, and also to make use of such odious sirnames as have been by this peace strictly forbidden, and by other acts and speeches urge on the people to dissentions that may produce fresh warfare ; which things are highly, and not without cause, displeasing to us. We will, that the aforesaid peace be most strictly kept, and such is our firm intention, that all means of future dissentions may be put an end to, and that every kind of warfare cease in our kingdom, so that each person may henceforward live in peace and tranquillity. We therefore command, that you do instantly cause these presents to be most solemnly proclaimed by sound of trumpet in every part within your bailiwick wherever any proclamations have been or are usually made.

"Our will and purpose is, to preserve this peace most strictly inviolate, and to observe it in the manner that has been so solemnly sworn to in our presence, without suffering it to be infringed by any person whatever. And we expressly command that you do most attentively regard its preservation, and that you do make very exact inquiries after all who may in any manner attempt its infringement. We rigorously forbid any factious sirnames to be used, and all other words and expressions that have a tendency to revive past dissentions, under pain of corporal punishment and confiscation of goods. And any such whom you shall find disobeying these our commands you will punish in such wise that he or they be examples to deter others from committing the like,—and see that there be no failure in this through any fault or neglect of your own. For the due fulfilment of these our commands, we give full powers, as well to yourself as to your deputies and under officers, notwithstanding any letters, edicts, prohibitions, oppositions, or appeals to the contrary.

Given at Paris, the 6th day of October, 1413." Signed by the king in his great

council, in the presence of the king of Sicily, the dukes of Berry, Orleans, Bourbon, the counts de la Marche, d'Alencon, d'Eu, Vendosme, Armagnac, the constable, the count de Tancarville, the grand-master of the household, the master of the cross-bows, the admiral, the chancellors of Aquitaine and of Orleans, the lords d'Oyrront,* de Torcy, de Ray de Boyssay, de Bauquille, Thermite de la Fayette, and many more.—Countersigned, "P. Naucron."

This edict was afterwards proclaimed at Amiens, and in that bailiwick, on the 3d day of November in the same year.

CHAPTER CX. DUKE LOUIS OP BAVARIA MARRIES AT PARIS. OP THOSE WHO nAD BEEN

BANISHED ON ACCOUNT OP THE DISCORDS BETWEEN THE DUKES OF ORLEANS AND BURGUNDY, AND OP MANY OTHER INCIDENTAL MATTER8.

In these days, duke Louis of Bavaria, brother to the queen of France, espoused, at the hotel of St. Pol, the widow of the lord Peter de Navarre, formerly count de Mortain. At this wedding, the king and many others of the princes tilted, for there were very grand feasts on the occasion. On the morrow, sir Robinet de Mailly, sir Elyon de Jacqueville, les Goys, namely, father and son, master John de Troyes, Denisot de Chaumont, Caboche, and others who have been before mentioned as having suits brought against them in parliament, were for ever banished from Paris. The duke of Burgundy very soon received information of this, as he was at St. Omer, where he had assembled the nobility of Artois, to deliberate on the subject of taxes, and they had granted him one equal to what the king annually levied. He was not well pleased with this intelligence, for the greater part of those who had been banished were then with him; and they daily urged him to march a powerful army to Paris, assuring him, that if he would appear before it, the Parisians would instantly declare for him, and drive his enemies out of the town. The duke, however, being otherwise advised, would not comply with their request.

About this time there was a violent quarrel between the dukes of Orleans and Brittany, on the subject of precedency, insomuch that it came to the ears of the king, who decided for the duke of Orleans. On this, the duke of Brittany left Paris in ill humour; but before ho departed, he had some high words with his brother-in-law the count d'Alencon, in

• D'Oyrront. Q. D'Orgcmont?

consequence of his telling him that he had in his heart a lion as big as a child of one year old, which greatly angered the duke, and caused a hatred between them. At this period, the borgne de la Heuse was, by the king's order, dismissed from the provostship of Paris, and master Andrieu Marchant, advocate in the parliament, appointed in his stead. Sir Guichart Daulphin, grand-master of the king's household, the lord de Rambures, master of the crossbows of France, and sir Anthony de Craon, were also dismissed, by order of the duke of Aquitaine, and commanded not to return to Paris until the king should send for them. In like manner were three hundred persons, as well men as women, driven out of Paris because they were attached to the party of the duke of Burgundy. The count de Vendosme was made grand-master of the cross-bows, and several were restored to their former offices.

About this time, sixteen hundred horse, whom the duke had sent for from Burgundy, marched through Champagne, the Cambresis, and thence into Artois. The duke was at Lille, and with him the count de St. Pol, who had come thither to consult him whether or not he should surrender the constable's sword. The duke advised him to retain it, and said that he would support him to the utmost of his power. In consequence, the count sent the vidame of Amiens again to Paris, to inform the king and his council of his intention to keep the constable's sword.

Another edict, to forbid any persons whatever from bearing arms, was now published, the tenor of which was as follows.

"Charles, by the grace of God king of France, to the bailiff of Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting.

"Since, through the Divine Grace, we have succeeded in establishing a peace between some of our kindred, among whom discords and dissentions had taken place,—on which we ordered, that all foreign men-at-arms and archers should instantly quit our kingdom, and no longer live upon and harass our subjects, as they had been accustomed to do, and which was highly displeasing to us,—Know ye, that we will that this our order be most strictly obeyed, and that nothing be done to the contrary, to the oppression of our said subjects, or to their hindrance in living under us in peace and tranquillity. For this, and other sufficient reasons which move us, we expressly command you to cause this our pleasure to be publicly proclaimed by sound of trumpet, in all places within your bailiwick where proclamations have been usually made, that no knight or noble esquire, of whatever rank he may be, shall put on arms or attend to the commands of any superior lord whatever, to begin and carry on a warfare in any part of our realm, under pain of forfeiture of his goods and estate, unless he shall have our especial commands for so doing. All such as you shall find acting contrary to this our order you will punish, so that they may be examples for others: and you will seize on all their goods and chattels for our use, because they have been guilty of disobedience and disloyalty towards us their sovereign lord, without having received our commands. Be careful that this order be obeyed, and not neglected through any fault of yours.

"Given at the Bois de Vincennes, the 22d day of October, in the year of Grace 1413, and of our reign the 33d."

It was signed by the king in his great council,—present the lord de Preaulx *, the count de Tancarville, the lords de Montenay and de Cambrillac, Pierre de l'Esclut, and several others. This edict was proclaimed in Amiens the 12th day of November following.

On the Monday preceding the feast of All-saints, the duke of Burgundy gave a grand entertainment at Lille. The Monday and Tuesday, the knights and esquires tilted, namely, the duke himself, his son the count de Charolois, the duke of Brabant, and the count de Nevers, his brothers. Soon after this feast was over, and the company departed, the lord de Dampierre, admiral of France, the bishop of Evreux, and others, came to Lille as ambassadors from the king of France, and commanded the duke, in the king's name, by virtue of their royal orders, not to enter into any treaty or agreement with the king of England, for the marriage of his daughter or otherwise, under pain of having his estates confiscated. They summoned him to surrender to the king three castles which were garrisoned by his men, namely, Cherbourg, Caen, and Crotoy,—and ordered him, on his allegiance, to maintain the peace he had so solemnly sworn to observe with the duke of Orleans, his brothers, their friends and adherents. The duke, on hearing these commands, made no reply whatever to the ambassadors, but called for his boots, and rode off instantly for Oudenarde. The ambassadors returned to Rolaincourt-le-Chatel, which belonged to the admiral, on the eve of Saint Martin, and thence came to Paris.

* James de Bourbon, grand butler of France, son to James L, count de la Marchc, and uncle to the prcscut counts de la Marchc and Vcndome, and lord of Carency.

CHAPTER, CXI. THE KING OF PRANCE, FEARING THE PEACE WOULD BE BROKEN, PUBLISHES

OTHER EDICTS FOR ITS PRESERVATION THROUGHOUT THE REALM, AND AL80 RESPECTING THE COIN.

The king of France, suspecting that the peace lately concluded at Pontoise would be broken, by several who were endeavouring to excite fresh disturbances by their seditious speeches, published the following edict.

"Charles, by the grace of God king of France, to all those to whom these presents may come, greeting.

"Since it is a duty appertaining to our royal majesty, as well as to all princes who have subjects to govern, and consonant to the establishment and ordinance of God, appointed by the divine, canon, and civil law, that a good and strict police should be observed and supported for the well governing and keeping in peace our people, and to avoid all wars and intestine divisions, which we have always had most earnestly at heart, and are determined to prevent as much as shall lie within our power. It has, however, happened, that quarrels and dissentions have arisen between some of the princes of our blood, whence have sprung intestine warfares, to the great detriment of our subjects residing within towns, as well as of those employed in rural affairs.

"We have, through the wholesome advice of many discreet and wise persons of our blood and council, as well as of our daughter the university of Paris, and several of its citizens, concluded a peace between the contending parties, which each has most solemnly sworn, on the holy relic of the true cross, most faithfully to preserve, and not invalidate in the smallest trifle. On this occasion, we have overlooked and pardoned the crimes that have been committed during these divisions in our good city of Paris. We have also given our letters of pardon, tied with silken cords and sealed with green wax ; and this peace, so sworn, we have had proclaimed throughout our kingdom, and wherever else we have thought it necessary, so that no one may plead ignorance of it, and carry on a warfare from partiality or attachment to either of the late contending parties, or by murmurs or seditious words endeavour to infringe this peace, and renew the dissentions that have so much distressed our realm, by any means, or in any measure whatever.

"It has, notwithstanding, come to our knowledge, that many evil-disposed persons, as well within our town of Paris as elsewhere, and of various ranks and conditions, do privately murmur, and use many seditious expressions in their secret meetings, in order to overturn this peace, and attempt to excite the commonalty of Paris to second their damnable ends and intentions,—to stir up a mortal war to our evident disadvantage, to the peril of our realm and government,—to put an end to all legal justice, and to the destruction of all good and loyal subjects who are desirous of peace. This conduct imperiously demands an efficient and speedy remedy, to prevent the dangers that might otherwise ensue. Know ye, that we have held divers councils on the above with the princes of our blood, and with our wisest and most prudent counsellors, to provide and to determine on the most effectual means to check such treasonable practices. We therefore order and enjoin, by these presents, that whoever may have knowledge of any person or persons, who, since the signature of the peace at Pontoise, have murmured, or do murmur, or spread abroad any factious words or expressions, to excite the populace against the said peace, or shall have knowledge of any conspiracy or damnable secret meetings, and will denounce them to any of our officers of justice, so that legal cognizance may be taken of the same, shall, on the conviction of such persons, receive one third part of the goods and estates that may, in consequence of the 8entence or sentences passed on them, be adjudged to ourself. And we further will that this our edict be published throughout tho realm, that all diligence may be used to discover such traitors as are seditiously active in disturbing the peace, so that punishment may be inflicted upon them according to the heinousness of their offences, as violators of the peace, and to serve for an example to others. We will that full credit be given to the copies of these presents, the same as if they were the original.

"We therefore give it in command to our bailiff of Amiens, or to his lieutenant, and to all others our officers and subjects within our realm, each as it may behove him, to see that the above ordinance be duly and diligently put into execution, and that it be no way neglected. In witness whereof, we have to these presents affixed our seal.

"Given at Paris the last clay but one of October, in the year of Grace 1413, and of our reign the 33d." Signed by the king in his great council,—present the king of Sicily, the dukes of Berry, of Orleans, the counts de Vertus, d'Eu, de Richemont, de Vendosme, the constable of France, the archbishop of Sens, and several others. Countersigned, "Gontier."

This edict was proclaimed in Amiens the 15th day of December, in the same year.

The king was at this period busied in making some regulations respecting the coin, and in consequence issued an edict, which he ordered to be promulgated throughout the kingdom: the tenor of it was as follows:

"Charles, by the grace of God king of France, to the bailiff of Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting.

"Know ye, that in order to provide for the security of the public welfare of our kingdom, and to obviate the great varieties of coins that for some time have had currency in our realm, we do ordain, after mature deliberation with our council, that a coin be struck of the form of deniers, called Gros, which shall be current for twenty deniers tournois, and of five sols to five deniers, the fourth part of a denier of the poids de marc of Paris,—and coins of half a gros, and half a quarter of a gros, twenty sols six deniers tournois being the value of each,— also small crowns, of the value of fifteen sols tournois each. Those gros, half gros, quarter gros, which have been formerly coined, and blancs of ten deniers, and of five deuiers, shall have currency with the new money. We therefore command and enjoin you to make this our will, respecting the regulation of our coin as public as possible, so that no one may plead ignorance of it,—and you will cause this edict to be proclaimed in all the usual places of your bailiwick. You will observe its regulations without favour or affection to any one, and punish such as may act contrary thereto, that they may be examples to others.

"Given at Paris, the 13th day of November in the year of Grace 1413, and of our reign the 33d." It was thus signed by the king on the report of the council held in the chamber of accounts,—present the archbishop of Bourges, the bishop of Noyon, the members of the chamber of accounts, the officers of the treasury, the master and monoyers of the mint, and countersigned, "Le Begue."

It is true, that the king was fearful beyond measure of the peace being interrupted; and, anxiously desirous of preventing it from being infringed, he issued another edict much stronger than the preceding ones, to all the bailiffs and seneschals in his kingdom.

"Charles by the grace of God king of France, to the bailiff of Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting.

"Whereas during the time we were last at Auxerre, through the Divine Providence, and great deliberation of council, we succeeded in the establishment of peace between some of the princes of our blood, and between our subjects, which was afterward confirmed in our good town of Paris. Our princes then faithfully promised to keep this peace without any way infringing it, or suffering it to be infringed by others. We, considering that peace is advantageous to us, our realm, and our subjects, and reflecting upon the manifold and numberless evils that would result should it be broken, are desirous to preserve it with our whole heart, and to prevent it from being in the smallest degree infringed.

"For these and other considerations that move us, we strictly charge you to have these presents publicly proclaimed with sound of trumpet in all the accustomed places within your bailiwick; and that you forbid all persons to obey any summons or proclamations that may have been issued by any of the princes of our blood, in their own or in our

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